Results for 'Petr Spelda'

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Petr Spelda
Charles University, Prague
  1. What Can Artificial Intelligence Do for Scientific Realism?Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-20.
    The paper proposes a synthesis between human scientists and artificial representation learning models as a way of augmenting epistemic warrants of realist theories against various anti-realist attempts. Towards this end, the paper fleshes out unconceived alternatives not as a critique of scientific realism but rather a reinforcement, as it rejects the retrospective interpretations of scientific progress, which brought about the problem of alternatives in the first place. By utilising adversarial machine learning, the synthesis explores possibility spaces of available evidence for (...)
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  2. The Future of Human-Artificial Intelligence Nexus and its Environmental Costs.Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - forthcoming - Futures.
    The environmental costs and energy constraints have become emerging issues for the future development of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). So far, the discussion on environmental impacts of ML/AI lacks a perspective reaching beyond quantitative measurements of the energy-related research costs. Building on the foundations laid down by Schwartz et al., 2019 in the GreenAI initiative, our argument considers two interlinked phenomena, the gratuitous generalisation capability and the future where ML/AI performs the majority of quantifiable inductive inferences. The (...)
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  3.  31
    Huygens a Fontenelle o Mimozemšťanech a Lidech.Daniel Špelda - 2017 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 39 (2):141-165.
    Článek se zabývá vybranými aspekty dvou známých publikací o mnohosti světů a mimozemském životě, které vyšly na konci 17. století. Jedná se o Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes Bernarda de Fontenelle a Cosmotheoros Christiaana Huygense. V první části se článek soustředí především na to, jak oba autoři chápou postavení člověka v obydleném a neohraničeném univerzu. Fontenelle a Huygens poskytují ve svých textech přesvědčivé vyvrácení často opakované představy, že idea neohraničeného vesmíru probouzela v novověkých lidech hrůzu a obavy. Ve skutečnosti (...)
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  4.  26
    Mikuláš Kopernik Jako Filosof. [REVIEW]Daniel Špelda - 2015 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 37 (3):361-366.
    Recenze: Matjaž Vesel, Copernicus: Platonist Astronomer-Philosopher. Cosmic Order, the Movement of the Earth, and the Scientific Revolution. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang 2014, 541 s.
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  5. Vnímání, kauzalita a pozornost Roger Bacon a Petr Olivi.Lička Lukáš - 2016 - Studia Neoaristotelica 13 (3):1-38.
    [Sensation, Causality, and Attention: Roger Bacon and Peter Olivi] This paper investigates what conditions are to be met for sensory perception to occur. It introduces two diff erent theories of perception that were held by two medieval Franciscan thinkers — namely, Roger Bacon (1214/1220–1292) and Peter Olivi (ca. 1248–1298). Bacon analyses especially the causal relation between the object and the sensory organ in his doctrine of the multiplication of species. In his view, a necessary condition of perception is the reception (...)
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  6. Co je člověk? Petr Auriol a role kognitivní psychologie ve středověké definici člověka.Lukáš Lička - 2015 - In Jan Herůfek (ed.), Pojetí důstojnosti člověka od antiky po současnost. Ostravská univerzita. pp. 55-78.
    [What is the Human Being? Peter Auriol and the Role of Cognitive Psychology in the Medieval Definition of the Human Being: ] This paper explores how medieval philosophers used cognitive psychology in defining what the human being is, paying special attention to the Franciscan thinker Peter Auriol (c. 1280 – 1322). First, I examine the motivations of Auriol’s claim that the property of being alive is bound to the property of being cognitive (i. e. being capable of cognition). Then, the (...)
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  7. Centrum a periferie v historiografii filosofie: Petr Olivi a středověká nauka o duši.Lukáš Lička - 2016 - In Marek Otisk & Adam Olech (eds.), Filosofie v provincii / Filozofia na prowincji. Ostravská univerzita. pp. 104-119.
