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PhilArchive is the largest open access e-print archive in philosophy. Formerly known as the PhilPapers Archive, it is built on and integrated with the PhilPapers database. Access to items on PhilArchive is free without a user account. PhilArchive is a non-profit project supported by the PhilPapers Foundation.

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There are currently 28,418 works in the archive. These works fall under 5,310 topics.

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  1. 2017-11-22
    Dialogues on Ethical Vegetarianism, Part 1.Michael Huemer - manuscript
    A four-part series of dialogues between two fictional philosophy students, M and V, on the question: is it wrong to eat meat? M and V review the standard arguments plus a few new ones. Part 1 discusses the suffering caused by factory farming, and how one's intelligence affects the badness of suffering.
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  2. 2017-11-22
    Prostitution & Instrumentalization.Rob Lovering - 2017 - Philosophy Now (123):14-17.
    Is prostitution immoral? Various philosophers have put forward arguments for thinking so, one of the most notable being that, by engaging in sexual activity with someone for payment, the prostitute instrumentalizes himself or herself. In this paper, I identify two meanings of "instrumentalize" and, with them, two versions of the instrumentalization argument for the immorality of prostitution. I then critique each version of the argument.
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  3. 2017-11-22
    On the Infinite in Mereology with Plural Quantification.Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino - 2011 - Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (1):54-62.
    In Lewis reconstructs set theory using mereology and plural quantification (MPQ). In his recontruction he assumes from the beginning that there is an infinite plurality of atoms, whose size is equivalent to that of the set theoretical universe. Since this assumption is far beyond the basic axioms of mereology, it might seem that MPQ do not play any role in order to guarantee the existence of a large infinity of objects. However, we intend to demonstrate that mereology and plural quantification (...)
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  4. 2017-11-22
    Composition, Indiscernibility, Coreferentiality.Massimiliano Carrara & Giorgio Lando - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (1):119-142.
    According to strong composition as identity, the logical principles of one–one and plural identity can and should be extended to the relation between a whole and its parts. Otherwise, composition would not be legitimately regarded as an identity relation. In particular, several defenders of strong CAI have attempted to extend Leibniz’s Law to composition. However, much less attention has been paid to another, not less important feature of standard identity: a standard identity statement is true iff its terms are coreferential. (...)
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  5. 2017-11-22
    Truth Analysis of the Gettier Argument.Yussif Yakubu - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (3):449-466.
    Gettier presented the now famous Gettier problem as a challenge to epistemology. The methods Gettier used to construct his challenge, however, utilized certain principles of formal logic that are actually inappropriate for the natural language discourse of the Gettier cases. In that challenge to epistemology, Gettier also makes truth claims that would be considered controversial in analytic philosophy of language. The Gettier challenge has escaped scrutiny in these other relevant academic disciplines, however, because of its façade as an epistemological analysis. (...)
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  6. 2017-11-22
    Accountability and Intervening Agency: An Asymmetry Between Upstream and Downstream Actors.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2016 - Utilitas 29 (1):110-114.
    Suppose someone (P1) does something that is wrongful only in virtue of the risk that it will enable another person (P2) to commit a wrongdoing. Suppose further that P1’s conduct does indeed turn out to enable P2’s wrongdoing. The resulting wrong is agentially mediated: P1 is an enabling agent and P2 is an intervening agent. Whereas the literature on intervening agency focuses on whether P2’s status as an intervening agent makes P1’s conduct less bad, I turn this issue on its (...)
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  7. 2017-11-22
    Moral Coercion.Saba Bazargan - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    The practices of using hostages to obtain concessions and using human shields to deter aggression share an important characteristic which warrants a univocal reference to both sorts of conduct: they both involve manipulating our commitment to morality, as a means to achieving wrongful ends. I call this type of conduct “moral coercion”. In this paper I (a) present an account of moral coercion by linking it to coercion more generally, (b) determine whether and to what degree the coerced agent is (...)
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  8. 2017-11-22
    A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework for Understanding Causal Reasoning and the Law.Jonathan A. Fugelsang & Kevin N. Dunbar - 2006 - In Semir Zeki & Oliver Goodenough (eds.), Law and the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 157--166.
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  9. 2017-11-22
    Is It Possible to Create an Ecologically Sustainable World Order: The Implications of Hierarchy Theory for Human Ecology.Arran Gare - 2000 - International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 7 (4):277-290.
    Human ecology, it is argued, even when embracing recent developments in the natural sciences and granting a place to culture, tends to justify excessively pessimistic conclusions about the prospects for creating a sustainable world order. This is illustrated through a study of the work and assumptions of Richard Newbold Adams and Stephen Bunker. It is argued that embracing hierarchy theory as this has been proposed and elaborated by Herbert Simon, Howard Pattee, T.F.H. Allen and others enables human ecology to conceive (...)
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  10. 2017-11-22
    A Short Note on Intuitionistic Propositional Logic with Multiple Conclusions.Valéria de Paiva & Luiz Pereira - 2005 - Manuscrito 28 (2):317-329.
    A common misconception among logicians is to think that intuitionism is necessarily tied-up with single conclusion calculi. Single conclusion calculi can be used to model intuitionism and they are convenient, but by no means are they necessary. This has been shown by such influential textbook authors as Kleene, Takeuti and Dummett, to cite only three. If single conclusions are not necessary, how do we guarantee that only intuitionistic derivations are allowed? Traditionally one insists on restrictions on particular rules: implication right, (...)
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  11. 2017-11-22
    When Propriety Is Improper.Kevin Blackwell & Daniel Drucker - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    We attempt to distinguish epistemic decision theory from epistemic consequentialism, and in the process rebut arguments for the constraint on epistemic utility functions known in the literature as "Propriety". We also argue directly against that principle, by looking at an analogous principle for practical (orthodox) decision theory.
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  12. 2017-11-22
    Would SNOMED CT Benefit From Realism-Based Ontology Evolution?Werner Ceusters, Kent Spackman & Barry Smith - 2007 - AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings 2007:105-109.
    If SNOMED CT is to serve as a biomedical reference terminology, then steps must be taken to ensure comparability of information formulated using successive versions. New releases are therefore shipped with a history mechanism. We assessed the adequacy of this mechanism for its treatment of the distinction between changes occurring on the side of entities in reality and changes in our understanding thereof. We found that these two types are only partially distinguished and that a more detailed study is required (...)
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  13. 2017-11-22
    Using Philosophy to Improve the Coherence and Interoperability of Applications Ontologies: A Field Report on the Collaboration of IFOMIS and L&C.Jonathan Simon, James Matthew Fielding & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics. Deutsches Forschungs­zentrum für künstliche Intelligenz, Cologne: 2004 (CEUR Workshop Proceedings 112). pp. 65-72.
    The collaboration of Language and Computing nv (L&C) and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS) is guided by the hypothesis that quality constraints on ontologies for software ap-plication purposes closely parallel the constraints salient to the design of sound philosophical theories. The extent of this parallel has been poorly appreciated in the informatics community, and it turns out that importing the benefits of phi-losophical insight and methodology into application domains yields a variety of improvements. L&C’s LinKBase® (...)
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  14. 2017-11-22
    Towards Interoperability of Biomedical Ontologies.Musen Mark, A. Schroeder, Michael Smith & Barry - 2008 - Schloss Dagstuhl: Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik.
    Report on Dagstuhl Seminar 07132, Schloss Dagstuhl, March 27-30 , 2007.
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  15. 2017-11-22
    Advantage, Restraint, and the Circumstances of Justice.Chrisoula Andreou - 2017 - Social Theory and Practice 43 (2):397-419.
    I focus on the mutual advantage conception of justice and on a related Humean argument according to which “the circumstances of justice” obtain only when there is a conflict of ends, a suitable level of scarcity, and rough equality of power. I add to the challenges facing the argument by using a Millian illustration whose significance has not been appreciated in prior discussions of the circumstances of justice to show that, contrary to a key premise of the Humean argument, restraining (...)
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  16. 2017-11-21
    Are Potency and Actuality Compatible in Aristotle?Mark Sentesy - 2018 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (2).
    The belief that Aristotle opposes potency (dunamis) to actuality (energeia or entelecheia) has gone untested. This essay defines and distinguishes forms of the Opposition Hypothesis—the Actualization, Privation, and Modal—examining the texts and arguments adduced to support them. Using Aristotle’s own account of opposition, the texts appear instead to show that potency and actuality are compatible, while arguments for their opposition produce intractable problems. Notably, Aristotle’s refutation of the Megarian Identity Hypothesis applies with equal or greater force to the Opposition Hypothesis. (...)
