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  1. Lockes Sprachkonzeption.Martin Lenz - 2009 - De Gruyter.
    In der 1970 gegründeten Reihe erscheinen Arbeiten, die philosophiehistorische Studien mit einem systematischen Ansatz oder systematische Studien mit philosophiehistorischen Rekonstruktionen verbinden. Neben deutschsprachigen werden auch englischsprachige Monographien veröffentlicht. Gründungsherausgeber sind: Erhard Scheibe, Günther Patzig und Wolfgang Wieland. Von 1990 bis 2007 wurde die Reihe von Jürgen Mittelstraß mitherausgegeben.
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  • Logic.Robin Smith - 1994 - In Jonathan Barnes (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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  • All Brutes are Subhuman: Aristotle and Ockham on Private Negation.John N. Martin - 2003 - Synthese 134 (3):429-461.
    The mediaeval logic of Aristotelian privation, represented by Ockham's expositionof All A is non-P as All S is of a type T that is naturally P and no S is P, iscritically evaluated as an account of privative negation. It is argued that there aretwo senses of privative negation: (1) an intensifier (as in subhuman), the dualof Neoplatonic hypernegation (superhuman), which is studied in linguistics asan operator on scalar adjectives, and (2) a (often lexicalized) Boolean complementrelative to the extension of (...)
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  • Negation and Quantification in Aristotle.Michael V. Wedin - 1990 - History and Philosophy of Logic 11 (2):131-150.
    Two main claims are defended. The first is that negative categorical statements are not to be accorded existential import insofar as they figure in the square of opposition. Against Kneale and others, it is argued that Aristotle formulates his o statements, for example, precisely to avoid existential commitment. This frees Aristotle's square from a recent charge of inconsistency. The second claim is that the logic proper provides much thinner evidence than has been supposed for what appears to be the received (...)
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  • Aspects of Aristotle’s Logic of Modalities.J. Van Rijen - 1988 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer Verlag.
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  • The syllogism.Paul Thom - 1981 - München: Philosophia.
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  • The Place of Syllogistic in Logical Theory.Paul Thom - 1982 - Philosophical Books 23 (2):73-76.
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  • Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Paul Thom - 1999 - Studia Logica 62 (3):429-448.
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  • Aristotle’s Syllogistic and Core Logic.Neil Tennant - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (2):120-147.
    I use the Corcoran–Smiley interpretation of Aristotle's syllogistic as my starting point for an examination of the syllogistic from the vantage point of modern proof theory. I aim to show that fresh logical insights are afforded by a proof-theoretically more systematic account of all four figures. First I regiment the syllogisms in the Gentzen–Prawitz system of natural deduction, using the universal and existential quantifiers of standard first-order logic, and the usual formalizations of Aristotle's sentence-forms. I explain how the syllogistic is (...)
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  • Philosophiegeschichte.Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer - 2006 - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Addresses various crucial approaches to the history of philosophy - narrative, philological, hermeneutic, and systematic. This book elaborates the principles of each approach and puts focus on their capacity to properly comprehend problems.
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  • Grundprobleme der Logik: Elemente Einer Kritik der Formalen Vernunft.Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer - 1986 - New York: W. de Gruyter.
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  • What is a syllogism?Timothy J. Smiley - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):136 - 154.
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  • Dialectic and the Syllogism.Robin Smith - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (S1):133-151.
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  • Aristotle’s Completeness Proof.Timothy Smiley - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (S1):25-38.
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  • Aristotle’s Completeness Proof.Timothy Smiley - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (S1):25-38.
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  • Foundations without foundationalism: a case for second-order logic.Stewart Shapiro - 1991 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    The central contention of this book is that second-order logic has a central role to play in laying the foundations of mathematics. In order to develop the argument fully, the author presents a detailed description of higher-order logic, including a comprehensive discussion of its semantics. He goes on to demonstrate the prevalence of second-order concepts in mathematics and the extent to which mathematical ideas can be formulated in higher-order logic. He also shows how first-order languages are often insufficient to codify (...)
