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  1. Social Justice and Equal Access to Health Care.Gene Outka - 1974 - Journal of Religious Ethics 2 (1):11 - 32.
    A societal goal to which more and more people in the United States appear to be committed--at least officially--is the assurance of comprehensive health services for every person irrespective of income or geographic location. This paper offers one possible moral justification of the goal. It does so by attempting to apply various standard conceptions of social justice to considerations about health care and to reflect about the reasons why some of the conceptions seem more relevant than others. Several institutional implications (...)
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  • A Right to Health Care.Pavlos Eleftheriadis - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):268-285.
    What does it mean to say that there is a right to health care? Health care is part of a cooperative project that organizes finite resources. How are these resources to be distributed? This essay discusses three rival theories. The first two, a utilitarian theory and an interst theory, are both instrumental, in that they collapse rights to good states of affairs. A third theory, offered by Thomas Pogge, locates the question within an institutional legal context and distinguishes between a (...)
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  • I—The Demands of the Human Right to Health.Jonathan Wolff - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):217-237.
    The human right to health has been established in international law since 1976. However, philosophers have often regarded human rights doctrine as a marginal contribution to political philosophy, or have attempted to distinguish ‘human rights proper’ from ‘aspirations’, with the human right to health often considered as falling into the latter category. Here the human right to health is defended as an attractive approach to global health, and responses are offered to a series of criticisms concerning its demandingness.
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  • The Right to Health Care as a Right to Basic Human Functional Capabilities.Efrat Ram-Tiktin - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):337 - 351.
    A just social arrangement must guarantee a right to health care for all. This right should be understood as a positive right to basic human functional capabilities. The present article aims to delineate the right to health care as part of an account of distributive justice in health care in terms of the sufficiency of basic human functional capabilities. According to the proposed account, every individual currently living beneath the sufficiency threshold or in jeopardy of falling beneath the threshold has (...)
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  • I—Stating and Insinuating.Elizabeth Fricker - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):61-94.
    An utterer may convey a message to her intended audience by means of an explicit statement; or by a non‐conventionally mediated one‐off signal from which the audience is able to work out the intended message; or by conversational implicature. I investigate whether the last two are equivalent to explicit testifying, as communicative act and epistemic source. I find that there are important differences between explicit statement and insinuation; only with the first does the utterer assume full responsibility for the truth (...)
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  • Underdetermination in Cosmology: An Invitation.Jeremy Butterfield - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):1-18.
    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates underdetermination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I confine the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big Bang, as described by the mainstream cosmological model: in effect, what cosmologists in the early 1970s dubbed the ‘standard model’, as elaborated since then. Or rather, the discussion is confined to a few aspects of that history. I emphasize that despite the (...)
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  • The Right to Health Versus Good Medical Care?Albert Weale - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (4):473-493.
    There are two discourses that are used in connection with the provision of good healthcare: a rights discourse and a beneficial design discourse. Although the logical force of these two discourses overlaps, they have distinct and incompatible implications for practical reasoning about health policy. The language of rights can be interpreted as the ground of a well-designed healthcare system stressing the values of equality and inclusion, but it has less application when dealing with questions of cost-effectiveness. This difference reflects the (...)
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  • Descartes Defended.Christopher Peacocke - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):109-125.
    Drawing upon a conception of the metaphysics of conscious states and of first-person content, we can argue that Descartes's transition ‘Cogito ergo sum’ is both sound and one he is entitled to make. We can nevertheless formulate a version of Lichtenberg's objection that can still be raised after Bernard Williams's discussion. I argue that this form of Lichtenberg's revenge can also be undermined. In doing so it helps to compare the metaphysics of subjects, worlds and times. The arguments also apply (...)
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  • World and Object: Metaphysical Nihilism and Three Accounts of Worlds.Geraldine Coggins - 2003 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (1):353-360.
    The study of metaphysical possibility involves two central questions: What are possible worlds? Is there an empty possible world? In looking at the first question we consider the different accounts of possible worlds—Lewisian realism, ersatzism, etc. In looking at the second question we consider the discussions of metaphysical nihilism, the modal ontological arguments, etc. In this paper I am drawing these two questions together in order to show how the position we hold on one of these issues affects the position (...)
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  • Singularism.Ann Whittle - 2003 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (1):371-380.
    I distinguish between two opposing intuitions about the nature of the singular causal relation. The first stresses the nomological character of causation, while the second emphasises is seemingly local character. My question is this: is it possible to formulate an account of causation which incorporates both intuitions? Anscombe gives us reason to think that these intuitions could not be jointly met in an account of causation. Foster and Tooley's acount seems to provide a counter‐instance to her claim, but this proves (...)
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  • Taking Rights Seriously.Alan R. White - 1977 - Philosophical Quarterly 27 (109):379-380.
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  • The Moral Foundation of Rights.Rex Martin - 1990 - Ethics 100 (2):408-411.
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  • Problems at the Roots of Law: Essays in Legal and Political Theory.Joel Feinberg - 2003 - The Journal of Ethics 10 (1):193-199.