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  17. 2017-11-21
    Why Health-Related Inequalities Matter and Which Ones Do.Alex Voorhoeve - forthcoming - In Ole Frithjof Norheim, Ezekiel Emmanuel & Joseph Millum (eds.), Global Health Priority-Setting: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
    I outline and defend two egalitarian theories, which yield distinctive and, I argue, complementary answers to why health-related inequalities matter: a brute luck egalitarian view, according to which inequalities due to unchosen, differential luck are bad because unfair, and a social egalitarian view, according to which inequalities are bad when and because they undermine people’s status as equal citizens. These views identify different objects of egalitarian concern: the brute luck egalitarian view directs attention to health-related well-being, while social egalitarianism focuses (...)
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  18. 2017-11-21
    Proper Names, Rigidity, and Empirical Studies on Judgments of Identity Across Transformations.Vilius Dranseika, Jonas Dagys & Renatas Berniunas - manuscript
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  19. 2017-11-21
    “More on Respect for Embryos and Potentiality: Does Respect for Embryos Entail Respect for in Vitro Embryos?”.Stephen S. Hanson - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (3):215-226.
    It is commonly assumed that persons who hold abortions to be generally impermissible must, for the same reasons, be opposed to embryonic stem cell research [ESR]. Yet a settled position against abortion does not necessarily direct one to reject that research. The difference in potentiality between the embryos used in ESR and embryos discussed in the abortion debate can make ESR acceptable even if one holds that abortion is impermissible. With regard to their potentiality, in vitro embryos are here argued (...)
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  20. 2017-11-21
    Why Zeno’s Paradoxes of Motion Are Actually About Immobility.Bathfield Maël - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-31.
    Zeno’s paradoxes of motion, allegedly denying motion, have been conceived to reinforce the Parmenidean vision of an immutable world. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that these famous logical paradoxes should be seen instead as paradoxes of immobility. From this new point of view, motion is therefore no longer logically problematic, while immobility is. This is convenient since it is easy to conceive that immobility can actually conceal motion, and thus the proposition “immobility is mere illusion of the (...)
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  21. 2017-11-21
    Scientific Ontology.Johan Gamper - manuscript
    The modal properties of the principle of the causal closure of the physical have traditionally been said to prevent anything outside the physical world from affecting the physical universe and vice versa. This idea has been shown to be relative to the definition of the principle (Gamper 2017). A traditional definition prevents the one universe from affecting any other universe, but with a modi-fied definition, e.g. (ibid.), the causal closure of the physical can be consistent with the possibility of one (...)
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  22. 2017-11-21
    Self-Knowledge.Brie Gertler - 2011 - Routledge.
    The problem of self-knowledge is one of the most fascinating in all of philosophy and has crucial significance for the philosophy of mind and epistemology. Gertler assesses the leading theoretical approaches to self-knowledge, explaining the work of many of the key figures in the field: from Descartes and Kant, through to Bertrand Russell and Gareth Evans, as well as recent work by Tyler Burge, David Chalmers, William Lycan and Sydney Shoemaker. -/- Beginning with an outline of the distinction between self-knowledge (...)
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  23. 2017-11-20
    Investigating the Development of Creativity : The Sahlin Hypothesis.Ingar Brinck - 2015 - Against Boredom : 17 Essays.
    How should the development of creativity be approached? Many accounts of children’s creativity focus on the relation between creativity and pretend play, placing make-believe and the mental exploration of possible scenarios about the world at the fore. Often divergent thinking and story-telling are used to measure creativity with fluency, originality, and flexibility as indicators. I will argue that the strong focus on conceptual processes and higher-order thought leaves procedural forms of creativity in the dark and hinders a proper investigation of (...)
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  24. 2017-11-20
    Philosophers Should Prefer Simpler Theories.Darren Bradley - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Should philosophers prefer simpler theories? Huemer (Philos Q 59:216–236, 2009) argues that the reasons to prefer simpler theories in science do not apply in philosophy. I will argue that Huemer is mistaken—the arguments he marshals for preferring simpler theories in science can also be applied in philosophy. Like Huemer, I will focus on the philosophy of mind and the nominalism/Platonism debate. But I want to engage with the broader issue of whether simplicity is relevant to philosophy.
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  25. 2017-11-20
    Is Scientific Modeling an Indirect Methodology?Karlis Podnieks - 2009 - The Reasoner 3 (1):4-5.
    If we consider modeling not as a heap of contingent structures, but (where possible) as evolving coordinated systems of models, then we can reasonably explain as "direct representations" even some very complicated model-based cognitive situations. Scientific modeling is not as indirect as it may seem. "Direct theorizing" comes later, as the result of a successful model evolution.
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  26. 2017-11-19
    The Hedonic Value of Justification.Olivier Massin & Anne Meylan - 2008 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    Our thesis is that there is a notion of justification, corresponding to the active exercise of a competence in order to attain truth, whose value is explained neither by reliabilism, nor by the usual versions of credit theory.
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  27. 2017-11-19
    The Tao of Metaphysics.Philipp Keller & Elena Cassetta - 2008 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    We present a unified diagnosis of three well-known puzzles about proper names, based on a new view of the metaphysics of words and proper names in particular adumbrated by David Kaplan in “Words”. While our solution comes at some metaphysical price, we think it is worth being considered a serious contender and may illustrate the promise of taking more seriously the metaphysical foundations of our semantic theories.
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  28. 2017-11-19
    Forces and Causation.Olivier Massin - 2008 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    This paper defends the view that Newtonian forces are real symmetrical and non-causal relations. In the first part, I argue that Newtonian forces are real; in the second part, that they are relations; in the third part, that they are symmetrical relations; in the fourth part, that they are not causal relations, (but causal relata) by which I mean that they are not species of causation. The overall picture is anti-humean to the extent that it defends the existence of forces, (...)
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  29. 2017-11-19
    Aquinas on Temperance.Reginald Mary Chua - forthcoming - New Blackfriars.
    The purpose of this essay is to explore, and clarify, some key features in Aquinas’ account of the virtue of temperance, with an eye to answering some common objections raised against a positive evaluation of temperance. In particular, I consider three features of Aquinas’ understanding of temperance: First, the role of the rational mean in temperance; second, the role of rightly ordered passions in temperance; and third, the ‘despotic’ control of reason over the passions in temperance. Along the way I (...)
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  30. 2017-11-19
    A Moral Reason to Be a Mere Theist: Improving the Practical Argument.Xiaofei Liu - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 79 (2):113-132.
    This paper is an attempt to improve the practical argument for beliefs in God. Some theists, most famously Kant and William James, called our attention to a particular set of beliefs, the Jamesian-type beliefs, which are justified by virtue of their practical significance, and these theists tried to justify theistic beliefs on the exact same ground. I argue, contra the Jamesian tradition, that theistic beliefs are different from the Jamesian-type beliefs and thus cannot be justified on the same ground. I (...)
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  31. 2017-11-19
    The Applied Epistemology of Conspiracy Theories: An Overview.M. R. X. Dentith & Brian L. Keeley - forthcoming - In David Coady & James Chase (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Applied Epistemology. Routledge.
    An overview of the current epistemic literature concerning conspiracy theories, as well as indications for future research avenues on the topic.
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  32. 2017-11-19
    Renaissance Meteorology and Modern Science.Lucian Petrescu - 2013 - Metascience 22 (1):155-158.
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  33. 2017-11-18
    Cartesian Meteors and Scholastic Meteors: Descartes Against the School in 1637.Lucian Petrescu - 2015 - Journal of the History of Ideas 76 (1):25-45.
    This essay presents Descartes’s anti-hylomorphism in The Meteors published in 1637 and in the unpublished works that precede it, The World (Treatise on Light) and the Rules for the Direction of the Mind.
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  34. 2017-11-18
    On Being Difficult: Towards an Account of the Nature of Difficulty.Hasko Von Kriegstein & Hasko von Kriegstein - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    This paper critically assesses existing accounts of the nature of difficulty, finds them wanting, and proposes a new account. The concept of difficulty is routinely invoked in debates regarding degrees of moral responsibility, and the value of achievement. Until recently, however, there has not been any sustained attempt to provide an account of the nature of difficulty itself. This has changed with Gwen Bradford’s Achievement, which argues that difficulty is a matter of how much intense effort is expended. But while (...)
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  35. 2017-11-18
    Deep Vegetarianism.Michael Fox - 1999 - Temple University Press.