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  • Preface.Andrew Schumann - 2011 - History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (1):1-8.
    In this article, the author attempts to explicate the notion of the best known Talmudic inference rule called qal wa-omer. He claims that this rule assumes a massive-parallel deduction, and for formalizing it, he builds up a case of massive-parallel proof theory, the proof-theoretic cellular automata, where he draws conclusions without using axioms.
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  • On Finding Compactness in Aristotle.Michael Scanlan - 1983 - History and Philosophy of Logic 4 (1&2):1-8.
    Jonathan Lear has suggested that Aristotle attempts to demonstrate a proof-theoretic analogue of a compactness theorem in Posterior analyticsI, chs. 19?22. Aristotle argues in these chapters that there cannot be in finite series of predications of terms. Lear's analysis of Aristotle's arguments are shown to be based on confusions about the nature of infinite orderings. Three distinct confusions are identified. In final remarks, it is suggested that a compactness claim is irrelevant to the issues which motivate Aristotle's arguments.
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  • Some studies of logical transformations in the prior analytics.Robin Smith - 1981 - History and Philosophy of Logic 2 (1-2):1-9.
    I argue that Prior analyticsII.5?7, 8?10, and 1.45 actually contain studies of processes for transforming arguments into other arguments which Aristotle carried out before having completed the theory of perfecting syllogisms by reduction to first-figure moods as presented in Prior analytics1.4?7. This position rejects Ross's opinion that these passages are ?mental gymnastics?, and Patzig's view that some of these texts contain studies of alternative axiomatizations or other logical studies posterior to the completion of the basic theory of syllogisms.
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  • Functoriality and Grammatical Role in Syllogisms.Marie La Palme Reyes, John Macnamara & Gonzalo E. Reyes - 1994 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 35 (1):41-66.
    We specify two problems in syllogistic: the lack of functoriality of predicates and the change of grammatical role of the middle term, from subject to predicate, in some syllogisms. The standard semantics, the class interpretation, by-passes these difficulties but, we argue, in a manner that is at odds with logical intuition. We propose a semantics that is category theoretic to handle these difficulties. With this semantics we specify when syllogisms are valid and we set limits to the class interpretation. To (...)
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  • The Syllogistic with Unity.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):391-407.
    We extend the language of the classical syllogisms with the sentence-forms “At most 1 p is a q” and “More than 1 p is a q”. We show that the resulting logic does not admit a finite set of syllogism-like rules whose associated derivation relation is sound and complete, even when reductio ad absurdum is allowed.
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  • The Hamiltonian Syllogistic.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):445-474.
    This paper undertakes a re-examination of Sir William Hamilton’s doctrine of the quantification of the predicate . Hamilton’s doctrine comprises two theses. First, the predicates of traditional syllogistic sentence-forms contain implicit existential quantifiers, so that, for example, All p is q is to be understood as All p is some q . Second, these implicit quantifiers can be meaningfully dualized to yield novel sentence-forms, such as, for example, All p is all q . Hamilton attempted to provide a deductive system (...)
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  • Logics for the relational syllogistic.Ian Pratt-Hartmann & Lawrence S. Moss - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (4):647-683.
    The Aristotelian syllogistic cannot account for the validity of certain inferences involving relational facts. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for providing a relational syllogistic. We identify several fragments based on (a) whether negation is permitted on all nouns, including those in the subject of a sentence; and (b) whether the subject noun phrase may contain a relative clause. The logics we present are extensions of the classical syllogistic, and we pay special attention to the question of whether reductio (...)
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  • Conversion of propositions containing singular or quantified terms in pseudo-scotus.Paul Thom - 1982 - History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):129-149.
