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PhilArchive is the largest open access e-print archive in philosophy. Formerly known as the PhilPapers Archive, it is built on and integrated with the PhilPapers database. Access to items on PhilArchive is free without a user account. PhilArchive is a non-profit project supported by the PhilPapers Foundation.

PhilArchive consists entirely of articles submitted by users. You can contribute by submitting your work.

There are currently 59,681 works in the archive. These works fall under 5,684 topics.

CDP PhilArchive is developed and operated by the Centre for Digital Philosophy at Western University.

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  1. 2021-06-12
    Proceed with Caution.Annette Zimmermann & Chad Lee-Stronach - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    It is becoming more common that the decision-makers in private and public institutions are predictive algorithmic systems, not humans. This article argues that relying on algorithmic systems is procedurally unjust in contexts involving background conditions of structural injustice. Under such nonideal conditions, algorithmic systems, if left to their own devices, cannot meet a necessary condition of procedural justice, because they fail to provide a sufficiently nuanced model of which cases count as relevantly similar. Resolving this problem requires deliberative capacities uniquely (...)
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  2. 2021-06-12
    Corporate Essence and Identity in Criminal Law.Mihailis E. Diamantis - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (4):955-966.
    How can we know whether we are punishing the same corporation that committed some past crime? Though central to corporate criminal justice, legal theorists and philosophers have yet to address the basic question of how corporate identity persists through time. Simple cases, where crime and punishment are close in time and the corporation has changed little, can mislead us into thinking an answer is always easy to come by. The issue becomes more complicated when corporate criminals undergo any number of (...)
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  3. 2021-06-12
    Fragile Knowledge.Simon Goldstein - forthcoming - Mind:1-25.
    This paper explores the principle that knowledge is fragile, in that whenever S knows that S doesn't know that S knows that p, S thereby fails to know p. Fragility is motivated by the infelicity of dubious assertions, utterances which assert p while acknowledging higher order ignorance of p. Fragility is interestingly weaker than KK, the principle that if S knows p, then S knows that S knows p. Existing theories of knowledge which deny KK by accepting a Margin for (...)
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  4. 2021-06-12
    The Cultural Evolution of Extended Benevolence.Andres Luco - 2021 - In Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz (eds.), Synthese Library. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 153-177.
    Abstract In The Descent of Man (1879), Charles Darwin proposed a speculative evolutionary explanation of extended benevolence—a human sympathetic capacity that extends to all nations, races, and even to all sentient beings. This essay draws on twenty-first century social science to show that Darwin’s explanation is correct in its broad outlines. Extended benevolence is manifested in institutions such as legal human rights and democracy, in behaviors such as social movements for human rights and the protection of nonhuman animals, and in (...)
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  5. 2021-06-12
    Teaching Drunk: Work, the Online Economy, and Uncertainty in Action.Max F. Kramer - forthcoming - Philosophy:1-22.
    (Runner-up, Royal Institute of Philosophy 2020 Philosophy Essay Prize) Technological developments have led to the digitization of certain sectors of the economy, and this has many authors looking ahead to the prospects of a post-work society. While it is valuable to theorize about this possibility, it is also important to take note of the present state of work. For better or worse, it is what we are currently stuck with, and as the COVID-19 pandemic has ensured, much of that work (...)
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  6. 2021-06-11
    What Does '&' Mean?Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 5:45-50.
    Using conjunction as an example, I show a technical and philosophical problem when trying to conciliate the currently prevailing views on the meaning of logical connectives: the inferientialist one based on introduction and elimination rules, and the representationalist one given through truth tables. Mostly I show that the widespread strategy of using the truth theoretical definition of logical consequence to collapse both definitions must be rejected by inferentialists. An important consequence of my argument is that there are different notions of (...)
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  7. 2021-06-11
    Tomasello, Vygotsky, and the Phylogenesis of Mind: A Reply to Potapov’s “Objectification and the Labour of the Negative in the Origin of Human Thinking”.Chris Drain - 2021 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 10 (6):23-29.
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  8. 2021-06-11
    Do Ethics Classes Influence Student Behavior? Case Study: Teaching the Ethics of Eating Meat.Eric Schwitzgebel, Bradford Cokelet & Peter Singer - 2020 - Cognition 203:104397.
    Do university ethics classes influence students’ real-world moral choices? We aimed to conduct the first controlled study of the effects of ordinary philosophical ethics classes on real-world moral choices, using non-self-report, non-laboratory behavior as the dependent measure. We assigned 1332 students in four large philosophy classes to either an experimental group on the ethics of eating meat or a control group on the ethics of charitable giving. Students in each group read a philosophy article on their assigned topic and optionally (...)
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  9. 2021-06-11
    Public Debt and Intergenerational Ethics: How to Fund a Green 'Apollo Program'?Matthew Rendall - forthcoming - Climate Policy.
    If the present generation refuses to bear the burden of mitigating global heating, could we motivate sufficient action by shifting that burden to our descendants? Several writers have proposed breaking the political impasse by funding mitigation through public debt. Critics attack such proposals as both unjust and infeasible. In fact, there is reason to think that some debt financing may be more equitable than placing the whole burden of mitigation on the present generation. While it might not be viable for (...)
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  10. 2021-06-11
    Philosophy of Boredom.Andreas Elpidorou & Josefa Velasco - forthcoming - Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    The aim of this entry is to provide the reader with a philosophical map of the progression of the concept and experience of boredom throughout the Western tradition—from antiquity to current work in Anglo-American philosophy. By focusing primarily on key philosophical works on boredom, but also often discussing important literary and scientific texts, the entry exposes the reader to the rich history of boredom and illustrates how the different manifestations of boredom—idleness, horror loci, acedia, sloth, mal du siècle, melancholy, ennui, (...)
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  11. 2021-06-11
    Epistemic Consequentialism, Veritism, and Scoring Rules.Marc-Kevin Daoust & Charles Côté-Bouchard - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-25.
    We argue that there is a tension between two monistic claims that are the core of recent work in epistemic consequentialism. The first is a form of monism about epistemic value, commonly known as veritism: accuracy is the sole final objective to be promoted in the epistemic domain. The other is a form of monism about a class of epistemic scoring rules: that is, strictly proper scoring rules are the only legitimate measures of inaccuracy. These two monisms, we argue, are (...)
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  12. 2021-06-11
    Evidence Mapping to Justify Health Interventions.Olaf Dammann - 2021 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 64 (2):155-172.
    In order to support health interventions, biomedical and population health researchers need to collect solid evidence. This article asks what type of evidence this should be and expands on previous work that focused on etiological explanations, or causal-mechanical explanations of why and how illness occurs. The article proposes adding predictive evidence to the explanatory evidence, in order to form a joint evidence set, or JES = [A,B,C,D], which consists of four different types of evidence: association [A], biology [B], confirmation [C], (...)
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  13. 2021-06-11
    Free Will, Determinism, and the Right Levels of Description.Leonhard Menges - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations 1.
    Recently, many authors have argued that claims about determinism and free will are situated on different levels of description and that determinism on one level does not rule out free will on another. This paper focuses on Christian List’s version of this basic idea. It will be argued for the negative thesis that List’s account does not rule out the most plausible version of incompatibilism about free will and determinism and, more constructively, that a level-based approach to free will has (...)
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  14. 2021-06-10
    Different Samenesses: Essays on Non-Standard Views of Identity.Eric de Araujo - 2021 - Dissertation, Ohio State University
    Few views are as widely held as the Standard View of Identity. Here I am concerned with minority views that depart from the standard account. First, I attempt to illuminate such views and the debates concerning them by identifying the principles of identity at issue, articulating some of the assumptions underlying the debates, and presenting some of the evidence used against the Standard View of Identity. Second, I enter two of these debates myself. I first defend two Non-Standard Views of (...)
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  15. 2021-06-10
    Darwin Knows Best: Can Evolution Support the Classical Liberal Vision of the Family?Logan Paul Gage - 2013 - In Stephen Dilley (ed.), Darwinian Evolution and Classical Liberalism: Theories in Tension. Lexington Books. pp. 135-156.
    In a time when conservatives believe that the traditional family is under increasing fire, some think an appeal to Darwinian science may be the answer. I argue that these conservatives are wrong to maintain that Darwinian theory can serve as the intellectual foundation for the traditional conception of the family. Contra Larry Arnhart and James Q. Wilson, a Darwinian philosophy of nature simply lacks the stability the traditional family requires; it cannot support the traditional conception of human nature and the (...)
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  16. 2021-06-10
    Clinical Applications of Machine Learning Algorithms: Beyond the Black Box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
    Machine learning algorithms may radically improve our ability to diagnose and treat disease. For moral, legal, and scientific reasons, it is essential that doctors and patients be able to understand and explain the predictions of these models. Scalable, customisable, and ethical solutions can be achieved by working together with relevant stakeholders, including patients, data scientists, and policy makers.
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  17. 2021-06-10
    From Human Resources to Human Rights: Impact Assessments for Hiring Algorithms.Josephine Yam & Joshua August Skorburg - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Over the years, companies have adopted hiring algorithms because they promise wider job candidate pools, lower recruitment costs and less human bias. Despite these promises, they also bring perils. Using them can inflict unintentional harms on individual human rights. These include the five human rights to work, equality and nondiscrimination, privacy, free expression and free association. Despite the human rights harms of hiring algorithms, the AI ethics literature has predominantly focused on abstract ethical principles. This is problematic for two reasons. (...)
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  18. 2021-06-10
    Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: An Appeal for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data.Jenny Krutzinna, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1357-1387.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. (...)
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  19. 2021-06-10
    Inquiry and Confirmation.Arianna Falbo - forthcoming - Analysis.
    A puzzle arises when combining two individually plausible, yet jointly incompatible, norms of inquiry. On the one hand, it seems that one shouldn’t inquire into a question while believing an answer to that question. But, on the other hand, it seems rational to inquire into a question while believing its answer, if one is seeking confirmation. Millson (2021), who has recently identified this puzzle, suggests a possible solution, though he notes that it comes with significant costs. I offer an alternative (...)
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  20. 2021-06-10
    Kuhn and the Philosophy of Science: Theories of Science.Andrew Lugg - 1979 - British Journal for the History of Science 12 (3):289-295.
    Discussion of centred on Kuhn's Essential Tension.
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  21. 2021-06-10
    Normalisation and Subformula Property for a System of Classical Logic with Tarski’s Rule.Nils Kürbis - forthcoming - Archive for Mathematical Logic:1-25.
    This paper considers a formalisation of classical logic using general introduction rules and general elimination rules. It proposes a definition of ‘maximal formula’, ‘segment’ and ‘maximal segment’ suitable to the system, and gives reduction procedures for them. It is then shown that deductions in the system convert into normal form, i.e. deductions that contain neither maximal formulas nor maximal segments, and that deductions in normal form satisfy the subformula property. Tarski’s Rule is treated as a general introduction rule for implication. (...)
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  22. 2021-06-10
    Passionate Speech: On the Uses and Abuses of Anger in Public Debate.Alessandra Tanesini - 2021 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 89:153-176.
    Anger dominates debates in the public sphere. In this article I argue that there are diverse forms of anger that merit different responses. My focus is especially on two types of anger that I label respectively arrogant and resistant. The first is the characteristic defensive response of those who unwarrantedly arrogate special privileges for themselves. The second is often a source of insight and a form of moral address. I detail some discursive manifestations of these two types of anger. I (...)