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  36. 2017-11-18
    Intending Is Believing: A Defense of Strong Cognitivism.Berislav Marusic & John Schwenkler - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
    We argue that intentions are beliefs—beliefs that are held in light of, and made rational by, practical reasoning. To intend to do something is neither more nor less than to believe, on the basis of one’s practical reasoning, that one will do it. The identification of the mental state of intention with the mental state of belief is what we call strong cognitivism about intentions. It is a strong form of cognitivism because we identify intentions with beliefs, rather than maintaining (...)
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  37. 2017-11-18
    The Copernican Principle, Intelligent Extraterrestrials, and Arguments From Evil.Samuel Ruhmkorff - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    The physicist Richard Gott defends the Copernican principle, which claims that when we have no information about our position along a given dimension among a group of observers, we should consider ourselves to be randomly located among those observers in respect to that dimension. First, I apply Copernican reasoning to the distribution of evil in the universe. I then contend that evidence for intelligent extraterrestrial life strengthens four important versions of the argument from evil. I remain neutral regarding whether this (...)
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  38. 2017-11-18
    Social Preference Under Twofold Uncertainty.Philippe Mongin & Marcus Pivato - manuscript
    We investigate the conflict between the ex ante and ex post criteria of social welfare in a new framework of individual and social decisions, which distinguishes between two sources of uncertainty, here interpreted as an objective and a subjective source respectively. This framework makes it possible to endow the individuals and society not only with ex ante and ex post preferences, as is usually done, but also with interim preferences of two kinds, and correspondingly, to introduce interim forms of the (...)
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  39. 2017-11-18
    How to Become Unconscious.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2010 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 67:21-44.
    Consistent materialists are almost bound to suggest that , if it exists at all, is no more than epiphenomenal. A correct understanding of the real requires that everything we do and say is no more than a product of whatever processes are best described by physics, without any privileged place, person, time or scale of action. Consciousness is a myth, or at least a figment. Plotinus was no materialist: for him, it is Soul and Intellect that are more real than (...)
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  40. 2017-11-18
    Ethical but Upsetting Geoscience Research: A Case Study.Thomas Pölzler & Florian Ortner - 2017 - Annals of Geophysics 60 (7):1-6.
    Geoscience research may upset people even though it is ethically acceptable. In this paper we attempt to explore three questions about such research. It will turn out that (1) under most circumstances ethical but upsetting geoscience research is morally permissible, (2) revising this research in response to upset-induced external interference is morally impermissible in the absence of strong countervailing pragmatic reasons and attempts to reduce upset, and (3) potentially upsetting geoscience research ought to be communicated truthfully and tailored to each (...)
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  41. 2017-11-18
    Evidentialism, Time-Slice Mentalism, and Dreamless Sleep.Andrew Moon - forthcoming - In Kevin McCain (ed.), Believing in Accordance with the Evidence: New Essays on Evidentialism. Springer.
    I argue that the following theses are both popular among evidentialists but also jointly inconsistent with evidentialism: 1) Time-Slice Mentalism: one’s justificational properties at t are grounded only by one’s mental properties at t; 2) Experience Ultimacy: all ultimate evidence is experiential; and 3) Sleep Justification: we have justified beliefs while we have dreamless, nonexperiential sleep. Although I intend for this paper to be a polemic against evidentialists, it can also be viewed as an opportunity for them to clarify their (...)
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  42. 2017-11-18
    Inference to the Best Explanation and Mathematical Realism.Sorin Ioan Bangu - 2008 - Synthese 160 (1):13-20.
    Arguing for mathematical realism on the basis of Field’s explanationist version of the Quine–Putnam Indispensability argument, Alan Baker has recently claimed to have found an instance of a genuine mathematical explanation of a physical phenomenon. While I agree that Baker presents a very interesting example in which mathematics plays an essential explanatory role, I show that this example, and the argument built upon it, begs the question against the mathematical nominalist.
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  43. 2017-11-17
    Anonymity and Whistleblowing.Frederick A. Elliston - 1982 - Journal of Business Ethics 1 (3):167 - 177.
    This paper examines the moral arguments for and against employees' blowing the whistle on illegal or immoral actions of their employers. It asks whether such professional dissidents are justified in disclosing wrongdoing by others while concealing their own identity. Part I examines the concept of anonymity, distinguishing it from two similar concepts — secrecy and privacy. Part II analyzes the concept of whistleblowing using recent definitions by Bok, Bowie and De George. Various arguments against anonymous whistleblowing are identified and evaluated. (...)
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  44. 2017-11-17
    New Prospects for Aesthetic Hedonism.Mohan Matthen - forthcoming - In Jennifer A. McMahon (ed.), Social Aesthetics and Moral Judgment: Pleasure, Reflection and Accountability. London: Routledge.
    Because culture plays a role in determining the aesthetic merit of a work of art, intrinsically similar works can have different aesthetic merit when assessed in different cultures. This paper argues that a form of aesthetic hedonism is best placed to account for this relativity of aesthetic value. This form of hedonism is based on a functional account of aesthetic pleasure, according to which it motivates and enables mental engagement with artworks, and an account of pleasure-learning, in which it reinforces (...)
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  45. 2017-11-16
    Leibniz, Bayle and the Controversy on Sudden Change.Markku Roinila - 2016 - In Giovanni Scarafile & Leah Gruenpeter Gold (eds.), Paradoxes of Conflict. Springer. pp. 29-40.
    will give an overview of the fascinating communication between G. W. Leibniz and Pierre Bayle on pre-established harmony and sudden change in the soul which started from Bayle’s footnote H to the article “Rorarius” in his Dictionnaire historique et critique (1697) and ended in 1706 with Bayle’s death. I will compare the views presented in the communication to Leibniz’s reflections on the soul in his partly concurrent Nouveaux essais sur l’entendement humain (1704) and argue that many topics in the communication (...)
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  46. 2017-11-16
    Evidence for a Universe of Illusion.Richard Sanders - 2017 - In Academia.edu. San Francisco, USA:
    I believe that the Buddhist paradigm of the phenomenal world—particularly, the Buddhist assertion that the phenomenal world is not as it appears—is supported by a scientific analysis of perception. When we consider carefully the basics of human perception, as understood by modern science, it becomes clear that phenomenal events are not represented as they truly are. This infidelity of information transfer from external phenomena to personal experience is consistent with the Buddhist view of the world as 'illusory'. Further, I would (...)
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  1. 2017-11-23
    A JUSTIÇA POLÍTICA EM ARISTÓTELES.Tania Schneider da Fonseca - 2011 - Anais Do II Congresso Internacional de Filosofia Moral E Política.
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  2. 2017-11-23
    A METÁFORA DO UNIVERSO COMO OCEANO: JUSTIFICATIVAS PARA UMA ARTICULAÇÃO NEOPLATÔNICA DO APARATO CONCEITUAL LEIBNIZIANO.Maria Aparecida dos Anjos Carvalho - 2013 - Dissertation, Faculdade São Bento, Brazil
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  3. 2017-11-23
    A New Method for Analysis of Biomolecules Using the BSM-SG Atomic Models.Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev - 2017 - J. Biom Biostat 8 (2):1000339.
    Biomolecules and particularly proteins and DNA exhibit some mysterious features that cannot find satisfactory explanation by quantum mechanical modes of atoms. One of them, known as a Levinthal’s paradox, is the ability to preserve their complex three-dimensional structure in appropriate environments. Another one is that they possess some unknown energy mechanism. The Basic Structures of Matter Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG) allows uncovering the real physical structures of the elementary particles and their spatial arrangement in atomic nuclei. The resulting physical models (...)
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  4. 2017-11-23
    A República de Platão e as operações henológicas da idéia do Bem.Dennys Garcia Xavier - 2007 - Síntese 34 (109):247-260.
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  5. 2017-11-23
    Ser, Natureza e Cotidiano: Um Breve Discurso acerca da Substância em Aristóteles.Erick Costa - 2012 - Existência E Arte 7:150-159.
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  6. 2017-11-23
    TEORIA E EXPLICAÇÃO NA FILOSOFIA DE DAVID HUME: UMA ABORDAGEM FALIBILISTA?Erickson Cristiano dos Santos - 2010 - Dissertation, University of São Paulo, Brazil
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  7. 2017-11-23
    Scientific Knowledge in Aristotle’s Biology.Barbara Botter - 2015 - ATINER'S Conference Paper Series:1-15.
