Arguments for Theism

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
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  1. The Extremely Persuasive Argument From Human Behavior.Eric Demaree - 2019 - Kingman, Arizona: Fellowship Books.
    Three qualities of “The Argument from Human Behavior” make it superior to other arguments for God. First, this argument discovers a universal indirect perception of God that everyone has many times every day: the fact that we all take seriously our sense of “wrong” (our sense of everyone’s moral obligations). Second, this argument reveals that the Biblical God claims He is the legislator of the moral laws in our mind. Third, it understands that discovering God will always demand a step (...)
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  2. La logica della spiegazione come argomento per l'esistenza di Dio.Daniele Bertini - 2021 - Nuovo Giornale di Filosofia Della Religione 1 (1):77-106.
    Discuto la tesi di Micheletti secondo la quale ogni spiegazione fattuale presuppone premesse di ordine superiore rispetto alla spiegazione (M.Micheletti, “Radical Divine Alterity and the God-World Relationship”). Nella prima sezione del testo introdurrò la tesi, muovendo dalla analisi di alcuni esempi di spiegazione, ed elencherò le ragioni che (apparentemente) richiedono la postulazione di higher-degree propositions per rendere conto di factual propositions. Nella seconda sezione regimenterò logicamente la tesi di Micheletti. Nella terza sezione discuterò la validità della logica della spiegazione così (...)
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  3. On The Logical Formalization of Ansem's Ontological Argument.Ricardo Silvestre - 2015 - Revista Brasileira de Filosofia da Religião 2 (1):142–161.
    he general theme of this paper is the issue of formalization in philosophy; in a more specific way, it deals with the issue of formalization of arguments in analytic philosophy of religion. One argument in particular – Anselm’s Proslogion II ontological argument – and one specific attempt to formalize it – Robert Adams’ formalization found in his paper “The Logical Structure of Anselm’s Arguments”, published in The Philosophical Review in 1971 – are taken as study cases. The purpose of the (...)
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  4. Being a ‘Not-Quite-Buddhist Theist’.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    Buddhism is a philosophical tradition that, at its origin, was familiar with variants of theistic belief. Buddhism nevertheless set itself decidedly against theism, especially against belief in a personal God who would be the ultimate origin of all being, with the development of complex arguments against the existence of God. Further, the wider metaphysical commitments of all schools of Buddhism to the doctrine of dependent origination – that all entities necessarily depend on causes – would appear to entail a rejection (...)
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  5. Against a Deontic Argument for God's Existence.Patrick Grim - 1982 - Analysis 42:171-174.
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  6. The Ontological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2017 - In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Philosophy: Religion. New York, NY, USA: pp. 51-64.
    This paper discusses: (1) Anselm’s ontological argument and its criticism by Gaunilo; (2) Plantinga’s ontological argument and its criticism by Mackie and Sobel; and (3) a simplified version of Gödel’s ontological argument. It also looks carefully at (4) Kant’s attempt to show that it is impossible for there to be a successful ontological argument.
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  7. Living Info: Notes on the Exegesis.Paul Bali - manuscript
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  8. Determining the Need for Explanation.Martin Jakobsen - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):230-241.
    Several theistic arguments are formulated as arguments for the best explanation. This article discusses how one can determine that some phenomenon actually needs an explanation. One way to demonstrate that an explanation is needed is by providing one. The proposed explanation ought to either make the occurrence of the phenomenon in question more probable than it occurring by chance, or it has to sufficiently increase our understanding of the phenomenon. A second way to demonstrate that an explanation is needed is (...)
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  9. Seeing and Not Seeing the Face of God: Overcoming the Law of Contradiction in Biblical Theology.Steven Kepnes - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):133-147.
    This paper attempts to illuminate and interpret the contradictory portrait of God as both seen and unseen in the Torah. Thus Moses is commanded not to look on the face of God yet also praised for having spoken to God “face to face". We seek ways to reconcile the contradictory portraits of God through the use of the term “doubled-mindedness” in the theology of Jerome Gellman, in the logic of “thirdness” in C.S. Peirce’s semiotics, and in the use of both (...)
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  10. Revelation Through Concealment: Kabbalistic Responses to God’s Hiddenness.Samuel Lebens - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):89-108.
    John Schellenberg presents an argument for atheism according to which theism would be easy to believe, if true. Since theism isn’t easy to believe, it must be false. In this paper, I argue that Kabbalistic Judaism has the resources to bypass this argument completely. The paper also explores a stream of Kabbalistic advice that the tradition offers to people of faith for those times at which God appears to us to be hidden.