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  23. 2021-06-10
    Consequences of Comparability.Cian Dorr, Jake Nebel & Jake Zuehl - forthcoming - Philosophical Perspectives.
    We defend three claims about preference, credence, and choice. First, all agents (not just rational ones) have complete preferences. Second, all agents (again, not just rational ones) have real-valued credences in every proposition in which they are confident to any degree. Third, there is almost always some unique thing we ought to do, want, or believe.
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  24. 2021-06-09
    Reflection, Disagreement, and Context.Edward Hinchman - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (2):95.
    How far, if at all, do our intrapersonal and our interpersonal epistemic obligations run in parallel? This paper treats the question as addressing the stability of doxastic commitment in the two dimensions. In the background lies an analogy between doxastic and practical commitment. We’ll pursue the question of doxastic stability by coining a doxastic analogue of Gregory Kavka’s much-discussed toxin case. In this new case, you foresee that you will rationally abandon a doxastic commitment by undergoing a shift in the (...)
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  25. 2021-06-09
    Virtue Theory of Mathematical Practices: An Introduction.Andrew Aberdein, Colin Jakob Rittberg & Fenner Stanley Tanswell - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Until recently, discussion of virtues in the philosophy of mathematics has been fleeting and fragmentary at best. But in the last few years this has begun to change. As virtue theory has grown ever more influential, not just in ethics where virtues may seem most at home, but particularly in epistemology and the philosophy of science, some philosophers have sought to push virtues out into unexpected areas, including mathematics and its philosophy. But there are some mathematicians already there, ready to (...)
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  26. 2021-06-09
    Locke on Scientific Methodology.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2021 - In Jessica Gordon-Roth & Shelley Weinberg (eds.), The Lockean Mind. pp. 277-89.
    This chapter brings some much-needed conceptual clarity to the debate about Locke’s scientific methodology. Instead of having to choose between the method of hypothesis and that of natural history (as most interpreters have thought), he would resist prescribing a single method for natural sciences in general. Following Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle, Locke separates medicine and natural philosophy (physics), so that they call for completely different methods. While a natural philosopher relies on “speculative” (causal-theoretical) hypotheses together with natural-history making to (...)
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  27. 2021-06-09
    Leibniz’s Early Theodicy and its Unwelcome Implications.Thomas Feeney - 2020 - The Leibniz Review 30:1-28.
    To explain why God is not the author of sin, despite grounding all features of the world, the early Leibniz marginalized the divine will and defined existence as harmony. These moves support each other. It is easier to nearly eliminate the divine will from creation if existence itself is something wholly intelligible, and easier to identify existence with an internal feature of the possibles if the divine will is not responsible for creation. Both moves, however, commit Leibniz to a necessitarianism (...)
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  28. 2021-06-09
    On the Independence of Belief and Credence.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - Philosophical Perspectives.
    Much of the literature on the relationship between belief and credence has focused on the reduction question: that is, whether either belief or credence reduces to the other. This debate, while important, only scratches the surface of the belief-credence connection. Even on the anti-reductive dualist view, belief and credence could still be very tightly connected. Here, I explore questions about the belief-credence connection that go beyond reduction. This paper is dedicated to what I call the independence question: just how independent (...)
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  29. 2021-06-09
    Philosophy and Meaning in Life Vol.3.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Life.
    This book is a collection of all the papers and the essay published in the special issue “Philosophy and Meaning in Life Vol.3,” Journal of Philosophy of Life, Vol.11, No.1, 2021, pp.1-154. We held the Third International Conference on Philosophy and Meaning in Life online at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, on July 21–23, 2020. This conference was co-hosted by the Birmingham Centre for Philosophy of Religion, and the Waseda Institute of Life and Death Studies. We accepted about 50 (...)
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  30. 2021-06-09
    Personal or Non-Personal Divinity: A New Pluralist Approach.Julian Perlmutter - forthcoming - In Janusz Salamon (ed.), New Philosophical Responses to Religious Diversity. Leuven, Belgium:
    Religious disagreement – the existence of inconsistent religious views – is familiar and widespread. Among the most fundamental issues of such disagreement is whether to characterise the divine as personal or non-personal. On most other religious issues, the diverse views seem to presuppose some view on the personal/non-personal issue. In this essay, I address a particular question arising from disagreement over this issue. Let an exclusivist belief be a belief that a doctrine d on an issue is true, and that (...)
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  31. 2021-06-09
    Do Medical Schools Teach Medical Humanities? Review of Curricula in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.Jeremy Howick, Lunan Zhao, Brenna McKaig, Alessandro Rosa, Raffaella Campaner, Jason Oke & Dien Ho - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
    Rationale and objectives: Medical humanities are becoming increasingly recognized as positively impacting medical education and medical practice. However, the extent of medical humanities teaching in medical schools is largely unknown. We reviewed medical school curricula in Canada, the UK and the US. We also explored the relationship between medical school ranking and the inclusion of medical humanities in the curricula. -/- Methods: We searched the curriculum websites of all accredited medical schools in Canada, the UK and the US to check (...)
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  32. 2021-06-09
    Molinism: Explaining Our Freedom Away.Nevin Climenhaga & Daniel Rubio - forthcoming - Mind.
    Molinists hold that there are contingently true counterfactuals about what agents would do if put in specific circumstances, that God knows these prior to creation, and that God uses this knowledge in choosing how to create. In this essay we critique Molinism, arguing that if these theses were true, agents would not be free. Consider Eve’s sinning upon being tempted by a serpent. We argue that if Molinism is true, then there is some set of facts that fully explains both (...)
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  33. 2021-06-09
    Etiological Explanations.Olaf Dammann - 2020 - Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
    Theory of illness causation is an important issue in all biomedical sciences, and solid etiological explanations are needed in order to develop therapeutic approaches in medicine and preventive interventions in public health. Until now, the literature about the theoretical underpinnings of illness causation research has been scarce and fragmented, and lacking a convenient summary. This interdisciplinary book provides a convenient and accessible distillation of the current status of research into this developing field, and adds a personal flavor to the discussion (...)
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  34. 2021-06-09
    Francis Bacon and Atomism: A Reappraisal.Silvia Manzo - 2001 - In John Murdoch, Lüthy Cristoph & Newman William (eds.), Late Medieval and Early Modern Corpuscular Matter Theories. Brill. pp. 209-243.
    Francis Bacon’s theory of matter is a controversial topic among historians. I agree with the viewpoint, which suggests that although Bacon changed his views on atomism repeatedly, he never rejected it completely (Partington, Urbach, Gemelli). I will substantiate this interpretation by paying more attention to the usually neglected allegorical works and by investigating why Bacon changed his mind on atomism in his Novum organum. I shall reconstruct Bacon’s various opinions in chronological order to establish his final evaluation of atomism and (...)
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  35. 2021-06-09
    Functional and Structural Models of Commonsense Reasoning in Cognitive Architectures.Antonio Lieto - 2021 - VISCA 2021 - 2nd Virtual International Symposium on Cognitive Architecture.
    I will present two different applications - Dual PECCS and the TCL reasoning framework - addressing some crucial aspects of commonsense reasoning (namely: dealing with typicality effects and with the problem of commonsense compositionality) in a way that is integrated or compliant with different cognitive architectures. In doing so I will show how such aspects are better dealt with at different levels of representation and will discuss the adopted solution to integrate such representational layers.
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  36. 2021-06-09
    The Harmonization of Domestic and International Human Rights Standards on Criminalization of Rape.Deepa Kansra - 2021 - Rights Compass.
    In the field of human rights, expressions like justice and legal reform are closely linked to the process of harmonization of domestic and international human rights standards. Harmonization of human rights standards can be described as a process wherein international human rights are incorporated or given full effect to at the domestic level. [i] To harmonize the two set of standards i.e. domestic and international is viewed as both a commitment and obligation of states under international law. [ii] In terms (...)
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  37. 2021-06-09
    Is This Me?A Story About Personal Identity From the Mahāprajñāpāramitopadeśa / Dà Zhìdù Lùn.Jing Huang & Jonardon Ganeri - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-24.
    In a Buddhist treatise from around the fourth century CE there is a very remarkable story which serves as a thought experiment calling us to question the nature of self and the identity of persons....
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  38. 2021-06-09
    Methodology of Narrative Structural Analysis.William O. Hendricks - 1973 - Semiotica 7 (2).
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  39. 2021-06-09
    Convergence, Community, and Force in Aesthetic Discourse.Nick Riggle - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Philosophers often characterize discourse in general as aiming at some sort of convergence (in beliefs, plans, dispositions, feelings, etc.), and many views about aesthetic discourse in particular affirm this thought. I argue that a convergence norm does not govern aesthetic discourse. The conversational dynamics of aesthetic discourse suggest that typical aesthetic claims have directive force. I distinguish between dynamic and illocutionary force and develop related theories of each for aesthetic discourse. I argue that the illocutionary force of aesthetic utterances is (...)
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  40. 2021-06-09
    Back From the Future: Divine Supercomprehension and Middle Knowledge as Ground for Retroactive Ontology.Andrew Hollingsworth - 2019 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 61 (4):516-532.
    In this article, I attempt to solve a problem in Wolfhart Pannenberg’s eschatology, which is best understood as a retroactive ontology. Pannenberg argues that the future exerts a retroactive causal and determinative power over the present, though he also claims that said future does not yet concretely exist. The problem can be posed thus: How does a non-concrete future hold retroactive power over the concrete present? I argue that the doctrines of middle knowledge and supercomprehension formulated by the Spanish Jesuit (...)
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  41. 2021-06-08
    Epistemic Akrasia and Belief-Credence Dualism.Elizabeth Jackson & Peter Tan - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    We call attention to certain cases of epistemic akrasia, arguing that they support belief-credence dualism. Belief-credence dualism is the view that belief and credence are irreducible, equally fundamental attitudes. Consider the case of an agent who believes p, has low credence in p, and thus believes that they shouldn’t believe p. We argue that dualists, as opposed to belief-firsters (who say credence reduces to belief) and credence-firsters (who say belief reduces to credence) can best explain features of akratic cases, including (...)
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  42. 2021-06-08
    Civil Liberties in a Lockdown: The Case of COVID-19.Samuel Director & Christopher Freiman - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy:1-24.
    In response to the spread of COVID-19, governments across the world have, with very few exceptions, enacted sweeping restrictive lockdown policies that impede citizens’ freedom to move, work, and assemble. This paper critically responds to the central arguments for restrictive lockdown legislation. We build our critique on the following assumption: public policy that enjoys virtually unanimous support worldwide should be justified by uncontroversial moral principles. We argue that that the virtually unanimous support in favor of restrictive lockdowns is not adequately (...)
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  43. 2021-06-08
    Humanitarian Assistance for Wild Animals.Kyle Johannsen - 2021 - The Philosophers' Magazine 93:33-37.
    I argue that most wild animals live bad lives, and that we should intervene in nature to improve their wellbeing.
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  44. 2021-06-08
    Memento Mori as Repetition of Finitude: Death Beyond Heidegger and Levinas.Nicolae Turcan - 2021 - Diakrisis Yearbook of Theology and Philosophy 4:29-37.
    Exemplified especially by Heidegger and Levinas, the phenomenology of death expresses first, the impossibility of the death experience, second, the authenticity of Dasein starting from the horizon opened by the possibility of death, and third, the relevance of the death of the other to the discovery of one’s own death. This article tries to take a step further, showing the link between the authenticity of Dasein and the desire for immortality manifested in this authenticity. By overturning Heidegger’s theses and by (...)