    Aristotle was the first thinker to articulate a taxonomy of scientific knowledge, which he set out in Posterior Analytics. Furthermore, the “special sciences”, i.e., biology, zoology and the natural sciences in general, originated with Aristotle. A classical question is whether the mathematical axiomatic method proposed by Aristotle in the Analytics is independent of the special sciences. If so, Aristotle would have been unable to match the natural sciences with the scientific patterns he established in the Analytics. In this paper, I (...)
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  8. 2017-11-23
    Essencialismo e Necessidade Modal em Aristóteles: uma análise de Segundos Analíticos I 6.Breno A. Zuppolini - 2011 - Filogenese 4 (1):21-35.
    At the beginning of the first book of Posterior Analytics, Aristotle‟s feature of demonstrative knowledge involves a certain concept of “necessity”. The traditional interpretation tends to associate this concept with modal necessity, which is found in the Prior Analytics and De interpretatione. The present article aims to show in which way the sixth chapter of book A of Posterior Analytics presupposes a set of essentialist theses that claims to base the necessity of scientific knowledge on predicative relations of essential character. (...)
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  9. 2017-11-22
    KÁTHARSIS E PSYCHÉ : A PURIFICAÇÃO COMO SALVAÇÃO DA ALMA NO FÉDON DE PLATÃO.André Miranda Decotelli da Silva - 2014 - Dissertation, UFF, Brazil
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  10. 2017-11-22
    Van Til Versus Stroud: Is the Transcendental Argument for Christian Theism Viable?Bálint Békefi - 2017 - Theologica:01-25.
    In this paper I introduce the transcendental argument for Christian theism in the context of Reformed theologian and philosopher Cornelius Van Til’s thought. I then present the critique proffered by Barry Stroud against ambitious transcendental arguments, and survey various formulations of transcendental arguments in the literature, seeking how the objection bears upon them. I argue that Adrian Bardon’s (2005) interpretation is the most helpful in understanding the Stroudian objection. From this interpretation, two types of possible rebuttals are deduced. Proceeding to (...)
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  11. 2017-11-22
    Aristóteles e o pensamento evolucionista.Martinho Antônio Bittencourt de Castro - 2011 - Theoria: Revista Eletrônica de Filosofia 3 (7):14-34.
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  12. 2017-11-22
    Breves considerações sobre o pensamento linguístico na Antiguidade, na Modernidade e na Contemporaneidade.Marcela Iochem Valente - 2011 - Ciências and Letras 50:195-213.
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  13. 2017-11-22
    Ação Ética e Virtude Cívica em Aristóteles.Marisa Lopes - 2004 - Dissertation, University of São Paulo, Brazil
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  14. 2017-11-22
    Linguagem, Significado e Verdade: Incertezas e Pilares na Pesquisa em Estudos da Linguagem.Talita de Oliveira - 2016 - Revista FSA 13 (3):180-198.
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  15. 2017-11-22
    Dialogues on Ethical Vegetarianism, Part 1.Michael Huemer - manuscript
    A four-part series of dialogues between two fictional philosophy students, M and V, on the question: is it wrong to eat meat? M and V review the standard arguments plus a few new ones. Part 1 discusses the suffering caused by factory farming, and how one's intelligence affects the badness of suffering.
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  16. 2017-11-22
    Palaeontological Reflections on the Tractatus.Barry Smith - manuscript
    A collection of fragmentary discussions of possible influences on Wittgenstein when he was writing the Tractatus, includes Reinach and Meinong.
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  17. 2017-11-22
    Prostitution & Instrumentalization.Rob Lovering - 2017 - Philosophy Now (123):14-17.
    Is prostitution immoral? Various philosophers have put forward arguments for thinking so, one of the most notable being that, by engaging in sexual activity with someone for payment, the prostitute instrumentalizes himself or herself. In this paper, I identify two meanings of "instrumentalize" and, with them, two versions of the instrumentalization argument for the immorality of prostitution. I then critique each version of the argument.
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  18. 2017-11-22
    Analogie dobra u Platóna a Aristotela.J. Jinek & Jakub Jinek - 2008 - Reflexe: Filosoficky Casopis 35:51–75.
    Platónovy pokusy o určení dobra lze nalézt v celém jeho díle. Zahrnují jak relativně „univoční“ koncepci dobra ve smyslu sókratovského intelektualismu, tak pluralističtější koncepci obsaženou v politickém projektu Zákonů. Podle vývojové interpretace Platónových dialogů to naznačuje posun v autorově myšlení způsobený poznáním obtížnosti problému. Byl to přitom údajně teprve Aristotelés, kdo vyřešil Platónův problém dobra pomocí pojmu analogie. Proti této interpretaci článek zdůrazňuje, že aristotelské pojetí analogie je hluboce zakořeněno v Platónově vlastním potýkání se s rozdílem mezi morálním a politickým (...)
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  19. 2017-11-22
    On the Infinite in Mereology with Plural Quantification.Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino - 2011 - Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (1):54-62.
    In Lewis reconstructs set theory using mereology and plural quantification (MPQ). In his recontruction he assumes from the beginning that there is an infinite plurality of atoms, whose size is equivalent to that of the set theoretical universe. Since this assumption is far beyond the basic axioms of mereology, it might seem that MPQ do not play any role in order to guarantee the existence of a large infinity of objects. However, we intend to demonstrate that mereology and plural quantification (...)
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  20. 2017-11-22
    The Mereological Foundation of Megethology.Massimiliano Carrara - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45:227-235.
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  21. 2017-11-22
    Composition, Indiscernibility, Coreferentiality.Massimiliano Carrara & Giorgio Lando - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (1):119-142.
    According to strong composition as identity, the logical principles of one–one and plural identity can and should be extended to the relation between a whole and its parts. Otherwise, composition would not be legitimately regarded as an identity relation. In particular, several defenders of strong CAI have attempted to extend Leibniz’s Law to composition. However, much less attention has been paid to another, not less important feature of standard identity: a standard identity statement is true iff its terms are coreferential. (...)
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  22. 2017-11-22
    AS METÁFORAS DO SERMÃO DO MONTE: UNIVOCIDADE E PLURIVOCIDADE.Rosilene Gomes Ribeiro Francisco - 2015 - Dissertation, Mackenzie, Brazil
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  23. 2017-11-22
    The Altruism Paradox: A Consequence of Mistaken Genetic Modeling.Yussif Yakubu - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (1):103-113.
    The theoretical heuristic of assuming distinct alleles (or genotypes) for alternative phenotypes is the foundation of the paradigm of evolutionary explanation we call the Modern Synthesis. In modeling the evolution of sociality, the heuristic has been to set altruism and selfishness as alternative phenotypes under distinct genotypes, which has been dubbed the “phenotypic gambit.” The prevalence of the altruistic genotype that is of lower evolutionary fitness relative to the alternative genotype for non-altruistic behavior in populations is the basis of the (...)
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  24. 2017-11-22
    Truth Analysis of the Gettier Argument.Yussif Yakubu - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (3):449-466.
    Gettier presented the now famous Gettier problem as a challenge to epistemology. The methods Gettier used to construct his challenge, however, utilized certain principles of formal logic that are actually inappropriate for the natural language discourse of the Gettier cases. In that challenge to epistemology, Gettier also makes truth claims that would be considered controversial in analytic philosophy of language. The Gettier challenge has escaped scrutiny in these other relevant academic disciplines, however, because of its façade as an epistemological analysis. (...)
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  25. 2017-11-22
    INTUIÇÃO E CONCEITO: A TRANSFORMAÇÃO DO PENSAMENTO MATEMÁTICO DE KANT A BOLZANO.Humberto de Assis Clímaco - 2014 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil
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  26. 2017-11-22
    Compensation and Proportionality in War.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2017 - In Claire Finkelstein, Larry Larry & Jens David Ohlin (eds.), Weighing Lives in War. Oxford University Press).
    Even in just wars we infringe the rights of countless civilians whose ruination enables us to protect our own rights. These civilians are owed compensation, even in cases where the collateral harms they suffer satisfy the proportionality constraint. I argue that those who authorize or commit the infringements and who also benefit from those harms will bear that compensatory duty, even if the unjust aggressor cannot or will not discharge that duty. I argue further that if we suspect antecedently that (...)
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  27. 2017-11-22
    Complicity.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2017 - In Marija Jankovic & Kirk Ludwig (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Collective Intentionality. Routledge University Press.