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  11. Can a Worship-Worthy Agent Command Others to Worship It?Frederick Choo - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    This article examines two arguments that a worship-worthy agent cannot command worship. The first argument is based on the idea that any agent who commands worship is egotistical, and hence not worship-worthy. The second argument is based on Campbell Brown and Yujin Nagasawa's (2005) idea that people cannot comply with the command to worship because if people are offering genuine worship, they cannot be motivated by a command to do so. One might then argue that a worship-worthy agent would have (...)
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  12. Zölibat als Risikofaktor für sexuellen Missbrauch?Godehard Brüntrup - 2019 - In Matthias Remenyi & Thomas Schärtl (eds.), Nicht ausweichen: Theologie angesichts der Missbrauchskrise. Regensburg, Deutschland: pp. 109 - 124.
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  13. Panpsychismus und Handeln Gottes.Godehard Brüntrup - 2017 - In Georg/ Jaskolla Gasser (ed.), Handbuch für analytische Theologie. Münster, Deutschland: pp. 917-947.
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  14. Is a Good God Logically Possible? James P. Sterba, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, XI. [REVIEW]Michael Almeida - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (3):245-249.
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  15. Життєвий цикл соціально-економічних систем.Sergii Sardak - 2016 - Маркетинг І Менеджмент Інновацій 1:157-169.
    У статті розглянуто ознаки системи, особливості соціально-економічних систем та системного підходу. Враховано вплив аксіоматики, закономірностей та законів на розвиток систем. Досліджено циклічні закономірності у різнорівневих соціально-економічних системах. Визначено проблемно-дискусійні питання та спільні системні ознаки циклічності. Ідентифіковано структуру життєвого циклу соціально-економічної системи із визначенням загальних та конкретних складових елементів повторюваних змін за позасистемними та системними показниками.
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  16. The Application Features of Seasonal-Cyclic Patterns in International Financial Markets.Sergii Sardak & O. Benenson O. Dzhusov, S. Smerichevskyi, S. Sardak, O. Klimova - 2019 - Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal 23 (5):1-10.
    The paper deals with the topical issue of studying cyclic patterns in the economy and their practical application for the forecasts on the development of financial markets. The work aims to establish the features of the seasonal-cyclic patterns "The January barometer" and "The first five days of January" in the international financial markets in current conditions and to develop recommendations for the practical application of these patterns in the investment activities. The US stock market as an integral part of the (...)
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  17. Natural Theology & Classical Apologetics.Joshua Synon - manuscript
    An essay concerning the arguments from natural theology for the existence of a theistic God. This is the second edition of an essay that I felt compelled to write in 2006. The first edition was quite uncritical of the various arguments examined. However, after further study, I felt the need to revise the arguments and, ultimately, the conclusion. Although I may no longer agree with everything written in this essay it remains an important part of my spiritual journey. Some ideas (...)
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  18. Handbook of the First World Congress on Logic and Religion.Ricardo Sousa Silvestre & Jean-Yves Beziau (eds.) - 2015 - Campina Grande, PB, Brasil: EDUFCG.
    This is the handbook of abstracts of the 1st World Congress on Logic and Religion, which took place in João Pessoa, Brazil, April 01-05, 2015. -/- .
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  19. God’s Self-Manifestation and Moser’s Moral Approach in Justifying Belief in God.Azam Sadat Hoseini Hoseinabad, Zahra Khazaei & Mohsen Javadi - 2018 - پژوهشنامه فلسفه دین 16 (1):41-64.
    The present paper depicts Moser’s view on the justification of the belief in God. By debunking the efficiency of mere theoretical reason in proving the existence of God, introducing God as the source of justification, and using a moral perspective, he proposes a kind of voluntary knowledge. He assumes the right path to acquire true knowledge of god to be a direct and purposeful evidence, which is found in accordance to divine attributes. For their own redemption, before the interference of (...)
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  20. Being as Iconic Concept: Aquinas on 'He Who Is' as Name for God.O. P. James Dominic Rooney - 2017 - International Journal of Systematic Theology 19 (2):163-174.
    Aquinas claims that ‘He Who Is’ is the most proper of the names we have for God. But this attempt to ‘describe’ God with a philosophical concept like ‘being’ can seem dangerously close to creating a false conception based on our limited understanding – an idol. A dominant criticism of Aquinas’ use of this term is that any attempt to use ‘being’ to describe God will inevitably make him merely some object in our ontology alongside other beings, unacceptably mitigating God's (...)
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  21. World Without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism. [REVIEW]Andrew Melnyk - 2004 - Mind 113 (451):575-581.