    Centre and Periphery in the Historiography of Philosophy: Peter Olivi and Medieval Psychology The paper inquiries into the (historiographical) question what does it mean to be a “marginal thinker” in the context of the medieval philosophy. The question is investigated on the example of Franciscan philosopher and theologian Peter Olivi (1248/49–1298) and his philosophical psychology. First, a preliminary option is introduced: for a thinker, being “marginal” depends on his relation to who is considered to be canonical. Since the most famous (...)
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  8.  41
    Petr Nigri z Kadaně a jeho pojetí „pomyslného jsoucna“.Efrem Jindracek - 2011 - Filosoficky Casopis 59 (5):717-732.
    Petrus Nigri (Schwarz) se narodil západočeské Kadani (něm. Kaaden) kolem roku 1435 a spolu se svými třemi bratry vstoupil v Německu do dominikánského řádu. Během svého studia prošel velkou část Evropy (Německo, Itálii, Španělsko, Čechy a Maďarsko) a nakonec se stal rektorem generálního studia v Budíně (1481). Obecně je znám spíše jako význačný středověký hebraista. Do dějin filosofie se zapsal zvláště jako autor Clipeus thomsitarum (před r. 1474), což je filosofický komentář na Porfýriův Úvod (Isagoge) a na aristotelovské Kategorie, formou (...)
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  9.  79
    Ivan Illich’s Medical Nemesis and the ‘Age of the Show’: On the Expropriation of Death.Babette Babich - 2018 - Nursing Philosophy 19 (1):e12187.
    What Ivan Illich regarded in his Medical Nemesis as the ‘expropriation of health’ takes place on the surfaces and in the spaces of the screens all around us, including our cell phones but also the patient monitors and (increasingly) the iPads that intervene between nurse and patient. To explore what Illich called the ‘age of the show’, this essay uses film examples, like Creed and the controversial documentary Vaxxed, and the television series Nurse Jackie. Rocky’s cancer in his last film (...)
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  10. The Systemic Mind and a Conceptual Framework for the Psychosocial Environment of Business Enterprises: Practical Implications for Systemic Leadership Training.Radek Trnka & Petr Parma - 2015 - In Martin Kuška & M. J. Jandl (eds.), Current Research in Psychosocial Arena: Thinking about Health, Society and Culture. Wien: Sigmund Freud PrivatUniversitäts Verlag. pp. 68-79.
    This chapter introduces a research-based conceptual framework for the study of the inner psychosocial reality of business enterprises. It is called the Inner Organizational Ecosystem Approach (IOEA). This model is systemic in nature, and it defines the basic features of small and medium-size enterprises, such as elements, structures, borders, social actors, organizational climate, processes and resources. Further, it also covers the dynamics of psychosocial reality, processes, emergent qualities and the higher-order subsystems of the overall organizational ecosystem, including the global business (...)
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  11. Spirituality as a Subject of Academic Studies in Continental Theology of the Twentieth Century.Petr Mikhaylov - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (2):193--207.
    I examine mystical experience through the history of European religious thought, its modern state, and different spiritual practices of the Patristic epoch. The survey gives some definitions: mystical experience is situated in the field of spirituality along with practices of its acquisition -- ascetics; and the fruits of it -- theology and doctrine. The second part of the article is devoted to a wide field of Christian texts as a representative example of the same experience of the crystallization of mystical (...)
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  12.  86
    Konec Se Blíží? Kritické Připomínky K Teorii Kolapsů.Petr Špecián - 2016 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 38 (4):425-448.
    Studie poukazuje na tři základní slabiny současného českého diskurzu o kolapsech komplexních společností, jehož předním mluvčím se stal egyptolog Miroslav Bárta. Zaprvé nedošlo k vyrovnání s absencí vědeckého konsenzu ohledně determinantů historického vývoje a teorii, která by poskytla jednotící rámec pro zařazení a interpretaci konkrétních prediktorů kolapsu, byla věnována jen minimální pozornost. Zadruhé nebyla podána jasná odpověď na otázku, která společenská struktura je při studiu kolapsu vlastně předmětem zkoumání, přestože se volné přechody mezi rovinami kultur, států a civilizací nejeví z (...)