    Complicity marks out a way that one person can be liable to sanctions for the wrongful conduct of another. After describing the concept and role of complicity in the law, I argue that much of the motivation for presenting complicity as a separate basis of criminal liability is misplaced; paradigmatic cases of complicity can be assimilated into standard causation-based accounts of criminal liability. But unlike others who make this sort of claim I argue that there is still room for genuine (...)
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  28. 2017-11-22
    Standards of Risk in War and Civil Life.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2017 - In Florian Demont-Biaggi (ed.), The Nature of Peace and the Morality of Armed Conflict. Palgrave.
    Though the duties of care owed toward innocents in war and in civil life are at the bottom univocally determined by the same ethical principles, Bazargan-Forward argues that those very principles will yield in these two contexts different “in-practice” duties. Furthermore, the duty of care we owe toward our own innocents is less stringent than the duty of care we owe toward foreign innocents in war. This is because risks associated with civil life but not war (a) often increase the (...)
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  29. 2017-11-22
    Defensive Wars and the Reprisal Dilemma.Saba Bazargan - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (3):583-601.
    I address a foundational problem with accounts of the morality of war that are derived from the Just War Tradition. Such accounts problematically focus on ‘the moment of crisis’: i.e. when a state is considering a resort to war. This is problematic because sometimes the state considering the resort to war is partly responsible for wrongly creating the conditions in which the resort to war becomes necessary. By ignoring this possibility, JWT effectively ignores, in its moral evaluation of wars, certain (...)
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  30. 2017-11-22
    Noncombatant Immunity and War-Profiteering.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2017 - In Helen Frowe & Seth Lazar (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Ethics of War. Oxford University Press.
    The principle of noncombatant immunity prohibits warring parties from intentionally targeting noncombatants. I explicate the moral version of this view and its criticisms by reductive individualists; they argue that certain civilians on the unjust side are morally liable to be lethally targeted to forestall substantial contributions to that war. I then argue that reductivists are mistaken in thinking that causally contributing to an unjust war is a necessary condition for moral liability. Certain noncontributing civilians—notably, war-profiteers—can be morally liable to be (...)
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  31. 2017-11-22
    Defensive Liability Without Culpability.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2016 - In Christian Coons & Michael Weber (eds.), The Ethics of Self- Defense. Oxford University Press.
    A minimally responsible threatener is someone who bears some responsibility for imposing an objectively wrongful threat, but whose responsibility does not rise to the level of culpability. Minimally responsible threateners include those who knowingly commit a wrongful harm under duress, those who are epistemically justified but mistaken in their belief that a morally risky activity will not cause a wrongful harm, and those who commit a harm while suffering from a cognitive impairment which makes it prohibitively difficult to recognize and (...)
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  32. 2017-11-22
    Killing Minimally Responsible Threats.Saba Bazargan - 2014 - Ethics 125 (1):114-136.
    Minimal responsibility threateners are epistemically justified but mistaken in thinking that imposing a nonnegligible risk on others is permissible. On standard accounts, an MRT forfeits her right not to be defensively killed. I propose an alternative account: an MRT is liable only to the degree of harm equivalent to what she risks causing multiplied by her degree of responsibility. Harm imposed on the MRT above that amount is justified as a lesser evil, relative to allowing the MRT to kill her (...)
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  33. 2017-11-22
    Morally Heterogeneous Wars.Saba Bazargan - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (4):959-975.
    According to “epistemic-based contingent pacifism” a) there are virtually no wars which we know to be just, and b) it is morally impermissible to wage a war unless we know that the war is just. Thus it follows that there is no war which we are morally permitted to wage. The first claim (a) seems to follow from widespread disagreement among just war theorists over which wars, historically, have been just. I will argue, however, that a source of our inability (...)
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  34. 2017-11-22
    Proportionality, Territorial Occupation, and Enabled Terrorism.Saba Bazargan - 2013 - Law and Philosophy 32 (4):435-457.
    Some collateral harms affecting enemy civilians during a war are agentially mediated – for example, the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 sparked an insurgency which killed thousands of Iraqi civilians. I call these ‘collaterally enabled harms.’ Intuitively, we ought to discount the weight that these harms receive in the ‘costs’ column of our ad bellum proportionality calculation. But I argue that an occupying military force with de facto political authority has a special obligation to provide minimal protection to the (...)
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  35. 2017-11-22
    Varieties of Contingent Pacifism in War.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2014 - In Helen Frowe & Gerald Lang (eds.), How We Fight. Oxford University Press.
    The destruction wrought by even just wars lends undeniable appeal to radical pacifism, according to which all wars are unjust. Yet radical pacifism is fundamentally flawed. In the past decade, a moderate and more defensible form of pacifism has emerged. According to what has been called ‘contingent pacifism’, it is very unlikely that it is morally permissible to wage any given war. This chapter develops the doctrine of contingent pacifism by distinguishing and developing various versions of it, and by assessing (...)
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  36. 2017-11-22
    The Permissibility of Aiding & Abetting Unjust Wars.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (4):513-529.
    Common sense suggests that if a war is unjust, then there is a strong moral reason not to contribute to it. I argue that this presumption is sometimes mistaken. Not only is it sometimes permissible to contribute to unjust wars, it is sometimes permissible to contribute to a war even if the particular aim the individual is promoting is unjust. Contributing to an unjust aim in an unjust war can be morally permissible even if the individual is not coerced or (...)
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  37. 2017-11-22
    Complicitous Liability in War.Saba Bazargan - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (1):177-195.
    Jeff McMahan has argued against the moral equivalence of combatants (MEC) by developing a liability-based account of killing in warfare. On this account, a combatant is morally liable to be killed only if doing so is an effective means of reducing or eliminating an unjust threat to which that combatant is contributing. Since combatants fighting for a just cause generally do not contribute to unjust threats, they are not morally liable to be killed; thus MEC is mistaken. The problem, however, (...)
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  38. 2017-11-22
    Accountability and Intervening Agency: An Asymmetry Between Upstream and Downstream Actors.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2016 - Utilitas 29 (1):110-114.
    Suppose someone (P1) does something that is wrongful only in virtue of the risk that it will enable another person (P2) to commit a wrongdoing. Suppose further that P1’s conduct does indeed turn out to enable P2’s wrongdoing. The resulting wrong is agentially mediated: P1 is an enabling agent and P2 is an intervening agent. Whereas the literature on intervening agency focuses on whether P2’s status as an intervening agent makes P1’s conduct less bad, I turn this issue on its (...)
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  39. 2017-11-22
    Moral Coercion.Saba Bazargan - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    The practices of using hostages to obtain concessions and using human shields to deter aggression share an important characteristic which warrants a univocal reference to both sorts of conduct: they both involve manipulating our commitment to morality, as a means to achieving wrongful ends. I call this type of conduct “moral coercion”. In this paper I (a) present an account of moral coercion by linking it to coercion more generally, (b) determine whether and to what degree the coerced agent is (...)
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  40. 2017-11-22
    The Critical Theory of Artistic Capitalism.Oana Şerban - 2017 - Hermeneia 18:22-33.
    This article takes up Lipovetsky‟s discussion on artistic capitalism in L’esthétisation du monde. Vivre à l’âge du capitalisme artiste, to trace its definitions and methodological construction, but also in order to create a critical theory of artistic capitalism, based on the following working-hypothesis: the production of art and the production of self, understood in the sense of a Foucauldian project of the aesthetics of existence, represent correspondent purposes in artistic capitalism. My research will be focused on examining previous attempts of (...)
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  41. 2017-11-22
    A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework for Understanding Causal Reasoning and the Law.Jonathan A. Fugelsang & Kevin N. Dunbar - 2006 - In Semir Zeki & Oliver Goodenough (eds.), Law and the Brain. Oxford University Press. pp. 157--166.
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  42. 2017-11-22
    Is It Possible to Create an Ecologically Sustainable World Order: The Implications of Hierarchy Theory for Human Ecology.Arran Gare - 2000 - International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 7 (4):277-290.
    Human ecology, it is argued, even when embracing recent developments in the natural sciences and granting a place to culture, tends to justify excessively pessimistic conclusions about the prospects for creating a sustainable world order. This is illustrated through a study of the work and assumptions of Richard Newbold Adams and Stephen Bunker. It is argued that embracing hierarchy theory as this has been proposed and elaborated by Herbert Simon, Howard Pattee, T.F.H. Allen and others enables human ecology to conceive (...)
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  43. 2017-11-22
    A Short Note on Intuitionistic Propositional Logic with Multiple Conclusions.Valéria de Paiva & Luiz Pereira - 2005 - Manuscrito 28 (2):317-329.