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  45. 2021-06-08
    Assessing Recent Agent-Based Accounts of Right Action.Graham Renz - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (2):433-444.
    Agent-based virtue ethical theories must deal with the problem of right action: if an action is right just in case it expresses a virtuous motive, then how can an agent perform the right action but for the wrong reason, or from a vicious motive? Some recent agent-based accounts purport to answer this challenge and two other related problems. Here I assess these accounts and show them to be inadequate answers to the problem of right action. Overall, it is shown that (...)
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  46. 2021-06-08
    Mind the App—Considerations on the Ethical Risks of COVID-19 Apps.Floridi Luciano - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):167-172.
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  47. 2021-06-08
    A Tale of Two Injustices: Epistemic Injustice in Philosophy.Emmalon Davis - 2021 - In Applied Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 215-250.
    This chapter has two aims. First, I distinguish between two forms of testimonial injustice: identity-based testimonial injustice and content-based testimonial injustice. Second, I utilize this distinction to develop a partial explanation for the persistent lack of diverse practitioners in academic philosophy. Specifically, I argue that both identity-based and content-based testimonial injustice are prevalent in philosophical discourse and that this prevalence introduces barriers to participation for those targeted. As I show, the dual and compounding effects of identity-based and content-based testimonial injustice (...)
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  48. 2021-06-08
    New Atheist Approaches to Religion.Trent Dougherty & Logan Paul Gage - 2015 - In Graham Oppy (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. pp. 51-62.
    In this article, we examine in detail the New Atheists' most serious argument for the conclusion that God does not exist, namely, Richard Dawkins's Ultimate 747 Gambit. Dawkins relies upon a strong explanatory principle involving simplicity. We systematically inspect the various kinds of simplicity that Dawkins may invoke. Finding his crucial premises false on any common conception of simplicity, we conclude that Dawkins has not given good reason to think God does not exist.
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  49. 2021-06-08
    Living God Pandeism: Evidential Support.William C. Lane - 2021 - Zygon 56.
    Pandeism is the belief that God chose to wholly become our Universe, imposing principles at this Becoming that have fostered the lawful evolution of multifarious structures, including life and consciousness. This article describes and defends a particular form of pandeism: living God pandeism (LGP). On LGP, our Universe inherits all of God's unsurpassable attributes—reality, unity, consciousness, knowledge, intelligence, and effectiveness—and includes as much reality, conscious and unconscious, as is possible consistent with retaining those attributes. God and the Universe, together “God-and-Universe,” (...)
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  50. 2021-06-08
    A Relational Theory of Mental Illness: Lacking Identity and Solidarity.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Synthesis Philosophica 71 (1):65-81.
    In this article I aim to make progress towards the philosophical goal of ascertaining what, if anything, all mental illnesses have in common, attempting to unify a large sub-set of them that have a relational or interpersonal dimension. One major claim is that, if we want a promising theory of mental illness, we must go beyond the dominant western accounts of mental illness/health, which focus on traits intrinsic to a person such as pain/pleasure, lethargy/liveliness, fragmentation/integration, and falsehood/authenticity. A second major (...)
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  51. 2021-06-07
    Epistemic Slurs: A Novel Explicandum and Adequacy Constraint for Slur Theories.Adam Patterson - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-18.
    I argue that there are slurs that are distinctly derogatory insofar as they only derogate their target’s epistemic faculties or capacities qua group member. I call these slurs epistemic slurs. Given that slur theories should explain the derogatory nature of all slurs, any comprehensive slur theory should be able to explain the derogatory nature of the epistemic slurs. I argue, however, that two particular expressivist theories of slurs cannot explain their distinctive derogatory nature. The epistemic slurs thus constitute a novel (...)
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  52. 2021-06-07
    Explanation and the A-Theory.David Storrs-Fox - 2021 - Philosophical Studies.
    Propositional temporalism is the view that there are temporary propositions: propositions that are true, but not always true. Factual futurism is the view that there are futurist facts: facts that obtain, but that will at some point not obtain. Most A-theoretic views in the philosophy of time are committed both to propositional temporalism and to factual futurism. Mark Richard, Jeffrey King and others have argued that temporary propositions are not fit to be the contents of propositional attitudes, or to be (...)
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  53. 2021-06-07
    Resisting Pessimism Traps: The Limits of Believing in Oneself.Jennifer M. Morton - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Members of marginalized groups who desire to pursue ambitious ends that might lead them to overcome disadvantage often face evidential situations that do not support the belief that they will succeed. Such agents might decide, reasonably, that their efforts are better expended elsewhere. If an agent has a less risky, valuable alternative, then quitting can be a rational way of avoiding the potential costs of failure. However, in reaching this pessimistic conclusion, she adds to the evidence that formed the basis (...)
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  54. 2021-06-07
    Falling in Love with a Film (Series).Hans Maes & Katrien Schaubroeck - 2021 - In Before Sunrise, Before Sunset, Before Midnight: A Philosophical Exploration. Routledge.
    Judging works of art is one thing. Loving a work of art is something else. When you visit a museum like the Louvre you make hundreds of judgements in the space of just a couple of hours. But you may grow to love only one or a handful of works over the course of your entire life. Depending on the art form you are most aligned with, this can be a painting, a novel, a poem, a song, a work of (...)
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  55. 2021-06-07
    Evidential Internalism and Evidential Externalism.Giada Fratantonio - forthcoming - In Maria Lasonen-Aarnio & Clayton M. Littlejohn (eds.), The Routledge Handbook for The Philosophy of Evidence.
    According to the ‘Evidential Internalists’, one’s evidence supervenes on one’s non-factive mental states. ‘Evidential Externalists’ deny that, and allow for external factors to determine what evidence one has. After clarifying what Evidential Internalism and Evidential Externalism entail, and what they are silent on, this chapter provides an opinionated overview of the main arguments and motivations behind Evidential Internalism and Evidential Externalism. It concludes that Evidential Externalism is a more promising view.
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  56. 2021-06-07
    Predictive Policing and the Ethics of Preemption.Daniel Susser - 2020 - In Ben Jones & Eduardo Mendieta (eds.), The Ethics of Policing: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New York: Nyu Press.
    The American justice system, from police departments to the courts, is increasingly turning to information technology for help identifying potential offenders, determining where, geographically, to allocate enforcement resources, assessing flight risk and the potential for recidivism amongst arrestees, and making other judgments about when, where, and how to manage crime. In particular, there is a focus on machine learning and other data analytics tools, which promise to accurately predict where crime will occur and who will perpetrate it. Activists and academics (...)
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  57. 2021-06-07
    Thomas Reid on Promises and Social Operations of the Human Mind.Ruth Boeker - forthcoming - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
    My paper offers a new interpretation of Reid’s account of social operations of the mind. I argue that it is important to acknowledge the counterpart structure of social operations. By this I mean that for Reid every social operation is paired with a counterpart operation. On the view that I ascribe to Reid, at least two intelligent beings take part in a social operation and the social operation does not come into existence until both the social operation and its counterpart (...)
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  58. 2021-06-07
    A Dilemma for Lexical and Archimedean Views in Population Axiology.Elliott Thornley - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    According to lexical views in population axiology, there are good lives x and y such that some number of lives equally good as x is not worse than any number of lives equally good as y. Such views can avoid the Repugnant Conclusion without violating Transitivity or Separability, but they imply a dilemma: either some good life is better than any number of slightly worse lives, or else the ‘at least as good as’ relation on populations is radically incomplete, in (...)
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  59. 2021-06-07
    Epistemological Decolonization Through a Relational Knowledge- Making Model.Louis Botha, Dominic Griffiths & Maria Prozesky - 2021 - Africa Today 67 (4):50-72.
    This article argues for epistemic decolonization by developing a relational model of knowledge, which we locate within indigenous knowledges. We live in a time of ongoing global, epistemic coloniality, embedded in and shaped by colonial ideas and practices. Epistemological decolonization requires taking nondominant knowledges and their epistemes seriously to open up the possibility of interrogating and dismantling the hegemony of the Western knowledge tradition. We here ask two related questions: What are the decolonial affordances of indigenous knowledges? And how do (...)
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  60. 2021-06-07
    Morality is in the Eye of the Beholder: The Neurocognitive Basis of the “Anomalous-is-Bad” Stereotype.Clifford Workman, Stacey Humphries, Franziska Hartung, Geoffrey K. Aguirre, Joseph W. Kable & Anjan Chatterjee - 2021 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 999 (999):1-15.
    Are people with flawed faces regarded as having flawed moral characters? An “anomalous-is-bad” stereotype is hypothesized to facilitate negative biases against people with facial anomalies (e.g., scars), but whether and how these biases affect behavior and brain functioning remain open questions. We examined responses to anomalous faces in the brain (using a visual oddball paradigm), behavior (in economic games), and attitudes. At the level of the brain, the amygdala demonstrated a specific neural response to anomalous faces—sensitive to disgust and a (...)
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  61. 2021-06-07
    Response to Critics.Sandra Leonie Field - 2021 - European Hobbes Society Online Colloquium.
    The European Hobbes Society Online Colloquium featured my book, Potentia: Hobbes and Spinoza on Power and Popular Politics, with critical commentaries from Alissa MacMillan, Chris Holman, and Justin Steinberg. This is my response to their commentaries.
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  62. 2021-06-07
    In Defence of the Barcan Formula.Max Cresswell - 1991 - Logique Et Analyse 34 (135-136):271-282.
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  63. 2021-06-06
    Every Step You Take, We’Ll Be Watching You: Nudging and the Ramifications of GPS Technology.William Hebblewhite & Alexander James Gillett - 2020 - AI and Society.
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  64. 2021-06-06
    Précis of Potentia: Hobbes and Spinoza on Power and Popular Politics.Sandra Leonie Field - 2021 - European Hobbes Society Online Colloquium.
    The European Hobbes Society Online Colloquium featured my book, Potentia: Hobbes and Spinoza on Power and Popular Politics. This is a précis of the book.
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  65. 2021-06-06
    A Priori Justification in Nietzsche.Justin Remhof - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly.
    This paper argues there are crucial points in Nietzsche’s texts where he offers a priori epistemic justification for views he believes are correct. My reading contrasts with the dominant view that Nietzsche’s philosophical naturalism is incompatible with a priori justification. My aim is to develop Nietzsche’s brand of a priori justification, show that he employs this account of justification in the texts, and suggest how it might be compatible with naturalism.
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  66. 2021-06-06
    Consumer Choice and Collective Impact.Julia Nefsky - 2018 - In Mark Budolfson, Tyler Doggett & Anne Barnhill (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 267-286.
    Taken collectively, consumer food choices have a major impact on animal lives, human lives, and the environment. But it is far from clear how to move from facts about the power of collective consumer demand to conclusions about what one ought to do as an individual consumer. In particular, even if a large-scale shift in demand away from a certain product (e.g., factory-farmed meat) would prevent grave harms or injustices, it typically does not seem that it will make a difference (...)
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  67. 2021-06-06
    Justice in Epistemic Gaps: The ‘Proof Paradox’ Revisited.Lewis D. Ross - forthcoming - Philosophical Issues.
    This paper defends the heretical view that, at least in some cases, we ought to assign legal liability based on purely statistical evidence. The argument draws on prominent civil law litigation concerning pharmaceutical negligence and asbestos-poisoning. The overall aim is to illustrate moral pitfalls that result from supposing that it is never appropriate to rely on bare statistics when settling a legal dispute.