    A formal analysis is offered of Pseudo-Scotus's theory of the conversion of (i) propositions containing singular terms (including propositions with a singular term as predicate): and (ii) propositions with a quantified predicate. An attempt is made to steer a middle course between using the Aristotelian logic as a framework for the analysis, and using a Fregean framework.
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  • Books Received. [REVIEW]Richard Patterson - 1998 - Studia Logica 60 (2):331-342.
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  • Syllogisms in Rudimentary Linear Logic, Diagrammatically.Ruggero Pagnan - 2013 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (1):71-113.
    We present a reading of the traditional syllogistics in a fragment of the propositional intuitionistic multiplicative linear logic and prove that with respect to a diagrammatic logical calculus that we introduced in a previous paper, a syllogism is provable in such a fragment if and only if it is diagrammatically provable. We extend this result to syllogistics with complemented terms à la De Morgan, with respect to a suitable extension of the diagrammatic reasoning system for the traditional case and a (...)
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  • Proclus and the neoplatonic syllogistic.John N. Martin - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):187-240.
    An investigation of Proclus' logic of the syllogistic and of negations in the Elements of Theology, On the Parmenides, and Platonic Theology. It is shown that Proclus employs interpretations over a linear semantic structure with operators for scalar negations (hypemegationlalpha-intensivum and privative negation). A natural deduction system for scalar negations and the classical syllogistic (as reconstructed by Corcoran and Smiley) is shown to be sound and complete for the non-Boolean linear structures. It is explained how Proclus' syllogistic presupposes converting the (...)
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  • Distributive Terms, Truth, and the Port Royal Logic.John N. Martin - 2013 - History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (2):133-154.
    The paper shows that in the Art of Thinking (The Port Royal Logic) Arnauld and Nicole introduce a new way to state the truth-conditions for categorical propositions. The definition uses two new ideas: the notion of distributive or, as they call it, universal term, which they abstract from distributive supposition in medieval logic, and their own version of what is now called a conservative quantifier in general quantification theory. Contrary to the interpretation of Jean-Claude Parienté and others, the truth-conditions do (...)
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  • Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic.Marko Malink - 2013 - Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
    Aristotle was the founder not only of logic but also of modal logic. In the Prior Analytics he developed a complex system of modal syllogistic which, while influential, has been disputed since antiquity--and is today widely regarded as incoherent. Combining analytic rigor with keen sensitivity to historical context, Marko Malink makes clear that the modal syllogistic forms a consistent, integrated system of logic, one that is closely related to other areas of Aristotle's philosophy. Aristotle's modal syllogistic differs significantly from modern (...)
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  • Some recent work on the assertoric syllogistic.Joseph A. Novak - 1980 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 21 (2):229-242.
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  • The Principle of Contradiction and Ecthesis in Aristotle's Syllogistic.Pierre Joray - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (3):219-236.
    In his 1910 book On the principle of contradiction in Aristotle, Jan Łukasiewicz claims that syllogistic is independent of the principle of contradiction . He also argues that Aristotle would have defended such a thesis in the Posterior Analytics. In this paper, we first show that Łukasiewicz's arguments for these two claims have to be rejected. Then, we show that the thesis of the independence of assertoric syllogistic vis-à-vis PC is nevertheless true. For that purpose, we first establish that there (...)
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  • Aristotle'S natural deduction reconsidered.John M. Martin - 1997 - History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (1):1-15.
    John Corcoran’s natural deduction system for Aristotle’s syllogistic is reconsidered.Though Corcoran is no doubt right in interpreting Aristotle as viewing syllogisms as arguments and in rejecting Lukasiewicz’s treatment in terms of conditional sentences, it is argued that Corcoran is wrong in thinking that the only alternative is to construe Barbara and Celarent as deduction rules in a natural deduction system.An alternative is presented that is technically more elegant and equally compatible with the texts.The abstract role assigned by tradition and Lukasiewicz (...)
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  • Logic and Metaphor.James Gasser - 1999 - History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (3-4):227-238.