    A critical study of Rea's book, focusing on his case for three theses: that naturalism must be viewed as a ‘research programme’; that naturalism ‘cannot be adopted on the basis of evidence’; and that naturalists cannot be justified in accepting realism about material objects.
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  22. Avoiding the Afterlife in Theodicy: Victims of Suffering and the Argument From Usefulness.Robert Simpson - 2008 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 13 (2):213-227.
    Contemporary proponents of theodicy generally believe that a theodical reply to the evidential argument from evil must involve some appeal to the afterlife. In Richard Swinburne's writings on theodicy, however, we find two arguments that may be offered in opposition to this prevailing view. In this paper, these two arguments - the argument from usefulness and the argument from assumed consent - are explained and evaluated. It is suggested that both of these arguments are rendered ineffective by their failure to (...)
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  23. Theism and Inference to the Best Explanation.Wilko van Holten - 2002 - Ars Disputandi: The Online Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2.
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  24. Rea on Naturalism.Andrew Melnyk - 2004 - Philo 7 (2):131-137.
    My goal in this paper is to provide critical discussion of Michael Rea’s case for three of the controversial theses defended in his World Without Design (Oxford University Press, 2002): (1) that naturalism must be viewed as what he calls a “research program”; (2) that naturalism “cannot be adopted on the basis of evidence,” as he puts it; and (3) that naturalists cannot be justified in accepting realism about material objects.
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Arguments from Miracles
  1. Tightening the Statistical Resurrection Argument.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    McGrew & McGrew make a solid statistical case for the historicity of the resurrection. This article fills two lacunae in the argument given there, and repairs a conceptual error (making the first lacuna irrelevant in the process).
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  2. The Christian Philosophy of Miracle: Ideas of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.Valentin Yakovlev - 2019 - TSU Publishing House.
    The author of the monograph is a Candidate of Culturology, Associate Professor of Tyumen State University. The monograph tests approaches to the understanding of the essence of Hobbes’s and Locke’s ideas about miracles that are more flexible than a formational-evolutionist approach. The monograph presents the main characteristics of these ideas as Christian philosophical ones, shows their general Christian direction and the historiographic perspective of studying these ideas primarily in line with Christian philosophy. The monograph is intended for experts in the (...)
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  3. Ultima ratio deorum.Alex V. Halapsis - 2016 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 10:100-106.
    Purpose of this article is to investigate the role that the "miraculous" – that is, everything that goes beyond “natural” – plays in the worldview of Western man. Methodology. I do not consider “miracles” as the facts of nature, but as the facts of culture, so in this article I am not talking about specific cases of violation of “laws of nature”, but about the place of “miraculous” in the view of the world of Western man and those transformations, that (...)
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  4. Miracles and the Perfection of Being: The Theological Roots of Scientific Concepts.Alex V. Halapsis - 2016 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 9:70-77.
    Purpose of the article is to study the Western worldview as a framework of beliefs in probable supernatural encroachment into the objective reality. Methodology underpins the idea that every cultural-historical community envisions the reality principles according to the beliefs inherent to it which accounts for the formation of the unique “universes of meanings”. The space of history acquires the Non-Euclidean properties that determine the specific cultural attitudes as well as part and parcel mythology of the corresponding communities. Novelty consists in (...)
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  5. El papel de los milagros en la filosofía de George Berkeley / The Role of Miracles in Berkeley's philosophy.Alberto Luis López - 2016 - In Laura Benítez Grobet, Leonel Toledo Marín & Alejandra Velázquez Zaragoza (eds.), Episodios filosóficos del platonismo: ecos y tensiones. Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico: pp. 333-354.
    La creencia de Berkeley en los milagros ha sido poco estudiada por los especialistas debido, quizá, a su connotación teológica; sin embargo, una vez que se estudia la cuestión resulta que tal creencia no es, como se podría pensar, sólo resultado de la fe, por el contrario, una lectura atenta muestra que la creencia en los milagros es compatible con la filosofia inmaterialista y, de hecho, es coherente con ella. Aunado a esto, la creencia en los milagros permite mostrar que (...)
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  6. Is It Reasonable to Believe That Miracles Occur?Alberto Oya - 2019 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):39-50.
    Traditionally, miracles have been defined as supernaturally caused events which are outside the scope of scientific explicability. In this paper I will criticize the argument that, when we lack a scientific explanation for an event but it has an adequate explanation in theistic terms, then the most reasonable conclusion is to claim that the event is a miracle. I will defend that this argument would not work unless we had prior independent evidence for God’s existence. Furthermore, I will argue that (...)