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  68. 2021-06-06
    Postcolonial Liberalism.Duncan Ivison - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Postcolonial Liberalism presents a compelling account of the challenges to liberal political theory by claims to cultural and political autonomy and land rights made by indigenous peoples today. It also confronts the sensitive issue of how liberalism has been used to justify and legitimate colonialism. Ivison argues that there is a pressing need to re-shape liberal thought to become more receptive to indigenous aspirations and modes of being. What is distinctive about the book is the middle way it charts between (...)
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  69. 2021-06-06
    From Non-Usability to Non-Factualism.Justin Clarke-Doane - forthcoming - Analysis.
    Holly Smith has done more than anyone to explore and defend the importance of usability for moral theories. In Making Morality Work, she develops a moral theory that is almost universally usable. But not quite. In this article, I argue that no moral theory is universally usable, in the sense that is most immediately relevant to action, even by agents who know all the normative facts. There is no moral theory knowledge of which suffices to settle deliberation about what to (...)
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  70. 2021-06-05
    Objectually Understanding Informed Consent.Daniel A. Wilkenfeld - 2021 - Analytic Philosophy 62 (1):33-56.
    Analytic Philosophy, Volume 62, Issue 1, Page 33-56, March 2021.
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  71. 2021-06-05
    ONT.Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents -/- ONT vol 1 i. short review: Beyond the Black Rainbow ii. as you die, hold one thought iii. short review: LA JETÉE -/- ONT vol 2 i. maya means ii. short review: SANS SOLEIL iii. vocab iv. eros has an underside v. short review: In the Mood for Love -/- ONT vol 3 i. weed weakens / compels me ii. an Ender's Game after-party iii. playroom is a realm of the dead iv. a precise german History v. short (...)
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  72. 2021-06-05
    Divine Simplicity: The Aspectival Account.Joshua Sijuwade - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-37.
    This article aims to provide a consistent explication of the doctrine of Divine Simplicity. To achieve this end, a re-construal of the doctrine is made within an "aspectival trope-theoretic" metaphysical framework, which will ultimately enable the doctrine to be elucidated in a consistent manner, and the Plantingian objections raised against it will be shown to be unproblematic.
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  73. 2021-06-05
    Du Châtelet on Sufficient Reason and Empirical Explanation.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    For Emilie Du Châtelet, I argue, a central role of the principle of sufficient reason is to discriminate between better and worse explanations. Her principle of sufficient reason does not play this for just any conceivable intellect: it specifically enables understanding for minds like ours. She develops this idea in terms of two criteria for the success of our explanations: ‘understanding how’ and ‘understanding why.’ These criteria can respectively be connected to the determinateness and contrastivity of explanations. The crucial role (...)
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  74. 2021-06-05
    Setting the Story Straight: Fictionalism About Grounding.Naomi Thompson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    This paper explores a middle way between realism and eliminativism about grounding. Grounding-talk is intelligible and useful, but it fails to pick out grounding relations that exist or obtain in reality. Instead, grounding-talk allows us to convey facts about what metaphysically explains what, and about the worldly dependence relations that give rise to those explanations.
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  75. 2021-06-05
    The Societal Response to Psychopathy in the Community.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Angelo Brazil - forthcoming - International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.
    The harm usually associated with psychopathy requires therapeutically, legally, and ethically satisfactory solutions. Scholars from different fields have, thus, examined whether empirical evidence shows that individuals with psychopathic traits satisfy concepts, such as responsibility, mental disorder, or disability, that have specific legal or ethical implications. The present paper considers the less discussed issue of whether psychopathy is a disability. As it has been shown for the cases of the responsibility and mental disorder status of psychopathic individuals, we argue that it (...)
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  76. 2021-06-05
    The Value-Ladenness of Psychopathy.Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti - forthcoming - In Luca Malatesti, John McMillan & Predrag Šustar (eds.), Psychopathy: Its Uses, Validity and Status. Springer.
    The recurring claim that the construct of psychopathy is value laden often is not qualified in enough detail. The chapters in this part of the volume, instead, investigate in depth the role and significance of values in different aspects of the construct of psychopathy. Following these chapters, but also by offering a background to them, we show how certain values are involved in the characterisation of psychopathy, inform societal needs satisfied by this construct, and have a central role in determining (...)
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  77. 2021-06-05
    Elements of Biology in Aristotle’s Political Science.Elena Cagnoli Fiecconi - 2021 - In Sophia Connell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Biology. Cambridge, UK: pp. 211-227.
    Aristotle is a political scientist and a student of biology. Political science, in his view, is concerned with the human good and thus it includes the study of ethics. He approaches many subjects from the perspective of both political science and biology: the virtues, the function of humans, and the political nature of humans. In light of the overlap between the two disciplines, I look at whether or not Aristotle’s views in biology influence or explain some of his theses in (...)
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  1. 2021-06-12
    Proceed with Caution.Annette Zimmermann & Chad Lee-Stronach - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    It is becoming more common that the decision-makers in private and public institutions are predictive algorithmic systems, not humans. This article argues that relying on algorithmic systems is procedurally unjust in contexts involving background conditions of structural injustice. Under such nonideal conditions, algorithmic systems, if left to their own devices, cannot meet a necessary condition of procedural justice, because they fail to provide a sufficiently nuanced model of which cases count as relevantly similar. Resolving this problem requires deliberative capacities uniquely (...)
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  2. 2021-06-12
    Corporate Essence and Identity in Criminal Law.Mihailis E. Diamantis - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (4):955-966.
    How can we know whether we are punishing the same corporation that committed some past crime? Though central to corporate criminal justice, legal theorists and philosophers have yet to address the basic question of how corporate identity persists through time. Simple cases, where crime and punishment are close in time and the corporation has changed little, can mislead us into thinking an answer is always easy to come by. The issue becomes more complicated when corporate criminals undergo any number of (...)
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  3. 2021-06-12
    Fragile Knowledge.Simon Goldstein - forthcoming - Mind:1-25.
    This paper explores the principle that knowledge is fragile, in that whenever S knows that S doesn't know that S knows that p, S thereby fails to know p. Fragility is motivated by the infelicity of dubious assertions, utterances which assert p while acknowledging higher order ignorance of p. Fragility is interestingly weaker than KK, the principle that if S knows p, then S knows that S knows p. Existing theories of knowledge which deny KK by accepting a Margin for (...)
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  4. 2021-06-12
    Entrepreneurial Resilience: The Case of Somali Grocery Shop Owners in a South African Township.Robertson K. Tengeh - 2016 - Problems and Perspectives in Management 14 (4):203-211.
    Most studies on entrepreneurship have highlighted the relative importance of a conducive environment for the development of entrepreneurship. This notwithstanding, entrepreneurship has been noted to thrive even under the most adverse conditions, such as during economic, social and political instabilities. Using resilience as the propensity to bounce back after adversity and xenophobia, crime, unhealthy competition, etc. as correlates of adversity or an unconducive business environment, this paper investigated the preponderance of Somali grocery shops in South African township despite the perceived (...)
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  5. 2021-06-12
    THE PRACTICE OF STRATEGIC PLANNING: MANAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF ITS USAGE BY NON-PROFIT ORGANISATION IN THE WESTERN CAPE.Robertson K. Tengeh - 2015 - Journal of Governance and Regulation 4 (4):714-719.
    This paper investigates strategic planning to understand managers’ perception of its benefits to Non- Profit Organisations (NPOs). The investigation was preceded by a review and repertoire of theoretical evidence of NPOs integration of strategic planning in support of management function: a management tool designed for and used mainly by businesses. The study was based on the application of quantitative data collection and analysis to understand respondents’ perceptions. The paper found considerable increase and popularity in the usage of strategic planning by (...)
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  6. 2021-06-12
    The Cultural Evolution of Extended Benevolence.Andres Luco - 2021 - In Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz (eds.), Synthese Library. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 153-177.
    Abstract In The Descent of Man (1879), Charles Darwin proposed a speculative evolutionary explanation of extended benevolence—a human sympathetic capacity that extends to all nations, races, and even to all sentient beings. This essay draws on twenty-first century social science to show that Darwin’s explanation is correct in its broad outlines. Extended benevolence is manifested in institutions such as legal human rights and democracy, in behaviors such as social movements for human rights and the protection of nonhuman animals, and in (...)
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  7. 2021-06-12
    Teaching Drunk: Work, the Online Economy, and Uncertainty in Action.Max F. Kramer - forthcoming - Philosophy:1-22.
    (Runner-up, Royal Institute of Philosophy 2020 Philosophy Essay Prize) Technological developments have led to the digitization of certain sectors of the economy, and this has many authors looking ahead to the prospects of a post-work society. While it is valuable to theorize about this possibility, it is also important to take note of the present state of work. For better or worse, it is what we are currently stuck with, and as the COVID-19 pandemic has ensured, much of that work (...)
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  8. 2021-06-12
    Anatomia do Cômico.Felipe Ramos Gall - 2021 - Dissertation, PUC-Rio, Brazil
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  9. 2021-06-12
    A Política Identitária em Questão: Reflexões a Partir de Judith Butler e Achille Mbembe.Gabriela Campos Alkmin & Marco Antonio Souza Alvez - 2021 - Revista Direito Público.
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  10. 2021-06-11
    What Does '&' Mean?Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 5:45-50.
    Using conjunction as an example, I show a technical and philosophical problem when trying to conciliate the currently prevailing views on the meaning of logical connectives: the inferientialist one based on introduction and elimination rules, and the representationalist one given through truth tables. Mostly I show that the widespread strategy of using the truth theoretical definition of logical consequence to collapse both definitions must be rejected by inferentialists. An important consequence of my argument is that there are different notions of (...)
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  11. 2021-06-11
    Externalizando a Reflexão.Ernesto Perini-Santos - 2021 - Trans/Form/Ação 44:127-150.
    A principal crítica do internismo a teorias externistas é que elas parecem fazer o conhecimento o resultado de processos que permanecem inacessíveis ao sujeito. Epistemologias externistas buscaram acomodar esta exigência, como é o caso da epistemologia de Sosa. A incorporação das exigências internistas não se faz sem tensões – no caso de Sosa, os mecanismos reflexivos podem ser inacessíveis ao sujeito. Na medida em que buscamos compreender como podemos conhecer e refletir sobre nossas próprias crenças, encontramos mecanismos externos ao sujeito (...)
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  12. 2021-06-11
    Tomasello, Vygotsky, and the Phylogenesis of Mind: A Reply to Potapov’s “Objectification and the Labour of the Negative in the Origin of Human Thinking”.Chris Drain - 2021 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 10 (6):23-29.
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  13. 2021-06-11
    Do Ethics Classes Influence Student Behavior? Case Study: Teaching the Ethics of Eating Meat.Eric Schwitzgebel, Bradford Cokelet & Peter Singer - 2020 - Cognition 203:104397.
    Do university ethics classes influence students’ real-world moral choices? We aimed to conduct the first controlled study of the effects of ordinary philosophical ethics classes on real-world moral choices, using non-self-report, non-laboratory behavior as the dependent measure. We assigned 1332 students in four large philosophy classes to either an experimental group on the ethics of eating meat or a control group on the ethics of charitable giving. Students in each group read a philosophy article on their assigned topic and optionally (...)
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  14. 2021-06-11
    The Substrate-Prior of Consciousness.Gabriel Leuenberger -
    Given functionally equivalent minds, how does the expected quantity of their conscious experience differ across different substrates and how could we calculate this? We argue that a realistic digital brain emulation would be orders of magnitude less conscious than a real biological brain. On the other hand, a mind running on neuromorphic hardware or a quantum computer could in principle be more conscious than than a biological brain.