    In this work, attention is drawn to the abundant use of metaphor and analogy in works of logic. I argue that pervasiveness of figurative language is to be counted among the features that characterize logic and distinguish it from other sciences. This characteristic feature reflects the creativity that is inherent in logic and indeed has been demonstrated to be a necessary part of logic. The goal of this paper, in short, is to provide specific examples of figurative language used in (...)
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  • Aristotle on Meaning.Jean-Louis Hudry - 2011 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 93 (3):253-280.
    This paper shows that Aristotle's De Interpretatione does not separate syntax from semantics. Linguistic sentences are not syntactic entities, and non-linguistic meanings are not semantic propositions expressed by linguistic sentences. In fact, Aristotle resorts to a mental conception of meaning, distinguishing linguistic meanings in a given language from non-linguistic mental contents in relation to actual things: while the former are not the same for all, the latter are shared by everyone. Aristotle is not a modern logician, like Boole, Frege, or (...)
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  • Aristotle and the Uses of Logic.Gisela Striker - 1998 - In Jyl Gentzler (ed.), Method in ancient philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 209--226.
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  • Perfection and Reduction in Aristotle's Prior Analytics.Gisela Striker - 1996 - In Michael Frede & Gisela Striker (eds.), Rationality in Greek thought. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  • An Aristotelian Account of Induction: Creating Something from Nothing.Louis Groarke - 2009 - McGill Queens Univ.
    Through a study of argument, science, art, and human intelligence, Louis Groarke explores and builds on a line of Aristotelian thought that traces the origins of logic and knowledge to a mental creativity that is able to leap to insightful and truthful conclusions on the basis of restricted evidence. In an Aristotelian Account of Induction Groarke discusses the intellectual process through which we access the "first principles" of human thought - the most basic concepts, The laws of logic, The universal (...)
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  • Aristotle’s Two Systems.Daniel W. Graham - 1987 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Each of the two major approaches to Aristotle--the unitarian, which understands his work as forming a single, unified system, and the developmentalist, which seeks a sequence of developing ideas--has inherent limitations. This book proposes a synthetic view of Aristotle that sees development as a change between systematic theories. Setting theories of the so-called logical works beside theories of the physical and metaphysical treatises, Graham shows that Aristotle's doctrines fall into two distinct systems of philosophies that are genetically related. This study--the (...)
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  • Aristotle’s Theory of Deduction and Paraconsistency.Evandro Luís Gomes & Itala M. Loffredo D'Ottaviano - 2010 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 14 (1):71–97.
    In the Organon Aristotle describes some deductive schemata in which inconsistencies do not entail the trivialization of the logical theory involved. This thesis is corroborated by three different theoretical topics by him discussed, which are presented in this paper. We analyse inference schema used by Aristotle in the Protrepticus and the method of indirect demonstration for categorical syllogisms. Both methods exemplify as Aristotle employs classical reductio ad absurdum strategies. Following, we discuss valid syllogisms from opposite premises (contrary and contradictory) studied (...)
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  • An intensional Leibniz semantics for aristotelian logic.Klaus Glashoff - 2010 - Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (2):262-272.
    Since Freges terms were meant to refer always to sets, that is, entities composed of individuals. Classical philosophy up to Leibniz and Kant had a different view on this questionBegriffes syntaxhighercorresponding to the idea which Leibniz used in the construction of his characteristic numbers. Thus, this paper is an addendum to Corcorans theory via predicate logic.
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  • On propositional form.George Englebretsen - 1980 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 21 (1):101-110.
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  • Lewis Carroll's visual logic.Francine F. Abeles - 2007 - History and Philosophy of Logic 28 (1):1-17.
    John Venn and Charles L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) created systems of logic diagrams capable of representing classes (sets) and their relations in the form of propositions. Each is a proof method for syllogisms, and Carroll's is a sound and complete system. For a large number of sets, Carroll diagrams are easier to draw because of their self-similarity and algorithmic construction. This regularity makes it easier to locate and thereby to erase cells corresponding with classes destroyed by the premises of an (...)