    A common misconception among logicians is to think that intuitionism is necessarily tied-up with single conclusion calculi. Single conclusion calculi can be used to model intuitionism and they are convenient, but by no means are they necessary. This has been shown by such influential textbook authors as Kleene, Takeuti and Dummett, to cite only three. If single conclusions are not necessary, how do we guarantee that only intuitionistic derivations are allowed? Traditionally one insists on restrictions on particular rules: implication right, (...)
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  44. 2017-11-22
    Um Novo Olhar Sobre O Aprendizado de Inglês- Incursões ao Imaginário.Paula Regina Lima Marreiros - 2002 - Dissertation, UFMS, Brazil
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  45. 2017-11-22
    O Pensamento Teleológico de Immanuel Kant.Maria Célia dos Santos - 2008 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do Ceará, Brazil
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  46. 2017-11-22
    Poíesis, tékhne e mímesis em Aristóteles.Marco Colonnelli - 2009 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil
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  47. 2017-11-22
    A Partir da Causalidade em Davidson: Uma Discussão Acerca dos Relata e Leis da Natureza.Allan Patrick de Lucena Costa - 2007 - Dissertation, UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA PARAÍBA, Brazil
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  48. 2017-11-22
    O Problema do Pensamento no De Anima de Aristóteles.Fernanda Pereira Augusto da Silva - 2016 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil
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  49. 2017-11-22
    Algumas concepções filosóficas sobre a mulher e a reapropriação capitalista do patriarcado.Gigliola Mendes - 2013 - Cadernos da SIF 2013: Volume VII: Filosofia Política E Valores.
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  50. 2017-11-22
    O Ensino de Linguagem Entre a Tradição e as Perspectivas Científicas: Diretrizes para uma Abordagem Transdisciplinar.Marco Bispo dos Santos - 2010 - Dissertation, UFBA, Brazil
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  51. 2017-11-22
    When Propriety Is Improper.Kevin Blackwell & Daniel Drucker - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    We attempt to distinguish epistemic decision theory from epistemic consequentialism, and in the process rebut arguments for the constraint on epistemic utility functions known in the literature as "Propriety". We also argue directly against that principle, by looking at an analogous principle for practical (orthodox) decision theory.
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  52. 2017-11-22
    Avicena e as ciências mistas.Carlos Arthur Ribeiro do Nascimento - 2008 - Circumscribere 5:1-12.
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  53. 2017-11-22
    A Unidade do Intelecto Contra os Averroístas de Tomás de Aquino.Carlos Arthur do Nascimento - 2015 - Poliética 3 (2):185-193.
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  54. 2017-11-22
    A Crítica de Filopono de Alexandria à Tese Aristotélica da Eternidade do Mundo.Fátima Regina Rodrigues Évora - 2003 - Analytica 7 (1):15-47.
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  55. 2017-11-22
    Un'aporia nella costruzione della realtà sociale: Naturalismo e realismo in John R. Searle.Barry Smith - 2003 - In Paolo Di Lucia (ed.), Ontologia Sociale: Potere Deontico e Regole Costitutive. Quodlibet. pp. 137-152.
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  56. 2017-11-22
    What Particulars Are Referred to in EHR Data? A Case Study in Integrating Referent Tracking Into an Electronic Health Record Application.Ron Rudnicki, Werner Ceusters, Shaid Manzoo & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the American Medical Informatics Association, Chicago, IL. Washington, DC: pp. 630-634.
    Referent Tracking (RT) advocates the use of instance unique identifiers to refer to the entities comprising the subject matter of patient health records. RT promises many benefits to those who use health record data to improve patient care. To further the adoption of the paradigm we provide an illustration of how data from an EHR application needs to be decomposed in order to make it accord with the tenets of RT. We describe the ontological principles on which this decomposition is (...)
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  57. 2017-11-22
    Would SNOMED CT Benefit From Realism-Based Ontology Evolution?Werner Ceusters, Kent Spackman & Barry Smith - 2007 - AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings 2007:105-109.
    If SNOMED CT is to serve as a biomedical reference terminology, then steps must be taken to ensure comparability of information formulated using successive versions. New releases are therefore shipped with a history mechanism. We assessed the adequacy of this mechanism for its treatment of the distinction between changes occurring on the side of entities in reality and changes in our understanding thereof. We found that these two types are only partially distinguished and that a more detailed study is required (...)
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  58. 2017-11-22
    What Do Identifiers in HL7 Identify? An Essay in the Ontology of Identity.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2009 - In Proceedings of InterOntology (Tokyo, Japan, February 27-March 1, 2009). Tokyo: Keio University Press. pp. 77-86.
    Health Level 7 (HL7) is an organization seeking to provide universal standards for the exchange of healthcare information. In a document entitled ‘HL7 Version 3 Standard: Data Types’, the HL7 organization advances descriptions of data types recom- mended for use as identifiers. We will argue that the descriptions supplied provide insufficient guidance as to what exactly the entities are which these data types uniquely identify. Are they real things, such as persons or pieces of equipment? Or are they representations of (...)
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  59. 2017-11-22
    Using Philosophy to Improve the Coherence and Interoperability of Applications Ontologies: A Field Report on the Collaboration of IFOMIS and L&C.Jonathan Simon, James Matthew Fielding & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics. Deutsches Forschungs­zentrum für künstliche Intelligenz, Cologne: 2004 (CEUR Workshop Proceedings 112). pp. 65-72.
    The collaboration of Language and Computing nv (L&C) and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS) is guided by the hypothesis that quality constraints on ontologies for software ap-plication purposes closely parallel the constraints salient to the design of sound philosophical theories. The extent of this parallel has been poorly appreciated in the informatics community, and it turns out that importing the benefits of phi-losophical insight and methodology into application domains yields a variety of improvements. L&C’s LinKBase® (...)
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  60. 2017-11-22
    VO: Vaccine Ontology.Yongqun He, Lindsay Cowell, Alexander D. Diehl, H. L. Mobley, Bjoern Peters, Alan Ruttenberg, Richard H. Scheuermann, Ryan R. Brinkman, Melanie Courtot, Chris Mungall, Barry Smith & Others - 2009 - In ICBO 2009: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Biomedical Ontology, 2009. Buffalo:
    Vaccine research, as well as the development, testing, clinical trials, and commercial uses of vaccines involve complex processes with various biological data that include gene and protein expression, analysis of molecular and cellular interactions, study of tissue and whole body responses, and extensive epidemiological modeling. Although many data resources are available to meet different aspects of vaccine needs, it remains a challenge how we are to standardize vaccine annotation, integrate data about varied vaccine types and resources, and support advanced vaccine (...)
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  61. 2017-11-22
    Vital Sign Ontology.Albert Goldfain, Barry Smith, Sivaram Arabandi, Mathias Brochhausen & William R. Hogan - 2011 - In Proceedings of the Workshop on Bio-Ontologies, ISMB, Vienna, June 2011. Vienna: pp. 71-74.
    We introduce the Vital Sign Ontology (VSO), an extension of the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) that covers the consensus human vital signs: blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate. VSO provides a controlled structured vocabulary for describing vital sign measurement data, the processes of measuring vital signs, and the anatomical entities participating in such measurements. VSO is implemented in OWL-DL and follows OBO Foundry guidelines and best practices. If properly developed and extended, we believe the VSO (...)
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  62. 2017-11-22
    Using Ontology in Query Answering Systems: Scenarios, Requirements and Challenges.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Maarten Van Mol - 2003 - In R. Bernardi & M. Moortgat (eds.), Questions and Answers: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives, Proceedings of the 2nd CoLogNET-Elsnet Symposium, December 2003. Amsterdam: pp. 5-15.
    Equipped with the ultimate query answering system, computers would finally be in a position to address all our information needs in a natural way. In this paper, we describe how Language and Computing nv (L&C), a developer of ontology-based natural language understanding systems for the healthcare domain, is working towards the ultimate Question Answering (QA) System for healthcare workers. L&C’s company strategy in this area is to design in a step-by-step fashion the essential components of such a system, each component (...)
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  63. 2017-11-22
    Towards Interoperability of Biomedical Ontologies.Musen Mark, A. Schroeder, Michael Smith & Barry - 2008 - Schloss Dagstuhl: Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik.
    Report on Dagstuhl Seminar 07132, Schloss Dagstuhl, March 27-30 , 2007.
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  64. 2017-11-22
    Truthmakers, Truthbearers and the Objectivity of Truth.Artur Rojszczak & Barry Smith - 2003 - In Jaako Hintikka (ed.), Philosophy and Logic: In Search of the Polish Tradition. Boston: Kluwer. pp. 229-268.