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  15. 2021-06-11
    Public Debt and Intergenerational Ethics: How to Fund a Green 'Apollo Program'?Matthew Rendall - forthcoming - Climate Policy.
    If the present generation refuses to bear the burden of mitigating global heating, could we motivate sufficient action by shifting that burden to our descendants? Several writers have proposed breaking the political impasse by funding mitigation through public debt. Critics attack such proposals as both unjust and infeasible. In fact, there is reason to think that some debt financing may be more equitable than placing the whole burden of mitigation on the present generation. While it might not be viable for (...)
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  16. 2021-06-11
    Philosophy of Boredom.Andreas Elpidorou & Josefa Velasco - forthcoming - Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    The aim of this entry is to provide the reader with a philosophical map of the progression of the concept and experience of boredom throughout the Western tradition—from antiquity to current work in Anglo-American philosophy. By focusing primarily on key philosophical works on boredom, but also often discussing important literary and scientific texts, the entry exposes the reader to the rich history of boredom and illustrates how the different manifestations of boredom—idleness, horror loci, acedia, sloth, mal du siècle, melancholy, ennui, (...)
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  17. 2021-06-11
    Holistic Vision of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji [Part - II].Devinder Pal Singh - 2021 - The Sikh Review 69 (6):13-21.
    Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur, ninth Sikh Guru, fell as a martyr to the freedom of consciousness and belief. The Guru's great sacrifice was to vindicate the people's right to profess and practice their faith. It meant the assertion of the principle of justice for which the ruling Mughal rulers of the day had very scant regard. For this reason, the life, career, and teachings of Guru Tegh Bahadur are of immense significance even in contemporary times, when the forces of hate, (...)
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  18. 2021-06-11
    Epistemic Consequentialism, Veritism, and Scoring Rules.Marc-Kevin Daoust & Charles Côté-Bouchard - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-25.
    We argue that there is a tension between two monistic claims that are the core of recent work in epistemic consequentialism. The first is a form of monism about epistemic value, commonly known as veritism: accuracy is the sole final objective to be promoted in the epistemic domain. The other is a form of monism about a class of epistemic scoring rules: that is, strictly proper scoring rules are the only legitimate measures of inaccuracy. These two monisms, we argue, are (...)
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  19. 2021-06-11
    Evidence Mapping to Justify Health Interventions.Olaf Dammann - 2021 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 64 (2):155-172.
    In order to support health interventions, biomedical and population health researchers need to collect solid evidence. This article asks what type of evidence this should be and expands on previous work that focused on etiological explanations, or causal-mechanical explanations of why and how illness occurs. The article proposes adding predictive evidence to the explanatory evidence, in order to form a joint evidence set, or JES = [A,B,C,D], which consists of four different types of evidence: association [A], biology [B], confirmation [C], (...)
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  20. 2021-06-11
    Ethical Leadership and Employee Ethical Behaviour: Exploring Dual-Mediation Paths of Ethical Climate and Organisational Justice: Empirical Study on Iraqi Organisations.Hussam Al Halbusi - 2021 - International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 15 (3):303–325.
    Due to ethical lapses of leaders, interest in ethical leadership has grown, raising important questions about the responsibility of leaders in ensuring moral and ethical conduct. Research conducted on ethical leadership failed to investigate the active role that the characteristics of ethical climate and organisational justice have an increasing or decreasing influence on the ethical leadership in the organisation’s outcomes of employees’ ethical behaviour. Thus, this study examined the dual-mediations of work ethical climate and organisational justice on the relation of (...)
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  21. 2021-06-11
    Free Will, Determinism, and the Right Levels of Description.Leonhard Menges - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations 1.
    Recently, many authors have argued that claims about determinism and free will are situated on different levels of description and that determinism on one level does not rule out free will on another. This paper focuses on Christian List’s version of this basic idea. It will be argued for the negative thesis that List’s account does not rule out the most plausible version of incompatibilism about free will and determinism and, more constructively, that a level-based approach to free will has (...)
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  22. 2021-06-10
    Different Samenesses: Essays on Non-Standard Views of Identity.Eric de Araujo - 2021 - Dissertation, Ohio State University
    Few views are as widely held as the Standard View of Identity. Here I am concerned with minority views that depart from the standard account. First, I attempt to illuminate such views and the debates concerning them by identifying the principles of identity at issue, articulating some of the assumptions underlying the debates, and presenting some of the evidence used against the Standard View of Identity. Second, I enter two of these debates myself. I first defend two Non-Standard Views of (...)
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  23. 2021-06-10
    Darwin Knows Best: Can Evolution Support the Classical Liberal Vision of the Family?Logan Paul Gage - 2013 - In Stephen Dilley (ed.), Darwinian Evolution and Classical Liberalism: Theories in Tension. Lexington Books. pp. 135-156.
    In a time when conservatives believe that the traditional family is under increasing fire, some think an appeal to Darwinian science may be the answer. I argue that these conservatives are wrong to maintain that Darwinian theory can serve as the intellectual foundation for the traditional conception of the family. Contra Larry Arnhart and James Q. Wilson, a Darwinian philosophy of nature simply lacks the stability the traditional family requires; it cannot support the traditional conception of human nature and the (...)
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  24. 2021-06-10
    Balancing Work-Life Demands of Students in a Graduate School Institution in Manila.Leonardo Cada Jr - 2021 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Publications (4):290-295.
    Work-life demands vary day after day. Life is not smooth as we think. Life alters works and vice-versa. Work-life balance is not stable for all individual. The purpose of this study is to enhance the individual awareness about the behaviors that are affecting the work-life balance of the graduate students in one of the higher educational institutions in Manila. Graduate students are not exempted from the issue of balancing work and life while studying. -/- The author as a Ph. D. (...)
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  25. 2021-06-10
    Should We Be Afraid of AI?Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Aeon Magazine.
    Machines seem to be getting smarter and smarter and much better at human jobs, yet true AI is utterly implausible. This article explains the reasons why this is the case.
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  26. 2021-06-10
    What a Maker’s Knowledge Could Be.Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):465-481.
    Three classic distinctions specify that truths can be necessary versus contingent,analytic versus synthetic, and a priori versus a posteriori. The philosopher reading this article knows very well both how useful and ordinary such distinctions are in our conceptual work and that they have been subject to many and detailed debates, especially the last two. In the following pages, I do not wish to discuss how far they may be tenable. I shall assume that, if they are reasonable and non problematic (...)
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  27. 2021-06-10
    A United Framework of Five Principles for AI in Society.Luciano Floridi & Josh Cowls - 2019 - Harvard Data Science Review 1 (1).
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already having a major impact on society. As a result, many organizations have launched a wide range of initiatives to establish ethical principles for the adoption of socially beneficial AI. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of proposed principles threatens to overwhelm and confuse. How might this problem of ‘principle proliferation’ be solved? In this paper, we report the results of a fine-grained analysis of several of the highest-profile sets of ethical principles for AI. We assess whether these (...)
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  28. 2021-06-10
    Starzenie się populacji. Aktywizacja, koprodukcja i integracja społeczna osób starszych.Grzegorz Gawron, Andrzej Klimczuk & Zofia Szweda-Lewandowska - 2021 - Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
    Opracowanie ma charakter poglądowo-teoretyczny, powstało bowiem na podstawie przeglądu dostępnej literatury przedmiotu. Publikacja skierowana jest zarówno do naukowców jak i studentów zajmujących się tematyką starzenia się ludności, starości i osób starszych oraz do coraz szerszego grona zainteresowanych tymi zagadnieniami praktyków, w tym polityków i decydentów oraz reprezentantów usług publicznych, przedstawicieli mediów i organizacji pozarządowych. ** The study is illustrative and theoretical in nature, as it was based on a review of the available literature on the subject. The publication is addressed (...)
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  29. 2021-06-10
    Autonomous Vehicles: From Whether and When to Where and How.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (4):569-573.
    The digital revolution, in the form of autonomous driving, is changing the very essence of mobility. This paper discusses four different ways in which these transformations are taking place and argues that public policies and business strategies need to focus on innovating and re-engineering (enveloping) whole environments. Only then will autonomous vehicles become an ordinary – and environmentally sustainable – reality. -/- .
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  30. 2021-06-10
    Clinical Applications of Machine Learning Algorithms: Beyond the Black Box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
    Machine learning algorithms may radically improve our ability to diagnose and treat disease. For moral, legal, and scientific reasons, it is essential that doctors and patients be able to understand and explain the predictions of these models. Scalable, customisable, and ethical solutions can be achieved by working together with relevant stakeholders, including patients, data scientists, and policy makers.
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  31. 2021-06-10
    Enabling Digital Health Companionship is Better Than Empowerment.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - The Lancet 1 (4):e155-e156.
    Digital Health Tools (DHTs), also known as patient self-surveilling strategies, have increasingly been promoted by health-care policy makers as technologies that have the capacity to transform patients’ lives. At the heart of the debate is the notion of empowerment. In this paper, we argue that what is required is not so much empowerment but rather a shift to enabling DHTs as digital companions. This will enable policy makers and health-care system designers to provide a more balanced view—one that capitalises on (...)
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  32. 2021-06-10
    From Human Resources to Human Rights: Impact Assessments for Hiring Algorithms.Josephine Yam & Joshua August Skorburg - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Over the years, companies have adopted hiring algorithms because they promise wider job candidate pools, lower recruitment costs and less human bias. Despite these promises, they also bring perils. Using them can inflict unintentional harms on individual human rights. These include the five human rights to work, equality and nondiscrimination, privacy, free expression and free association. Despite the human rights harms of hiring algorithms, the AI ethics literature has predominantly focused on abstract ethical principles. This is problematic for two reasons. (...)
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  33. 2021-06-10
    Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: An Appeal for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data.Jenny Krutzinna, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1357-1387.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. (...)
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  34. 2021-06-10
    Establishing the Rules for Building Trustworthy AI.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Nature Machine Intelligence 1:261-262.
    AI is revolutionizing everyone’s life, and it is crucial that it does so in the right way. AI’s profound and far-reaching potential for transformation concerns the engineering of systems that have some degree of autonomous agency. This is epochal and requires establishing a new, ethical balance between human and artificial autonomy.
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  35. 2021-06-10
    Marketing as Control of Human Interfaces and its Political Exploitation.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):379-388.
    In previous works, I defined ourselves as informational organisms, or inforgs for short, who forage for, produce, cultivate, curate, process, and consume information (Floridi 2013). Yet, we may also be understood as interfaces, who inhabit and interact with, an environment also made up of data and computational processes. By describing ourselves in such terms, this paper argues that we can better understand several crucial phenomena that characterise our digital age, including marketing and the “marketisation” of political communication. The article concludes (...)
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  36. 2021-06-10
    Prayer-Bots and Religious Worship on Twitter: A Call for a Wider Research Agenda.Carl Öhman, Robert Gorwa & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (2):331-338.
    The automation of online social life is an urgent issue for researchers and the public alike. However, one of the most significant uses of such technologies seems to have gone largely unnoticed by the research community: religion. Focusing on Islamic Prayer Apps, which automatically post prayers from its users’ accounts, we show that even one such service is already responsible for millions of tweets daily, constituting a significant portion of Arabic-language Twitter traffic. We argue that the fact that a phenomenon (...)
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  37. 2021-06-10
    Inquiry and Confirmation.Arianna Falbo - forthcoming - Analysis.