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  • A Brief History of Natural Deduction.Francis Jeffry Pelletier - 1999 - History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (1):1-31.
    Natural deduction is the type of logic most familiar to current philosophers, and indeed is all that many modern philosophers know about logic. Yet natural deduction is a fairly recent innovation in logic, dating from Gentzen and Jaśkowski in 1934. This article traces the development of natural deduction from the view that these founders embraced to the widespread acceptance of the method in the 1960s. I focus especially on the different choices made by writers of elementary textbooks—the standard conduits of (...)
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  • Ways into the logic of Alexander of Aphrodisias.Kevin L. Flannery (ed.) - 1995 - New York: E.J. Brill.
    Ways into the Logic of Alexander of Aphrodisias is intended to give an overview of the logic of Alexander of Aphrodisias (fl. early third century A D). Since ...
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  • Establishing Connections between Aristotle's Natural Deduction and First-Order Logic.Edgar José Andrade & Edward Samuel Becerra - 2008 - History and Philosophy of Logic 29 (4):309-325.
    This article studies the mathematical properties of two systems that model Aristotle's original syllogistic and the relationship obtaining between them. These systems are Corcoran's natural deduction syllogistic and ?ukasiewicz's axiomatization of the syllogistic. We show that by translating the former into a first-order theory, which we call T RD, we can establish a precise relationship between the two systems. We prove within the framework of first-order logic a number of logical properties about T RD that bear upon the same properties (...)
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  • The existential assumptions of traditional logic.Dwayne Hudson Mulder - 1996 - History and Philosophy of Logic 17 (1-2):141-154.
    There have been and continue to be disagreements about how to consider the traditional square of opposition and the traditional inferences of obversion, conversion, contraposition and inversion from the perspective of contemporary quantificational logic. Philosophers have made many different attempts to save traditional inferences that are invalid when they involve empty classes. I survey some of these attempts and argue that the only satisfactory way of saving all the traditional inferences is to make the existential assumption that both the subject (...)
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  • Proof and Knowledge in Mathematics.Michael Detlefsen (ed.) - 1992 - New York: Routledge.
    These questions arise from any attempt to discover an epistemology for mathematics. This collection of essays considers various questions concerning the nature of justification in mathematics and possible sources of that justification. Among these are the question of whether mathematical justification is _a priori_ or _a posteriori_ in character, whether logical and mathematical differ, and if formalization plays a significant role in mathematical justification.
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  • 12. Aristotle and Modern Logic.D. A. Cutler - 2005 - In Kent A. Peacock & Andrew D. Irvine (eds.), Mistakes of reason: essays in honour of John Woods. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. pp. 207-223.
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  • Du sullogismos au syllogisme.Michel Crubellier - 2011 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 136 (1):17 - 36.
    La définition du sullogismos est strictement identique dans les Topiques et dans les Premiers Analytiques, alors qu'on admet généralement que, dans ce dernier traité, le terme désigne spécifiquement la structure formelle appelée aujourd'hui encore « syllogisme » . Le mot peut avoir le même sens d'un bout à l'autre de l'Organon et du corpus aristotélicien : il désigne le moment de la joute dialectique où l'interrogateur récapitule une section de la discussion et se montre en mesure d'imposer une conclusion à (...)
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  • Aristotle's logic.Paolo Crivelli - 2012 - In Christopher Shields (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle. Oup Usa. pp. 113.
    Aristotle created logic and developed it to a level of great sophistication. There was nothing there before; and it took more than two millennia for something better to come around. The astonishment experienced by readers of the Prior Analytics, the most important of Aristotle's works that present the discipline, is comparable to that of an explorer discovering a cathedral in a desert. This article explains and evaluates some of Aristotle's views about propositions and syllogisms. The most important omission is the (...)
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