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  13.  21
    Objectivity in the Natural Sciences From the X-Phi Point of View.Petr Jedlička & Jitka Paitlová - 2019 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 41 (2):229-258.
    Objectivity, as one of the key attributes of science, has become an indispensable part of its ethos and a central theme of the philosophy of science. As such, it has been a subject of philosophical reflection by a number of authors. In our project – in which both philosophers of science and scientists participate – we examine the concept of objectivity in the natural sciences with the tools of experimental philosophy. We aim to identify specific operational dimensions of objectivity, those (...)
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  14.  39
    Potřebuje Ekonomie Psychologii?Petr Špecián - 2015 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 37 (3):279-301.
    Studie ukazuje kontrast mezi ekonomickým přístupem jdoucím ve šlépějích Garyho Beckera a přístupem behaviorální ekonomie. Důraz je kladen na metodologické srovnání obou alternativ a vyhodnocení potenciálu, který má behaviorální ekonomie pro uskutečnění paradigmatické změny na půdě ekonomického myšlení. Ukazuji, že behaviorální ekonomii se dosud nepodařilo nabídnout teoretickou alternativu homo economicus. Také její potenciál pro dlouhodobé překonání teorie racionální volby v oblasti predikčního úspěchu, který je pro ekonomy standardním kritériem vyhodnocování teorií, může být omezený.
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  15.  48
    Underdetermination and Models in Biology.Petr Jedlička - 2017 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 39 (2):167-186.
    Since the early 20th century underdetermination has been one of the most contentious problems in the philosophy of science. In this article I relate the underdetermination problem to models in biology and defend two main lines of argument: First, the use of models in this discipline lends strong support to the underdetermination thesis. Second, models and theories in biology are not determined strictly by the logic of representation of the studied phenomena, but also by other constraints such as research traditions, (...)
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  16.  42
    On the Nature of Models: The Unfinished Debate. [REVIEW]Petr Jedlička - 2017 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 39 (1):109-119.
    Review: Ippoliti, Emiliano, Sterpetti, Fabio, Nickles Thomas : Models and Inferences in Science.
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  17.  36
    The Role of Protestantism in the Emergence of Modern Science: Critiques of Harrison's Hypothesis.Petr Pavlas - 2015 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 37 (2):159-171.
    According to Peter Harrison's book The Bible, Protestantism and the Rise of Natural Science modern science came into existence as a result of the emphasis of Protestants on the literal sense of the Scripture, their refusal of the earlier symbolic or allegorical interpretation, and their efforts at fixing the meaning of the biblical text in which each passage was to be ascribed a single and unique meaning. This article tries to summarize the most significant critiques of Harrison's hypothesis and to (...)
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  18.  25
    Půlstoletí Kontroverzí o Kuhnově Struktuře. [REVIEW]Petr Jedlička - 2016 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 38 (2):250-260.
    Recenze: William J. DEVLIN - Alisa BOKULICH, Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Boston: Springer 2015, 199 s.
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  19.  23
    Zápasníci s Přírodou: Vědci a Ti Druzí. [REVIEW]Petr Pavlas - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (1):162-169.
    Recenze: Peter HARRISON - Ronald L. NUMBERS - Michael H. SHANK Wrestling with Nature: From Omens to Science. Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press 2011, 416 s.
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  20.  22
    Struktura filosofie v pojetí Zdeňka Vašíčka. [REVIEW]Petr Krása - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (2):335-340.
    Recenze: Zdeněk VAŠÍČEK, Jak se dělají filosofie. Praha: Triáda 2012, 240 s.
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