    A puzzle arises when combining two individually plausible, yet jointly incompatible, norms of inquiry. On the one hand, it seems that one shouldn’t inquire into a question while believing an answer to that question. But, on the other hand, it seems rational to inquire into a question while believing its answer, if one is seeking confirmation. Millson (2021), who has recently identified this puzzle, suggests a possible solution, though he notes that it comes with significant costs. I offer an alternative (...)
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  38. 2021-06-10
    The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Thematic Review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2313-2343.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several (...)
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  39. 2021-06-10
    The Limits of Empowerment: How to Reframe the Role of mHealth Tools in the Healthcare Ecosystem.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1159-1183.
    This article highlights the limitations of the tendency to frame health- and wellbeing-related digital tools as empowering devices, especially as they play an increasingly important role in the National Health Service in the UK. It argues that mHealth technologies should instead be framed as digital companions. This shift from empowerment to companionship is advocated by showing the conceptual, ethical, and methodological issues challenging the narrative of empowerment, and by arguing that such challenges, as well as the risk of medical paternalism, (...)
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  40. 2021-06-10
    Translating Principles Into Practices of Digital Ethics: Five Risks of Being Unethical.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (2):185-193.
    Modern digital technologies—from web-based services to Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions—increasingly affect the daily lives of billions of people. Such innovation brings huge opportunities, but also concerns about design, development, and deployment of digital technologies. This article identifies and discusses five clusters of risk in the international debate about digital ethics: ethics shopping; ethics bluewashing; ethics lobbying; ethics dumping; and ethics shirking.
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  41. 2021-06-10
    Trusting Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity is a Double-Edged Sword.Mariarosaria Taddeo, Tom McCutcheon & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32:1-15.
    Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for cybersecurity tasks are attracting greater attention from the private and the public sectors. Estimates indicate that the market for AI in cybersecurity will grow from US$1 billion in 2016 to a US$34.8 billion net worth by 2025. The latest national cybersecurity and defence strategies of several governments explicitly mention AI capabilities. At the same time, initiatives to define new standards and certification procedures to elicit users’ trust in AI are emerging on a global scale. (...)
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  42. 2021-06-10
    What the Near Future of Artificial Intelligence Could Be.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (1):1-15.
    In this article, I shall argue that AI’s likely developments and possible challenges are best understood if we interpret AI not as a marriage between some biological-like intelligence and engineered artefacts, but as a divorce between agency and intelligence, that is, the ability to solve problems successfully and the necessity of being intelligent in doing so. I shall then look at five developments: (1) the growing shift from logic to statistics, (2) the progressive adaptation of the environment to AI rather (...)
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  43. 2021-06-10
    Kuhn and the Philosophy of Science: Theories of Science.Andrew Lugg - 1979 - British Journal for the History of Science 12 (3):289-295.
    Discussion of centred on Kuhn's Essential Tension.
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  44. 2021-06-10
    AI and its New Winter: From Myths to Realities.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):1-3.
    An AI winter may be defined as the stage when technology, business, and the media come to terms with what AI can or cannot really do as a technology without exaggeration. Through discussion of previous AI winters, this paper examines the hype cycle (which by turn characterises AI as a social panacea or a nightmare of apocalyptic proportions) and argues that AI should be treated as a normal technology, neither as a miracle nor as a plague, but rather as of (...)
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  45. 2021-06-10
    An Ethically Mindful Approach to AI for Health Care.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - The Lancet 395 (10220):254-255.
    Health-care systems worldwide face increasing demand, a rise in chronic disease, and resource constraints. At the same time, the use of digital health technologies in all care settings has led to an expansion of data. For this reason, policy makers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs, and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of health-care solutions will be artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly machine learning AI forms a key part of the National Health Service (NHS) Long-Term Plan (2019) in England, the (...)
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  46. 2021-06-10
    Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Foreseeable Threats and Solutions.Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):89-120.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated markets. However, because AIC is still a relatively young and inherently (...)
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  47. 2021-06-10
    The world is on the verge of change.Nataliya Krasnikova, Victoriia Redko, Olena Dzyad, Olga Mykhailenko, Nataliia Volkova, Liliya Golovko, Olha Pashchenko & Viacheslav Makedon - 2021 - Днипро, Днепропетровская область, Украина, 49000: Publisher Bila K. O..
    The world never stands still. There is always a Brownian movement of economic subjects and objects on the face of it. But, if we have been visualizing this movement over a relatively long period of time, then we can distinguish the acceleration and increase in the volume of movements along individual commodity routes, the growth and formation of new subjects of international economic relations. From time to time, "accelerators" of this movement appear, either in the form of new types of (...)
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  48. 2021-06-10
    Ethical Guidelines for COVID-19 Tracing Apps.Jessica Morley, Josh Cowls, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Nature 582:29-31.
    Technologies to rapidly alert people when they have been in contact with someone carrying the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are part of a strategy to bring the pandemic under control. Currently, at least 47 contact-tracing apps are available globally. They are already in use in Australia, South Korea and Singapore, for instance. And many other governments are testing or considering them. Here we set out 16 questions to assess whether — and to what extent — a contact-tracing app is ethically justifiable.
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  49. 2021-06-10
    Formalising Trade-Offs Beyond Algorithmic Fairness: Lessons From Ethical Philosophy and Welfare Economics.Michelle Seng Ah Lee, Luciano Floridi & Jatinder Singh - forthcoming - AI and Ethics.
    There is growing concern that decision-making informed by machine learning (ML) algorithms may unfairly discriminate based on personal demographic attributes, such as race and gender. Scholars have responded by introducing numerous mathematical definitions of fairness to test the algorithm, many of which are in conflict with one another. However, these reductionist representations of fairness often bear little resemblance to real-life fairness considerations, which in practice are highly contextual. Moreover, fairness metrics tend to be implemented in narrow and targeted toolkits that (...)
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  50. 2021-06-10
    Từ quá khứ tới thực tại, từ tư tưởng tới hành động phát triển kinh tế xanh.Ho Manh Toan - 2021 - Kinh Tế Và Dự Báo 6:1-5.
    Ngày 31/5/2021, Thủ tướng Chính phủ Phạm Minh Chính đã có bài phát biểu quan trọng về các giải pháp cho phát triển bền vững hậu Covid-19 trong phiên thảo luận tại Hội nghị thượng đỉnh Đối tác vì tăng trưởng xanh và mục tiêu toàn cầu (P4G) lần thứ 2. Việc tìm về những bài viết, công trình nghiên cứu trước đó của Ông sẽ giúp chúng ta có thể hiểu được phần nào cách tư duy và những quyết (...)
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  51. 2021-06-10
    The Costs of Unemployment in Zimbabwe.Tatenda Tabonashe Ngara - manuscript
    The term unemployment is defined by the International Labour Organization (2010) as the scenario where people are without jobs and have been actively looking for work within the past four weeks. Unemployment has been a bone of contention the world over but due to its high prevalence in Zimbabwe, its effects have been grossly perceived in the various age groups ranging from 18-60 as citizen’s fall far below the daily living wage in the country due to unemployment (ZimStat, 2012). The (...)
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  52. 2021-06-10
    Normalisation and Subformula Property for a System of Classical Logic with Tarski’s Rule.Nils Kürbis - forthcoming - Archive for Mathematical Logic:1-25.
    This paper considers a formalisation of classical logic using general introduction rules and general elimination rules. It proposes a definition of ‘maximal formula’, ‘segment’ and ‘maximal segment’ suitable to the system, and gives reduction procedures for them. It is then shown that deductions in the system convert into normal form, i.e. deductions that contain neither maximal formulas nor maximal segments, and that deductions in normal form satisfy the subformula property. Tarski’s Rule is treated as a general introduction rule for implication. (...)
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  53. 2021-06-10
    Passionate Speech: On the Uses and Abuses of Anger in Public Debate.Alessandra Tanesini - 2021 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 89:153-176.
    Anger dominates debates in the public sphere. In this article I argue that there are diverse forms of anger that merit different responses. My focus is especially on two types of anger that I label respectively arrogant and resistant. The first is the characteristic defensive response of those who unwarrantedly arrogate special privileges for themselves. The second is often a source of insight and a form of moral address. I detail some discursive manifestations of these two types of anger. I (...)
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  54. 2021-06-10
    The totality of reality and the interpretation of human thought´ systems / تمامیت واقعیت و تعبیر نظامهای فکری انسانی.Hossein Shirkhani - manuscript
    We take a brief look at human interpretation of reality. Human always tries to interpret different aspects of reality. This interpretation is categorized into several assessment systems that have a wide range; From law to philosophy. Physical and dialectical perspectives on reality have been a turning point in the analysis of reality. Explaining the truth is also another topic that we have addressed. Human's desire to change reality as he wants has been the cornerstone of human endeavor for thousands of (...)
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  55. 2021-06-10
    Pro-Generative Adversarial Network and V-Stack Perceptron, Diamond Holographic Principle, and Pro-Temporal Emergence.Shanna Dobson - manuscript
    We recently presented our Efimov K-theory of Diamonds, proposing a pro-diamond, a large stable (∞,1)-category of diamonds (D^{diamond}), and a localization sequence for diamond spectra. Commensurate with the localization sequence, we now detail four potential applications of the Efimov K-theory of D^{diamond}: emergent time as a pro-emergence (v-stack time) in a diamond holographic principle using Scholze’s six operations in the ’etale cohomology of diamonds; a pro-Generative Adversarial Network and v-stack perceptron; D^{diamond}cryptography; and diamond nonlocality in perfectoid quantum physics.
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  56. 2021-06-10
    Does Organizational Silence in NGOs Affected by Job Burnout?Hany Tharya, Esmail Kassim, Youssef Abu Amuna & Abedallh Aqel - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Management Science Research (IJAMSR) 5 (5):31-40.
    This study aimed to identify job burnout and its impact on organizational silence through an applied study on employees in NGOs in southern governorates, Palestine. NGOs might be not focused as community for researchers according to their missions nature, but employees are humans even they work in private, public, or NGOs. Job burnout old phenomenon widespread mostly in public and private sectors. Job burnout and organizational silence in NGOs were not discussed widely. Researchers used questionnaire as a main tool for (...)
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  57. 2021-06-10
    Naturalización de la Metafísica Modal.Carlos Romero - 2021 - Dissertation, National Autonomous University of Mexico
    En esta tesis presento, motivo y doy los primeros pasos en la realización del proyecto de naturalización de la metafísica modal: la transformación del área en un capítulo de la filosofía de la ciencia en lugar de la metafísica especulativa y autónoma. -/- En la introducción, explico el concepto de naturalización que doy por sentado a lo largo de la tesis, además de objetar dos propuestas recientes, de acuerdo a las cuales la metafísica modal —o alguna postura en el área— (...)
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  58. 2021-06-10
    Nietzsche's Compassion.Vasfi O. Özen - forthcoming - Nietzsche-Studien:244-274.
    Nietzsche is known for his penetrating critique of Mitleid (now commonly rendered as “compassion”). He seems to be critical of all compassion but at times also seems to praise a different form of compassion, which he refers to as “our compassion” and contrasts it with “your compassion” (BGE 225). Some commentators have interpreted this to mean that Nietzsche’s criticism is not as unconditional as it may seem – that he does not condemn compassion entirely. I disagree and contend that even (...)
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  59. 2021-06-10
    Nietzsche's Compassion.Vasfi O. Özen - forthcoming - Nietzsche-Studien:244–274.