    The aim of this paper is to show that the account of objective truth taken for granted by logicians at least since the publication in 1933 of Tarski’s “The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages” arose out of a tradition of philosophical thinking initiated by Bolzano and Brentano. The paper shows more specifically that certain investigations of states of affairs and other objectual correlates of judging acts, investigations carried out by Austrian and Polish philosophers around the turn of the century, (...)
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  65. 2017-11-22
    Ontology Summit 2008 Communiqué: Towards an Open Ontology Repository.Leo Obrst, Mark Musen, Barry Smith, Fabian Neuhaus, Frank Olken, Mike Gruninger, M. Raymond, Patrick Hayes & Raj Sharma - 2008 - In Ontology Summit 2008. cim3.net.
    Each annual Ontology Summit initiative makes a statement appropriate to each Summit’s theme as part of our general advocacy designed to bring ontology science and engineering into the mainstream. The theme this year is "Towards an Open Ontology Repository". This communiqué represents the joint position of those who were engaged in the year's summit discourse on an Open Ontology Repository (OOR) and of those who endorse below. In this discussion, we have agreed that an "ontology repository is a facility where (...)
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  66. 2017-11-22
    Advantage, Restraint, and the Circumstances of Justice.Chrisoula Andreou - 2017 - Social Theory and Practice 43 (2):397-419.
    I focus on the mutual advantage conception of justice and on a related Humean argument according to which “the circumstances of justice” obtain only when there is a conflict of ends, a suitable level of scarcity, and rough equality of power. I add to the challenges facing the argument by using a Millian illustration whose significance has not been appreciated in prior discussions of the circumstances of justice to show that, contrary to a key premise of the Humean argument, restraining (...)
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  67. 2017-11-21
    Dynamik und Stabilität der Tugend in Platons Nomoi.Jakub Jinek - 2016 - Aithér 8:66-89.
    Plato’s theory of virtue in the Laws could be striking for someone who is more familiar with Aristotle’s ethics for conceptual complementarity between the two positions (contrary emotions, the ordering element of reason, virtue as a mean which lies between two forms of vice, typically linked to excessive actions, etc.). Plato’s theory, however, still differs from that of Aristotle in two crutial points. First, the source of emotional dynamism is, according to Plato, supraindividual as far as the psyche is a (...)
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  68. 2017-11-21
    Love and Friendship in the Lysis and the Symposium: Human and Divine.Jakub Jinek - 2008 - Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 5 (2008):109-126.
    The paper claims that we cannot understand properly Platonic conception of love and friendship unless we read the Lysis in the light of the Symposium and vice verse. Dealing with the crucial question of what made Plato write two different dialogues on the same topic, it advocates an alternative intertextual reading that does not deny progress of Plato’s thinking. Though the Symposium offers, in comparison to the Lysis, a more developed philosophical theory of love, Plato still has good reasons to (...)
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  69. 2017-11-21
    Pistas Para a Interpretação de Metáforas: Imagéticas, Contextuais e Semânticas.Viviane Lucy Vilar de Andrade - 2014 - Dissertation, UFSC, Brazil
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  70. 2017-11-21
    Verschiedenheit der Menschentypen in Platons Sophistes.Jakub Jinek - 2011 - In A. Havlíček – F. Karfík (ed.), Plato's Sophist: Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium Platonicum Pragense. Prague: Oikúmené. pp. 328–343.
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  71. 2017-11-21
    Economia Política em Aristóteles e a Perspectiva de Marx.Alexandre Lima - 2011 - Dissertation, UFSC, Brazil
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  72. 2017-11-21
    Metáfora e Metonímia nas Teorias Linguísticas de Abordagem Interacionista.Viviane Lucy Vilar de Andrade - 2011 - Working Papers 12 (2):35-47.
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  73. 2017-11-21
    „Herdenzucht“ und „Gemeinschaftszucht“. Zu einer vernachlässigten Unterscheidung.Jakub Jinek - 2013 - In A. Havlíček – J. Jirsa – K. Thein (ed.), Plato’s Statesman. Proceedings of the Eight Symposium Platonicum Pragense. Prague: Oikúmené. pp. 99-117.
    Der Vortrag will die positiven Interpretationsmöglichkeiten untersuchen, die mit der weiteren Verfolgung der am Anfang des Dialogs vorzeitig verlassenen Unterscheidung zwischen der Herdezucht und Gemeinzucht verbunden sein können. Ich werde davon ausgehen, dass diese Unterscheidung nicht nur auf den Mythos und auf die beiden dort entdeckten Diairesis-Fehler hinweist, sondern auch auf mehrere im späteren Verlauf des Dialogs erschienenen Dilemmata und Spannungen, die sie systematisch vorzeichnet, indem sie ins Problemfeld der Nomos-Nous-Beziehung vordringt.
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  74. 2017-11-21
    Images. [REVIEW]James Elliott - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (4):628-631.
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  75. 2017-11-21
    Maimonides and Spinoza on the Knowledge of Good and Evil: A Reappraisal of W.Z. Harvey.James Elliott - forthcoming - Iyyun.
    In an unsung yet excellent paper, W.Z. Harvey set out to explain how both Maimonides and Spinoza have similarly problematic views on the nature of the knowledge of good and evil. In it, he proposed an answer to solving the problem. In the many decades since, debates surrounding this topic have flourished. A recent paper by Joshua Parens, his conclusions mark a distinction between Spinoza and Maimonides that threaten to undermine Harvey’s solution to the problem. I will argue that, although (...)
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  76. 2017-11-21
    Modelo linguístico-computacional para um Dicionário Analógico Digital.Felipe Iszlaji de Albuquerque - 2013 - Dissertation, Unesp, Brazil
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  77. 2017-11-21
    Zum Problem der Bürgerbestimmung in der Aristotelischen Politik.Jakub Jinek - 2016 - ΠΗΓΗ / FONS 1:123-144.
    The paper disproves the widely held interpretation of Aristotle’s statement that the concept of the citizen varies with the constitution. I claim that it gives no evidence for any positivism or constitutional relativism. What Aristotle truly intends here is to put emphasis on his idea of the good life in a city that consists of a variety of forms and ways. This variety is generally desirable and thus prescriptive. It is only under these conditions that the constitution is „the Form (...)
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  78. 2017-11-21
    Ciência Cognitiva, Sistêmica e Filosofia Bergsoniana: uma reflexão acerca da vida em sua capacidade organizativa.Sinomar Ferreira do Rio - 2007 - Dissertation, Unesp, Brazil
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  79. 2017-11-21
    Die Beste Staatsverfassung Zwischen Komik Und Ernst.Jakub Jinek - 2016 - In J. Jinek – V. Konrádová (ed.), For Friends, All Is Shared. Prague: Oikúmené. pp. 44-59.
    The chapter, while exploring the interconnections between Plato’s Republic and Aristophanes’ Ecclesiazusae, postulates the existence of a third common source, which was presumably Hippodamus’ project of the best constitution. Hippodamus embraced the Pythagorean idea that the leading role in the polis should pertain to a group of morally and intellectually perfect philosophers who live on a communist basis; on this background, he proposed a tripartite functional division of the city. Aristophanes had adopted this model and reformulated it comically by identifying (...)
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  80. 2017-11-21
    Aristotelés o panství: mezi Heideggerem a Gagarinem.Jakub Jinek - 2006 - Reflexe: Filosoficky Casopis 31:19-44.
    Je otrok podle Aristotela vykořisťovaným nástrojem výroby stojícím na úrovni zvířete, nebo méně nadaným jedincem, jenž může svoje omezené možnosti naplnit pouze jako podřízený člen domácnosti? Aristotelští badatelé zdůrazňují jednu z možností podle toho, nakolik jsou sami liberálně, či komunitaristicky orientováni: buď je Aristotelova teorie panství vykládána jako nelidská a ideologická, nebo jako realistická a solidární. Spor se však netýká pouze „liberalismu“ a „komunitarismu“ v Aristotelovi, nýbrž – jelikož je otrok v obou výkladech chápán jako nástroj pána – také dvou (...)
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  81. 2017-11-21
    Přátelství, dobro, polis. K významu přátelství v celku Aristotelovy praktické filosofie.Jakub Jinek - 2011 - Studia Neoaristotelica 8 (1):72-94.