    I consider two essays by Joel Feinberg: his treatment of the moral obligation to obey the law, and his exploration of the evils of the Holocaust.
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  • Utility and the Basis of Moral Rights: A Reply to Professor Brandt.Claudia Card - 1984 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 14 (1):21 - 30.
    Is it true that utilitarianism can accommodate the modern belief that human beings have certain moral rights against everybody ‘just in virtue of their human nature?’ I should have thought the most a utilitarian could grant was that we had rights just in virtue of the utility of respecting such rights, not just in virtue of our human nature. In fact, that is more like the view Professor Brandt actually supports. What he argues is that there is not the a (...)
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  • Justice in Health Care.Jan Narveson - 2006 - Journal of Value Inquiry 40 (2-3):371-384.
    In this discussion, we will consider arguments against the view that one person is entitled to medical care at the expense of another person, just because the one person might be able to extend it to the other. We all accept the view that we are entitled to nonviolence from each other, which in the medical case is roughly that we are entitled to other people not making us sick, at least insofar as this is something they can readily avoid. (...)
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  • Evaluating ‘Bioethical Approaches’ to Human Rights.Alasdair Cochrane - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):309-322.
    In recent years there has been growing scholarly interest in the relationship between bioethics and human rights. The majority of this work has proposed that the normative and institutional frameworks of human rights can usefully be employed to address those bioethical controversies that have a global reach: in particular, to the genetic modification of human beings, and to the issue of access to healthcare. In response, a number of critics have urged for a degree of caution about applying human rights (...)
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  • I—Duties of Love.R. Jay Wallace - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):175-198.
    A defence of the idea that there are sui generis duties of love: duties, that is, that we owe to people in virtue of standing in loving relationships with them. I contrast this non‐reductionist position with the widespread reductionist view that our duties to those we love all derive from more generic moral principles. The paper mounts a cumulative argument in favour of the non‐reductionist position, adducing a variety of considerations that together speak strongly in favour of adopting it. The (...)
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  • World Poverty and Human Rights.Thomas Pogge - 2002 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (1):1-7.
    Despite a high and growing global average income, billions of human beings are still condemned to lifelong severe poverty, with all its attendant evils of low life expectancy, social exclusion, ill health, illiteracy, dependency, and effective enslavement. This problem is solvable, despite its magnitude.
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  • Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence, and U.S. Foreign Policy.Henry Shue & Theodore M. Benditt - 1980 - Law and Philosophy 4 (1):125-140.
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  • II—Meaning, Justification, and‘Primitive Normativity’.Adrian Haddock - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):147-174.
    I critically discuss two claims which Hannah Ginsborg makes on behalf of her account of meaning in terms of ‘primitive normativity’: first, that it avoids the sceptical regress articulated by Kripke's Wittgenstein; second, that it makes sense of the thought—central to Kripke's Wittgenstein—that ‘meaning is normative’, in a way which shows this thought not only to be immune from recent criticisms but also to undermine reductively naturalistic theories of content. In the course of the discussion, I consider and attempt to (...)
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  • II—Some Comments on Fricker's‘Stating and Insinuating’.John Hawthorne - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):95-108.
    This discussion piece critically examines some of the key ideology that figures in Elizabeth Fricker's ‘Stating and Insinuating’, raises a number of queries about the details of Fricker's argumentation, and develops some ideas about the normative structure of testimony that relate to the themes of that paper.
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  • II—The Value of Duty.David Owens - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):199-215.
    The obligations we owe to those with whom we share a valuable relationship cannot be reduced to the obligations we owe to others simply as fellow persons. Wallace suggests that this is because such valuable relationships are loving relationships. I instead propose that it is because, unlike general moral obligations, such valuable relationships serve our normative interests. Part of what makes friendship good for us is that it involves bonds of loyalty. Our lives go better if we are bound to (...)
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  • I—Meaning, Understanding and Normativity.Hannah Ginsborg - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):127-146.
    I defend the normativity of meaning against recent objections by arguing for a new interpretation of the ‘ought’ relevant to meaning. Both critics and defenders of the normativity thesis have understood statements about how an expression ought to be used as either prescriptive or semantic. I propose an alternative view of the ‘ought’ as conveying the primitively normative attitudes speakers must adopt towards their uses if they are to use the expression with understanding.
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  • I—Kant's‘I’in‘I Ought To’and Freud's Superego.Béatrice Longuenesse - 2012 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):19-39.
    There are striking structural similarities between Freud's ego and Kant's transcendental unity of apperception, which for Kant grounds our use of ‘I’ in ‘I think’. There are also striking similarities between Freud's superego and Kant's account of the mental structure that grounds our use of ‘I’ in the moral ‘I ought to’. The paper explores these similarities on three main points: the conflict of motivations internal to the mind, the relation between discursive and pre‐discursive representation of moral motivation, and the (...)