    Nietzsche is known for his penetrating critique of Mitleid (now commonly rendered as ‘compassion’). He seems to be critical of all compassion but at times also seems to praise a different form of compassion, which he refers to as “our compassion” and contrasts it with “your compassion” (Beyond Good and Evil § 225). Some commentators have interpreted this to mean that Nietzsche’s criticism is not as unconditional as it may seem–that he does not condemn compassion entirely. I disagree and contend (...)
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  60. 2021-06-10
    The Symmetries of Quantum and Classical Information. The Ressurected “Ether" of Quantum Information.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 14 (41):1-36.
    The paper considers the symmetries of a bit of information corresponding to one, two or three qubits of quantum information and identifiable as the three basic symmetries of the Standard model, U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) accordingly. They refer to “empty qubits” (or the free variable of quantum information), i.e. those in which no point is chosen (recorded). The choice of a certain point violates those symmetries. It can be represented furthermore as the choice of a privileged reference frame (e.g. that (...)
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  61. 2021-06-10
    Consequences of Comparability.Cian Dorr, Jake Nebel & Jake Zuehl - forthcoming - Philosophical Perspectives.
    We defend three claims about preference, credence, and choice. First, all agents (not just rational ones) have complete preferences. Second, all agents (again, not just rational ones) have real-valued credences in every proposition in which they are confident to any degree. Third, there is almost always some unique thing we ought to do, want, or believe.
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  62. 2021-06-09
    Can Trust Itself Ground a Reason to Believe the Trusted?Edward Hinchman - 2012 - Abstracta 6 (S6):47-83.
    Can a reason to believe testimony derive from the addressee’s trust itself or only from reliability in the speaker that the trust perhaps causes? I aim to cast suspicion on the former view, defended by Faulkner, in favor of the latter – despite agreeing with Faulkner’s emphasis on the second-personal normativity of testimonial assurance. Beyond my narrow disagreement with Faulkner lie two broader issues. I argue that Faulkner misappropriates Bernard Williams’s genealogy of testimony when he makes use of Williams’s genealogical (...)
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  63. 2021-06-09
    Conspiracy, Commitment, and the Self.Edward Hinchman - 2010 - Ethics 120 (3):526-556.
    Practical commitment is Janus-faced, looking outward toward the expectations it creates and inward toward their basis in the agent’s will. This paper criticizes Kantian attempts to link these facets and proposes an alternative. Contra David Velleman, the availability of a conspiratorial perspective (not yours, not your interlocutor’s) is what allows you to understand yourself as making a lying promise – as committing yourself ‘outwardly’ with the deceptive reasoning that Velleman argues cannot provide a basis for self-understanding. Moreover, the intrapersonal availability (...)
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  64. 2021-06-09
    Reflection, Disagreement, and Context.Edward Hinchman - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (2):95.
    How far, if at all, do our intrapersonal and our interpersonal epistemic obligations run in parallel? This paper treats the question as addressing the stability of doxastic commitment in the two dimensions. In the background lies an analogy between doxastic and practical commitment. We’ll pursue the question of doxastic stability by coining a doxastic analogue of Gregory Kavka’s much-discussed toxin case. In this new case, you foresee that you will rationally abandon a doxastic commitment by undergoing a shift in the (...)
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  65. 2021-06-09
    Agriculture in Bulgaria: From European Union Accession to the COVID-19 Pandemic.Maksym Bezpartochnyi, Igor Britchenko & Radostin Vazov - 2021 - In Concepts, strategies and mechanisms of economic systems management in the context of modern world challenges. pp. 187-206.
    Agriculture in Bulgaria is one of sectors country’s economy in which significant changes have taken place over the past three decades: in the field of economic relations, the structure of farms, the size and production activity of enterprises, income and profit. These changes are due to the agrarian reform carried out in the 1990s, accession Bulgaria to the European Union, and the implementation of measures and mechanisms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the period before accession Bulgaria to the (...)
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  66. 2021-06-09
    Solving the Symbol Grounding Problem: A Critical Review of Fifteen Years of Research.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - unknown
    This article reviews eight proposed strategies for solving the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP), which was given its classic formulation in Harnad (1990). After a concise introduction, we provide an analysis of the requirement that must be satisfied by any hypothesis seeking to solve the SGP, the zero semantical commitment condition. We then use it to assess the eight strategies, which are organised into three main approaches: representationalism, semi-representationalism and non-representationalism. The conclusion is that all the strategies are semantically committed and (...)
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  67. 2021-06-09
    Concepts, Strategies and Mechanisms of Economic Systems Management in the Context of Modern World Challenges.Grigorii Vazov (ed.) - 2021 - VUZF Publishing House “St. Grigorii Bogoslov”.
    The results of the authors’ research in a scientific monograph are devoted to solving the problems of forming and improving new concepts and strategies for managing economic systems, and mechanisms for their implementation in the context of modern world challenges to society on the basis of models of managing economic entities. An important component of the scientific monograph is the formation of modern strategies for increasing the competitiveness of economic systems, improving corporate structures, innovative restructuring of enterprises, ensuring environmental safety, (...)
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  68. 2021-06-09
    Crowdsourced Science: Sociotechnical Epistemology in the E-Research Paradigm.David Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):741-764.
    Recent years have seen a surge in online collaboration between experts and amateurs on scientific research. In this article, we analyse the epistemological implications of these crowdsourced projects, with a focus on Zooniverse, the world’s largest citizen science web portal. We use quantitative methods to evaluate the platform’s success in producing large volumes of observation statements and high impact scientific discoveries relative to more conventional means of data processing. Through empirical evidence, Bayesian reasoning, and conceptual analysis, we show how information (...)
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  69. 2021-06-09
    On Turing Completeness, or Why We Are So Many.Ramón Casares - manuscript
    Why are we so many? Or, in other words, Why is our species so successful? The ultimate cause of our success as species is that we, Homo sapiens, are the first and the only Turing complete species. Turing completeness is the capacity of some hardware to compute by software whatever hardware can compute. -/- To reach the answer, I propose to see evolution and computing from the problem solving point of view. Then, solving more problems is evolutionarily better, computing is (...)
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  70. 2021-06-09
    Subjectivist Propaganda.Ramón Casares - manuscript
    Physicalism is the default position in science and in the philosophy of mind, but it should not be, I argue, because of two errors. By its epistemological error, physicalism tries to explain theoretically what is evident. Only what I experience in first person is certain, so pain does not need a theoretical explanation. Physics itself is based on first person perception, avoiding the epistemological error, and then physics can progress, even changing its own ontology. However, physicalism imposes the ontology of (...)
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  71. 2021-06-09
    The Intention of Intention.Ramón Casares - manuscript
    For Putnam in "Representation and Reality", there cannot be any intentional science, thus dooming cognitive science. His argument is that intentional concepts are functional, and that functionalism cannot explain anything because "everything has every functional organization", providing a proof. Analyzing his proof, we find that Putnam is assuming an ideal interpreting subject who can compute effortlessly and who is not intentional. But the subject doing science is a human being, and we are not that way. Therefore, in order to save (...)
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  72. 2021-06-09
    Virtue Theory of Mathematical Practices: An Introduction.Andrew Aberdein, Colin Jakob Rittberg & Fenner Stanley Tanswell - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Until recently, discussion of virtues in the philosophy of mathematics has been fleeting and fragmentary at best. But in the last few years this has begun to change. As virtue theory has grown ever more influential, not just in ethics where virtues may seem most at home, but particularly in epistemology and the philosophy of science, some philosophers have sought to push virtues out into unexpected areas, including mathematics and its philosophy. But there are some mathematicians already there, ready to (...)
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  73. 2021-06-09
    Locke on Scientific Methodology.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2021 - In Jessica Gordon-Roth & Shelley Weinberg (eds.), The Lockean Mind. pp. 277-89.
    This chapter brings some much-needed conceptual clarity to the debate about Locke’s scientific methodology. Instead of having to choose between the method of hypothesis and that of natural history (as most interpreters have thought), he would resist prescribing a single method for natural sciences in general. Following Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle, Locke separates medicine and natural philosophy (physics), so that they call for completely different methods. While a natural philosopher relies on “speculative” (causal-theoretical) hypotheses together with natural-history making to (...)
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  74. 2021-06-09
    Leibniz’s Early Theodicy and its Unwelcome Implications.Thomas Feeney - 2020 - The Leibniz Review 30:1-28.
    To explain why God is not the author of sin, despite grounding all features of the world, the early Leibniz marginalized the divine will and defined existence as harmony. These moves support each other. It is easier to nearly eliminate the divine will from creation if existence itself is something wholly intelligible, and easier to identify existence with an internal feature of the possibles if the divine will is not responsible for creation. Both moves, however, commit Leibniz to a necessitarianism (...)
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  75. 2021-06-09
    On the Independence of Belief and Credence.Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - Philosophical Perspectives.
    Much of the literature on the relationship between belief and credence has focused on the reduction question: that is, whether either belief or credence reduces to the other. This debate, while important, only scratches the surface of the belief-credence connection. Even on the anti-reductive dualist view, belief and credence could still be very tightly connected. Here, I explore questions about the belief-credence connection that go beyond reduction. This paper is dedicated to what I call the independence question: just how independent (...)
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  76. 2021-06-09
    Peter Kivy, Sacred Music, and Affective Response.Julian Perlmutter - manuscript
    This article explores an issue at the interface between the philosophy of religion and aesthetics: sacred music’s capacity to arouse religious emotions. In investigating this topic, I use as a springboard Peter Kivy’s view that ‘music alone’ can only arouse emotions about itself. This view, I suggest, has a counterintuitive consequence: the music in sacred works would play no part in arousing emotions with religious objects. In contrast, I develop an account of how music combines with religious factors to arouse (...)
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  77. 2021-06-09
    Philosophy and Meaning in Life Vol.3.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Life.
    This book is a collection of all the papers and the essay published in the special issue “Philosophy and Meaning in Life Vol.3,” Journal of Philosophy of Life, Vol.11, No.1, 2021, pp.1-154. We held the Third International Conference on Philosophy and Meaning in Life online at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, on July 21–23, 2020. This conference was co-hosted by the Birmingham Centre for Philosophy of Religion, and the Waseda Institute of Life and Death Studies. We accepted about 50 (...)
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  78. 2021-06-09
    No fue suerte, estaba preparado: la filosofía de la suerte de Axel Barceló.Julen Ibarrondo Murguialday - 2021 - Dianoia 66 (86):113-128.
    En este trabajo expongo la concepción de la suerte que defiende Axel Barceló en su libro Falibilidad y normatividad. Un análisis filosófico de la suerte. De acuerdo con Barceló, la suerte es un concepto irreductiblemente normativo mediante el cual el agente obtiene un resultado con un procedimiento para el que no estaba preparado. Este nuevo enfoque arroja luz sobre problemas filosóficos aparentemente muy distintos, como el papel de la suerte en nuestras evaluaciones epistémicas y morales, el problema de la vaguedad (...)
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  79. 2021-06-09
    Personal or Non-Personal Divinity: A New Pluralist Approach.Julian Perlmutter - forthcoming - In Janusz Salamon (ed.), New Philosophical Responses to Religious Diversity. Leuven, Belgium:
    Religious disagreement – the existence of inconsistent religious views – is familiar and widespread. Among the most fundamental issues of such disagreement is whether to characterise the divine as personal or non-personal. On most other religious issues, the diverse views seem to presuppose some view on the personal/non-personal issue. In this essay, I address a particular question arising from disagreement over this issue. Let an exclusivist belief be a belief that a doctrine d on an issue is true, and that (...)