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  7. Negative Natural Theology and the Sinlessness, Incarnation, and Resurrection of Jesus.Robert Greg Cavin & Carlos A. Colombetti - 2014 - Philosophia Christi 16 (2):409-418.
    We respond to Swinburne’s reply to our critique of his argument for the Resurrection by defending the relevance of our counterexamples to his claim that God does not permit grand deception. We reaffirm and clarify our charge that Swinburne ignores two crucial items of Negative Natural Theology (NNT)—that God has an exceptionally weak tendency to raise the dead and that even people with exemplary public records sometimes sin. We show, accordingly, that our total evidence makes it highly probable that Jesus (...)
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  8. The Shroud of Turin, the Resurrection of Jesus and the Realm of Science: One View of the Cathedral.Tristan Casabianca - 2014 - Workshop on Advances in the Turin Shroud Investigation.
    In a topic as controversial as the shroud of Turin, it is always surprising to notice that there still exists a large area of consensus among scholars holding opposite opinions on the topic. According to the consensus view, neither science nor history can ever prove that the Turin Shroud shows signs of the Resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. However, the reasons given for such an important claim are not convincing, especially in regard of recent developments in historiography and analytic philosophy.
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  9. The Shroud of Turin: A Historiographical Approach.Tristan Casabianca - 2013 - Heythrop Journal 54 (3):414-423.
    Criteria of historical assessment are applied to the Turin Shroud to determine which hypothesis relating to the image formation process is the most likely. To implement this, a ‘Minimal Facts’ approach is followed that takes into account only physicochemical and historical data receiving the widest consensus among contemporary scientists. The result indicates that the probability of the Shroud of Turin being the real shroud of Jesus of Nazareth is very high; historians and natural theologians should therefore pay it increased attention.
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  10. On Hume's Philosophical Case Against Miracles.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2003 - In Christopher Bernard (ed.), God Matters: Readings in the Philosophy of Religion. Longman Publications.
    According to the Christian religion, Jesus was “crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again”. I take it that this rising again—the Resurrection of Jesus, as it’s sometimes called—is, according to the Christian religion, an historical event, just like his crucifixion, death, and burial. And I would have thought that to investigate whether the Resurrection occurred, we would need to do some historical research: we would need to assess the reliability of (...)
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  11. Mackie on Miracles.Bruce Langtry - 1988 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (3):368-375.
    J. L. Mackie, in "The Miracle of Theism" (OUP 1981), chapter 1, argues that "it is pretty well impossible that reported miracles should provide a worthwhile argument for theism addressed to those who are initially inclined to atheism or even to agnosticism." I argue that Mackie fails to establish this conclusion. All that he can show is that those who are initially inclined to theism or agnosticism may be justified in predicting that the next miracle report they examine will not (...)
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Cosmological Arguments for Theism
  1. Cosmological Argument - A Socratic Dialogue.Brent Silby - manuscript
    Socratic dialogue written for use as an undergrad or highschool resource in the Philosophy of Religion. This dialogue covers the standard formulation and objections to Aquinas' Second Way. Unpublished at this time - to be updated and included in book (in progress).
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  2. The Intrinsic Probability of Grand Explanatory Theories.Ted Poston - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (4):401-420.
    This paper articulates a way to ground a relatively high prior probability for grand explanatory theories apart from an appeal to simplicity. I explore the possibility of enumerating the space of plausible grand theories of the universe by using the explanatory properties of possible views to limit the number of plausible theories. I motivate this alternative grounding by showing that Swinburne’s appeal to simplicity is problematic along several dimensions. I then argue that there are three plausible grand views—theism, atheism, and (...)
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  3. A Neglected Additament: Peirce on Logic, Cosmology, and the Reality of God.Jon Alan Schmidt - 2018 - Signs 9 (1):1-20.
    Two different versions of the ending of the first additament to C. S. Peirce's 1908 article, "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God," appear in the Collected Papers but were omitted from The Essential Peirce. In one, he linked the hypothesis of God's Reality to his entire theory of logic as semeiotic, claiming that proving the latter would also prove the former. In the other, he offered a final outline of his cosmology, in which the Reality of God as (...)
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  4. Neoplatonic Pantheism Today.Eric Steinhart - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):141-162.
    Neoplatonism is alive and well today. It expresses itself in New Thought and the mind-cure movements derived from it. However, to avoid many ancient errors, Neoplatonism needs to be modernized. The One is just the simple origin from which all complex things evolve. The Good, which is not the One, is the best of all possible propositions. A cosmological argument is given for the One and an ontological argument for the Good. The presence of the Good in every thing is (...)