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  • At Law: The Human Right to Health: A Right to the "Highest Attainable Standard of Health".Lawrence O. Gostin - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (2):29.
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  • On Human Rights in Healthcare: Some Remarks on Limits of the Right to Healthcare.Jonas Juškevičius & Janina Balsienė - 2010 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 122 (4):95-110.
    Notwithstanding the expectations related to the ‘invasion’ of human rights into the field of healthcare, the complexity of this field raises some problematic questions about the applicability of such a legal instrument. The present paper analyses the possible limits to the content of the core right to healthcare. These limits are discussed through the examination of two normative pillars of health law: the right to individual self-determination (or the principle of individual autonomy) and the right to healthcare itself. The authors (...)
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  • On the Nature of Rights.J. Raz - 1984 - Mind 93 (370):194-214.
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  • Rights to Health Care and Distributive Justice: Programmatic Worries.Norman Daniels - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):174-191.
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  • Just Social Institutions and the Right to Health Care.Robert M. Veatch - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):170-173.
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  • Bioethics & Human Rights: Access to Health-Related Goods.John D. Arras & Elizabeth M. Fenton - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (5):27-38.
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  • Rights, Constraints and Trumps.Philip Pettit - 1987 - Analysis 47 (1):8 - 14.
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  • The Right to Health and the Right to Health Care.T. L. Beauchamp & R. R. Faden - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):118-131.
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  • The Right to Health Care.James F. Childress - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):132-147.
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  • Are There Any Natural Rights?H. L. A. Hart - 1955 - Philosophical Review 64 (2):175-191.
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  • Is There a Right to Health?Timothy Goodman - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (6):643 – 662.
    This article challenges the widespread contention - promoted by the World Health Organization, the U.N. Human Rights Commission, and certain non-governmental organizations - that health care should be regarded as an individual human right. Like other "post-modern" rights, the asserted individual right to health care is a positive claim on the resources of others; it is unlimited by corresponding responsibilities; and it pertains exclusively to the individual. In fact, an individual human right to health, enforceable against either governments or corporations, (...)
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  • Is There a Human Right to Private Health Care?Aeyal Gross - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):138-146.
    In recent years we have noticed an increase in the turn to rights analysis in litigation relating to access to health care. Examining litigation, we can notice a contradiction between on the one hand the ability of the right to health to reinforce privatization and commodification of health care, by rearticulating claims to private health care in terms of human rights, and on the other hand, its ability to reinforce and reinstate public values, especially that of equality, against the background (...)
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  • Duties, Rights, and Claims.Joel Feinberg - 1966 - American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (2):137 - 144.
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  • The Scarcity of Medical Resources: Are There Rights to Health Care?Nora K. Bell - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):158-169.
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  • Euthanasia.Philippa Foot - 1977 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 6 (2):85-112.
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  • Equality and Rights in Medical Care.Charles Fried - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (1):29-34.
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  • Health Care Vouchers & the Rhetoric of Equity.John D. Arras - 1981 - Hastings Center Report 11 (4):29-39.
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  • A Right to Health Care?James F. Childress - 1979 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 4 (2):132.
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  • Are All Rights Positive?Alan Gewirth - 2001 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (3):321-333.
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  • Rawlsian Justice and a Human Right to Health Care.John C. Moskop - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (4):329-338.
    This paper considers whether Rawls' theory of justice as fairness may be used to justify a human right to health care. Though Rawls himself does not discuss health care, other writers have applied Rawls' theory to the provision of health care. Ronald Green argues that contractors in the original position would establish a basic right to health care. Green's proposal, however, requires considerable relaxation of the constraints Rawls places on the original position and thus jeopardizes Rawls' arguments for the two (...)
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  • Is There a Human Right to Private Health Care?Aeyal Gross - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):138-146.
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  • History and Illusion in Politics.Raymond Geuss - 2003 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 65 (1):178-179.
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  • Rights, Constraints and Trumps.Philip Pettit - 1986 - Analysis 46 (4):8-14.
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  • Is There a Right to Health?Timothy Goodman 1 - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (6):643-662.
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  • A Debate Over Rights.Matthew H. Kramer, N. E. Simmonds & Hillel Steiner - 2000 - Mind 109 (436):954-956.
    The authors of this book engage in essay form in a lively debate over the fundamental characteristics of legal and moral rights. They examine whether rights fundamentally protect individuals' interests or whether they instead fundamentally enable individuals to make choices. In the course of this debate the authors address many questions through which they clarify, though not finally resolve, a number of controversial present-day political debates, including those over abortion, euthanasia, and animal rights.
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  • Concept of the Right to Health Care.Paulius Čelkis & Eglė Venckienė - 2011 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 18 (1):269-286.
    On the grounds of the fundamental value of the human rights, which is the human dignity, this article describes a basis of the right to health care in terms of quality, discloses its concept, reviews the spheres of health system in which this right is exercised: health care and public health. The right to health care is stressed as one of the fundamental rights, without which the person will not able to enjoy other rights: economic, political and social rights. It (...)
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