    Aristotle’s subtle distinction between the forms of friendship and his concept of loving friend as one’s other self propose a solution to the fundamental objection to any eudaimonian theory of slavery, namely that friendship – as basically non-moral phenomenon – is but an egoistic device of one’s happy life. Aristotelian theorems are based on his concept of analogy and on a philosophically specific notion of “self”. Since both of these are rooted in Platonism, Aristotle has toevolve them dialectically in a (...)
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  82. 2017-11-21
    Clavis Sinica: Breve História da Longa Batalha Pelo Sistema de Escrita Chinesa no Ocidente Entre os Séculos XVI e XIX.Cristiano Mahaut de Barros Barreto - 2017 - Alfa 61 (1):201-225.
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  83. 2017-11-21
    Are Potency and Actuality Compatible in Aristotle?Mark Sentesy - 2018 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (2).
    The belief that Aristotle opposes potency (dunamis) to actuality (energeia or entelecheia) has gone untested. This essay defines and distinguishes forms of the Opposition Hypothesis—the Actualization, Privation, and Modal—examining the texts and arguments adduced to support them. Using Aristotle’s own account of opposition, the texts appear instead to show that potency and actuality are compatible, while arguments for their opposition produce intractable problems. Notably, Aristotle’s refutation of the Megarian Identity Hypothesis applies with equal or greater force to the Opposition Hypothesis. (...)
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  84. 2017-11-21
    How Technology Changes Our Idea of the Good.Mark Sentesy - 2011 - In Paul Laverdure & Melchior Mbonimpa (eds.), Eth-ICTs: Ethics and the New Information and Communication Technologies. Sudbury: University of Sudbury. pp. 109-123.
    The ethical neutrality of technology has been widely questioned, for example, in the case of the creation and continued existence of weapons. At stake is whether technology changes the ethical character of our experience: compare the experience of seeing a beating to videotaping it. Interpreting and elaborating on the work of George Grant and Marshall McLuhan, this paper consists of three arguments: 1) the existence of technologies determines the structures of civilization that are imposed on the world, 2) technologies shape (...)
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  85. 2017-11-21
    The Now and the Relation Between Motion and Time in Aristotle: A Systematic Reconstruction.Mark Sentesy - forthcoming - Apeiron.
    This paper reconstructs the relationship between the now, motion, and number in Aristotle to clarify the nature of the now, and, thereby, the relationship between motion and time. Although it is clear that for Aristotle motion, and, more generally, change, are prior to time, the nature of this priority is not clear. But if time is the number of motion, then the priority of motion can be grasped by examining his theory of number. This paper aims to show that, just (...)
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  86. 2017-11-21
    Randomized Controlled Trials: How Can We Know 'What Works'?Nancy Cartwright, Baljinder Virk & Stella Mascarenhas-Keyes - forthcoming - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 29 (3).
    We attempt to map the limits of evidence-based policy through an interactive theoretical critique and empirical case-study. We outline the emergence of an experimental turn in EBP among British policymakers and the limited, broadly inductive, epistemic approach that underlies it. We see whether and how field professionals identify and react to these limitations through a case study of teaching professionals subject to a push to integrate research evidence into their practice. Results suggest that many of the challenges of establishing evidential (...)
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  87. 2017-11-21
    Ethics in the Discipline(s) of Bioethics.Stephen S. Hanson - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (3):171-192.
    The development of a code of ethics for a profession can be an indicator of the coherence and stability of a discipline as a unique and singular entity. Since “bioethics”, as a discipline, is not one profession but many, practiced by persons with not one but many varying responsibilities and training, it has been argued that no code of ethics is possible for the discipline(s) of bioethics. I argue that a code of ethics is possible for bioethics by looking at (...)
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  88. 2017-11-21
    Why Health-Related Inequalities Matter and Which Ones Do.Alex Voorhoeve - forthcoming - In Ole Frithjof Norheim, Ezekiel Emmanuel & Joseph Millum (eds.), Global Health Priority-Setting: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
    I outline and defend two egalitarian theories, which yield distinctive and, I argue, complementary answers to why health-related inequalities matter: a brute luck egalitarian view, according to which inequalities due to unchosen, differential luck are bad because unfair, and a social egalitarian view, according to which inequalities are bad when and because they undermine people’s status as equal citizens. These views identify different objects of egalitarian concern: the brute luck egalitarian view directs attention to health-related well-being, while social egalitarianism focuses (...)
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  89. 2017-11-21
    Proper Names, Rigidity, and Empirical Studies on Judgments of Identity Across Transformations.Vilius Dranseika, Jonas Dagys & Renatas Berniunas - manuscript
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  90. 2017-11-21
    When Mountains Cease to Be Mountains: Divine Love and the Sanctification of Desire.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    Why do we embark on the spiritual path, and where does it lead? These are the questions I take up in this essay. To explore them, I provide a reading of three passages from three spiritual traditions: Buddhist, Taoist, and Christian. By reading these passages in dialogue we can use them to illuminate one another and deepen our appreciation of the essentials of the spiritual path. In this way, I hope also to suggest a basic commonality among these (and other) (...)
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  91. 2017-11-21
    “More on Respect for Embryos and Potentiality: Does Respect for Embryos Entail Respect for in Vitro Embryos?”.Stephen S. Hanson - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (3):215-226.
    It is commonly assumed that persons who hold abortions to be generally impermissible must, for the same reasons, be opposed to embryonic stem cell research [ESR]. Yet a settled position against abortion does not necessarily direct one to reject that research. The difference in potentiality between the embryos used in ESR and embryos discussed in the abortion debate can make ESR acceptable even if one holds that abortion is impermissible. With regard to their potentiality, in vitro embryos are here argued (...)
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  92. 2017-11-21
    Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management. [REVIEW]Toby Svoboda - 2017 - Environmental Ethics 39 (1):101-104.
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  93. 2017-11-21
    Why Zeno’s Paradoxes of Motion Are Actually About Immobility.Bathfield Maël - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-31.
    Zeno’s paradoxes of motion, allegedly denying motion, have been conceived to reinforce the Parmenidean vision of an immutable world. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that these famous logical paradoxes should be seen instead as paradoxes of immobility. From this new point of view, motion is therefore no longer logically problematic, while immobility is. This is convenient since it is easy to conceive that immobility can actually conceal motion, and thus the proposition “immobility is mere illusion of the (...)
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  94. 2017-11-21
    Scientific Ontology.Johan Gamper - manuscript
    The modal properties of the principle of the causal closure of the physical have traditionally been said to prevent anything outside the physical world from affecting the physical universe and vice versa. This idea has been shown to be relative to the definition of the principle (Gamper 2017). A traditional definition prevents the one universe from affecting any other universe, but with a modi-fied definition, e.g. (ibid.), the causal closure of the physical can be consistent with the possibility of one (...)
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  95. 2017-11-21
    Self-Knowledge.Brie Gertler - 2011 - Routledge.
    The problem of self-knowledge is one of the most fascinating in all of philosophy and has crucial significance for the philosophy of mind and epistemology. Gertler assesses the leading theoretical approaches to self-knowledge, explaining the work of many of the key figures in the field: from Descartes and Kant, through to Bertrand Russell and Gareth Evans, as well as recent work by Tyler Burge, David Chalmers, William Lycan and Sydney Shoemaker. -/- Beginning with an outline of the distinction between self-knowledge (...)
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  96. 2017-11-21
    Theories of mixture in the early modern period. JEMS 4.1 (Spring).Lucian Petrescu (ed.) - 2015 - Zeta Books.
    Special issue of the Journal for Early Modern Studies (4.1., Spring 2005) Guest Editor: Lucian Petrescu. -/- .
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  97. 2017-11-21
    Persons, Moral Worth, and Embryos: A Critical Analysis of Pro-Choice Arguments.Stephen Napier (ed.) - 2011 - Springer.
    Given the issues discussed and that the arguments in critical focus are fairly new, the collection provides a novel, comprehensive, and rigorous analysis of contemporary pro-choice arguments.”.
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  98. 2017-11-21
    Platón y Aristóteles. Dos ontologías en confrontación.Antonio Pedro Mesquita - 2016 - Estudios Filosóficos 53:57-79.
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  99. 2017-11-21
    The Threefold Object of the Scientific Knowledge. Pseudo-Scotus and the Literature on the Meteorologica in Fourteenth-Century Paris.Lucian Petrescu - 2014 - Franciscan Studies 72:465-502.
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  100. 2017-11-21
    O conceito de identidade na filosofia e nos atos de linguagem.Rubens Dias Maia - 2008 - Dissertation, UFSCAR, Brazil
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