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  5. Nothing Else.Samuel Lebens - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):91-110.
    "Jewish Nothing-elsism" is the school of thought according to which there is nothing else besides God. This school is sometimes and erroneously interpreted as pantheistic or acosmic. In this paper I argue that Jewish Nothing-elsism is better interpreted as a form of “panentheistic priority holism”, and still better interpreted as a form of “idealistic priority monism”. On this final interpretation, Jewish Nothing-elsism is neither pantheist, panentheist, nor acosmic. Jewish Nothing-elsism is Hassidic idealism, and nothing else. Moreover, I argue that Jewish (...)
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  6. Thinking Matter in Locke's Proof of God's Existence.Patrick J. Connolly - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 9:105-130.
    Commentators almost universally agree that Locke denies the possibility of thinking matter in Book IV Chapter 10 of the Essay. Further, they argue that Locke must do this in order for his proof of God’s existence in the chapter to be successful. This paper disputes these claims and develops an interpretation according to which Locke allows for the possibility that a system of matter could think (even prior to any act of superaddition on God’s part). In addition, the paper argues (...)
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  7. The Third Meditation: Causal Arguments for God's Existence.Lawrence Nolan - 2014 - In David Cunning (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Descartes' Meditations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 127-48.
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  8. El conocimiento natural de Dios según san Pablo.David Torrijos-Castrillejo - 2016 - In Mercedes López Salvá, Ignacio Sanz Extremeño & Pablo de Paz Amérigo (eds.), Los orígenes del cristianismo en la filosofía, la literatura y el arte I. Madrid: Dykinson. pp. 157-200.
    This article studies the issue of natural knowledge of God in the Bible verses which speak most explicitly about it: Romans 1,18-32. 'Natural knowledge' means here knowledge accessible to all men by virtue of their innate forces, possible even for those who have not partaken in the biblical revelalion. St. Paul's passage is compared with Wisdom 13-15, which shares many doctrinal points with it. The Pauline discourse, though inserted into a theological reasoning within the perspective of faith, represents a truly (...)
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  9. God is Random: A Novel Argument for the Existence of God.Serkan Zorba - 2016 - European Journal of Science and Theology 12 (1):51-67.
    Applying the concepts of Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity and Turing’s uncomputability from the computability and algorithmic information theories to the irreducible and incomputable randomness of quantum mechanics, a novel argument for the existence of God is presented. Concepts of ‘transintelligence’ and ‘transcausality’ are introduced, and from them, it is posited that our universe must be epistemologically and ontologically an open universe. The proposed idea also proffers a new perspective on the nonlocal nature and the infamous wave-function-collapse problem of quantum mechanics.
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  10. David Hume on Divine Cosmogony.Mavaddat Javid - manuscript
    Hume shed a great doubt on the cosmological argument and made the work of many philosophers in proving religion a frustrating task. While the arguments against the need for a first cause defuses a priori reasoning in general, such reasoning is shown to be offensive to the pious as well. When wielded by the hand of Hume, this hypothetical argument a priori renders the existence of God not only improbable, but quite contradictory given the ostensible necessity of the existence of (...)
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  11. Origin of Matter and Time.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  12. God and Science Are Infinite.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  13. Reply to Oppy on God, the Best and Evil.Bruce Langtry - 2011 - Sophia 50 (1):211-219.
    My reply corrects one misstatement in Oppy’s summary of my book, abandons a footnote in the light of one of Oppy’s criticisms, and argues that Oppy’s other criticisms do not succeed in showing either that my claims are mistaken or that the arguments by which I supported them are defective.
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  14. Composition and the Cosmological Argument.Rem B. Edwards - 1968 - Mind 77 (305):115-117.
    This article argues that not all arguments from parts to wholes commit the informal logical fallacy of composition,and especially not the cosmological argument for God which moves from the contingent existence of all the parts of the cosmos to the contingent existence of the whole.
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Cosmological Arguments from Contingency
  1. Accounting for the Whole: Why Pantheism is on a Metaphysical Par with Complex Theism.Caleb Cohoe - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):202-219.
    Pantheists are often accused of lacking a sufficient account of the unity of the cosmos and its supposed priority over its many parts. I argue that complex theists, those who think that God has ontologically distinct parts or attributes, face the same problems. Current proposals for the metaphysics of complex theism do not offer any greater unity or ontological independence than pantheism, since they are modeled on priority monism. I then discuss whether the formal distinction of John Duns Scotus offers (...)
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