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  80. 2021-06-09
    "Ние, духовата музика": Ние, философите.Vasil Penchev - 1999 - Philosophical Alternatives 8 (3-4):117-131.
    Едноименната творба от класика на българскта литература Йордан Радичков е ситуирана в шеговита аналогия със "занаята на философа", премеждията на философската традиция с прогреса, кризата в институцията на философията, особено в контекста на прехода през 90-те години на миналя век в Бтлгария..
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  81. 2021-06-09
    Values, Preferences, and Meaning.Joe Edelman - manuscript
    Many fields (social choice, welfare economics, recommender systems) assume people express what benefits them via their 'revealed preferences'. Revealed preferences have well-documented problems when used this way, but remain fundamental to these fields because, as an information source, they are a *private*, *local*, *verifiable*, *fine-grained*, *battle-tested*, and *easily-expressed*. Alternative sources (about participants' values, capabilities and functionings, etc) can't compete. Or can they?
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  82. 2021-06-09
    Do Medical Schools Teach Medical Humanities? Review of Curricula in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.Jeremy Howick, Lunan Zhao, Brenna McKaig, Alessandro Rosa, Raffaella Campaner, Jason Oke & Dien Ho - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
    Rationale and objectives: Medical humanities are becoming increasingly recognized as positively impacting medical education and medical practice. However, the extent of medical humanities teaching in medical schools is largely unknown. We reviewed medical school curricula in Canada, the UK and the US. We also explored the relationship between medical school ranking and the inclusion of medical humanities in the curricula. -/- Methods: We searched the curriculum websites of all accredited medical schools in Canada, the UK and the US to check (...)
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  83. 2021-06-09
    Innovating with Confidence: Embedding AI Governance and Fairness in a Financial Services Risk Management Framework.Luciano Floridi, Michelle Seng Ah Lee & Alexander Denev - 2020 - Berkeley Technology Law Journal 34.
    An increasing number of financial services (FS) companies are adopting solutions driven by artificial intelligence (AI) to gain operational efficiencies, derive strategic insights, and improve customer engagement. However, the rate of adoption has been low, in part due to the apprehension around its complexity and self-learning capability, which makes auditability a challenge in a highly regulated industry. There is limited literature on how FS companies can implement the governance and controls specific to AI-driven solutions. AI auditing cannot be performed in (...)
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  84. 2021-06-09
    The Ethics of AI in Health Care: A Mapping Review.Jessica Morley, Caio C. V. Machado, Christopher Burr, Josh Cowls, Indra Joshi, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Social Science & Medicine 260.
    This article presents a mapping review of the literature concerning the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in health care. The goal of this review is to summarise current debates and identify open questions for future research. Five literature databases were searched to support the following research question: how can the primary ethical risks presented by AI-health be categorised, and what issues must policymakers, regulators and developers consider in order to be ‘ethically mindful? A series of screening stages were carried out—for (...)
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  85. 2021-06-09
    Molinism: Explaining Our Freedom Away.Nevin Climenhaga & Daniel Rubio - forthcoming - Mind.
    Molinists hold that there are contingently true counterfactuals about what agents would do if put in specific circumstances, that God knows these prior to creation, and that God uses this knowledge in choosing how to create. In this essay we critique Molinism, arguing that if these theses were true, agents would not be free. Consider Eve’s sinning upon being tempted by a serpent. We argue that if Molinism is true, then there is some set of facts that fully explains both (...)
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  86. 2021-06-09
    Etiological Explanations.Olaf Dammann - 2020 - Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
    Theory of illness causation is an important issue in all biomedical sciences, and solid etiological explanations are needed in order to develop therapeutic approaches in medicine and preventive interventions in public health. Until now, the literature about the theoretical underpinnings of illness causation research has been scarce and fragmented, and lacking a convenient summary. This interdisciplinary book provides a convenient and accessible distillation of the current status of research into this developing field, and adds a personal flavor to the discussion (...)
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  87. 2021-06-09
    Francis Bacon and Atomism: A Reappraisal.Silvia Manzo - 2001 - In John Murdoch, Lüthy Cristoph & Newman William (eds.), Late Medieval and Early Modern Corpuscular Matter Theories. Brill. pp. 209-243.
    Francis Bacon’s theory of matter is a controversial topic among historians. I agree with the viewpoint, which suggests that although Bacon changed his views on atomism repeatedly, he never rejected it completely (Partington, Urbach, Gemelli). I will substantiate this interpretation by paying more attention to the usually neglected allegorical works and by investigating why Bacon changed his mind on atomism in his Novum organum. I shall reconstruct Bacon’s various opinions in chronological order to establish his final evaluation of atomism and (...)
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  88. 2021-06-09
    Functional and Structural Models of Commonsense Reasoning in Cognitive Architectures.Antonio Lieto - 2021 - VISCA 2021 - 2nd Virtual International Symposium on Cognitive Architecture.
    I will present two different applications - Dual PECCS and the TCL reasoning framework - addressing some crucial aspects of commonsense reasoning (namely: dealing with typicality effects and with the problem of commonsense compositionality) in a way that is integrated or compliant with different cognitive architectures. In doing so I will show how such aspects are better dealt with at different levels of representation and will discuss the adopted solution to integrate such representational layers.
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  89. 2021-06-09
    The Green and the Blue: A New Political Ontology for a Mature Information Society.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 127 (2):307-338.
    Today, in any mature information society, we live neither online nor offline but on life, that is, we increasingly live in that special space that is both analogue and digital, both online and offline. Imagine someone asking whether the water is fresh or salty in the estuary where the river meets the sea. That someone has not understood the special nature of the place. Our information society is that place. And our technologies are perfectly evolved to take advantage of it, (...)
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  90. 2021-06-09
    The Poor Performance of Apps Assessing Skin Cancer Risk.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi & Ben Goldacre - 2020 - British Medical Journal 368 (8233).
    Over the past year, technology companies have made headlines claiming that their artificially intelligent (AI) products can outperform clinicians at diagnosing breast cancer, brain tumours, and diabetic retinopathy. Claims such as these have influenced policy makers, and AI now forms a key component of the national health strategies in England, the United States, and China. While it is positive to see healthcare systems embracing data analytics and machine learning, concerns remain about the efficacy, ethics, and safety of some commercial, AI (...)
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  91. 2021-06-09
    To Hold Out Belonging. Identity and Difference in a Heideggerian Critique of Butler and Hegel.Uljana Akca - 2018 - Dissertation, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
    In contemporary discussions on identity, difference and subjectivity, the thinking of Judith Butler has played a significant role, viewing identity as a problematic question of how the subject is constituted by historical structures of power that deprives it of original ownness and substantiality. As this situation for Butler stems neither from a historical occurrence, nor is clearly ontological, the question of the origin of this problem of identity and power remains. Through the thinking of Martin Heidegger, the present study develops (...)
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  92. 2021-06-09
    A Definition, Benchmark and Database of AI for Social Good Initiatives.Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsmadaos, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Nature Machine Intelligence 3:111-115.
    Initiatives relying on artificial intelligence (AI) to deliver socially beneficial outcomes—AI for social good (AI4SG)—are on the rise. However, existing attempts to understand and foster AI4SG initiatives have so far been limited by the lack of normative analyses and a shortage of empirical evidence. In this Perspective, we address these limitations by providing a definition of AI4SG and by advocating the use of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a benchmark for tracing the scope and spread of AI4SG. (...)
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  93. 2021-06-09
    The Harmonization of Domestic and International Human Rights Standards on Criminalization of Rape.Deepa Kansra - 2021 - Rights Compass.
    In the field of human rights, expressions like justice and legal reform are closely linked to the process of harmonization of domestic and international human rights standards. Harmonization of human rights standards can be described as a process wherein international human rights are incorporated or given full effect to at the domestic level. [i] To harmonize the two set of standards i.e. domestic and international is viewed as both a commitment and obligation of states under international law. [ii] In terms (...)
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  94. 2021-06-09
    Ethics as a Service: A Pragmatic Operationalisation of AI Ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular machine learning (ML), has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the (...)
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  95. 2021-06-09
    Beyond Civilization and History.Shahzada Rahim Abbas - 2020 - New York: Amazon.
    The title of the book was chosen due to inspiration from Nietzsche’s famous book ‘Beyond good and Evil’, which has marked an unprecedented turning point in the history of philosophy. Hence, the book titled ‘Beyond Civilization and History’ is intended to outline the politico-historical debate, since the dawn of the 20th century. The discussion in the book will cover pre-modern, modern and post-modern discourse of the history of civilizations. The debate mainly focuses on the modernist and post-modernist historical context especially (...)
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  96. 2021-06-09
    Russian Geopolitics and Eurasia: An Analytical Study of Russia's Role in the Eurasian Integration.Shahzada Rahim Abbas - 2020 - World Affairs Journal 2 (24):90-105.
    Throughout history, Eurasia has been central to relations between Europe and Asia. It has been the crossroads of civilizations, contributing to the cultural and ethnic hybridity of the region. However, after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and later the Soviet Union in the twentieth century, Eurasia lost its geostrategic importance in the US-led liberal world order. In the 1920s, a group of Russian emigres described the cultural and ethnic ties among the communities living across the vast Eurasian steppes as (...)
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  97. 2021-06-09
    Russia’s Eurasian Union Dream: A Way Forward Towards Multi Polar World Order.Shahzada Rahim Abbas - 2020 - Rechtsidee 6 (2):1-8.
    Since the disintegration of the USSR Eurasia has gained a new geopolitical and strategic significance. Fifteen Countries emerged as a result of disintegration, among which only the Russian Federation was the successor state. The post-soviet era especially the era of the 1990s was a political and economic trauma for the Russian Federation and the post-soviet space. But Eurasianists were well aware of the American unilateralism and American ‘Grand Chessboard strategy” that was solely aimed at encircling Russian geography. With these concerns, (...)
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  98. 2021-06-09
    An Expert System for Hair Loss Diagnosis and Treatment Using CLIPS.Mohammed Hazem M. Hamadaqa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 5 (5):37-42.
    Abstract: Background: Hair loss is often a concern for women, men and children. It is normal to lose between 50 and 100 hairs a day, without us noticing it. Usually hair loss is a sign of a medical condition, some of them are hereditary, and some of them are temporary due to disease, stress, cancer treatment, weight loss, and iron deficiency. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to obtain an appropriate diagnosis of the cause of hair loss. (...)
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  99. 2021-06-09
    An Expert System for Diagnosing Cough Problem Using CLIPS.Tanseem N. Abu-Jamie, Mohammed A. Alkahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 5 (5):79-90.
    Abstract: Background :A cough is an automatic (reflex) muscle action that forces air up and out of your lower airways (lungs) and upper airways (windpipe, nose and mouth). Everyone will cough occasionally to 'clear their throat'. The cough reflex protects the airways of your lungs. You may cough if the airways are partially blocked by mucus (when you have a cold or chest infection for example). You may cough if you choke on food and it enters your windpipe instead of (...)
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  100. 2021-06-09
    The AI Gambit — Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Combat Climate Change: Opportunities, Challenges, and Recommendations.Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsamados, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - In Vodafone Institute for Society and Communications.
    In this article we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change and it contribute to combating the climate crisis effectively. However, the development of AI also raises two sets of problems when considering climate change: the possible exacerbation of social and ethical challenges already associated with AI, and the (...)
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