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Lloyd Strickland
Manchester Metropolitan University
  1.  52
    The " Fourth Hypothesis " on the Early Modern Mind-Body Problem.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5:665-685.
    One of the most pressing philosophical problems in early modern Europe concerned how the soul and body could form a unity, or, as many understood it, how these two substances could work together. It was widely believed that there were three (and only three) hypotheses regarding the union of soul and body: (1) physical influence, (2) occasionalism, and (3) pre-established harmony. However, in 1763, a fourth hypothesis was put forward by the French thinker André-Pierre Le Guay de Prémontval (1716–1764). Prémontval’s (...)
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  2.  11
    Leibniz, Purgatory, and Universal Salvation.Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - In Kristof Vanhoutte & Benjamin McCraw (eds.), Purgatory: Philosophical Dimensions. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 111-128.
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  3.  36
    The Problem of Religious Evil: Does Belief in God Cause Evil?Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 84 (2):237-250.
    Daniel Kodaj has recently developed a pro-atheistic argument that he calls “the problem of religious evil.” This first premise of this argument is “belief in God causes evil.” Although this idea that belief in God causes evil is widely accepted, certainly in the secular West, it is sufficiently problematic as to be unsuitable as a basis for an argument for atheism, as Kodaj seeks to use it. In this paper I shall highlight the problems inherent in it in three ways: (...)
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  4.  7
    Review of "Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory" by Jerry L. Walls. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - Reading Religion 1.
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  5.  7
    Review of "Rebirth and the Stream of Life" by Mikel Burley. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Numen 65:617-619.
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  6. Leibniz’s Harmony Between the Kingdoms of Nature and Grace.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 98 (3):302-329.
    One of the more exotic and mysterious features of Leibniz’s later philosophical writings is the harmony between the kingdom of nature and the kingdom of grace. In this paper I show that this harmony is not a single doctrine, but rather a compilation of two doctrines, namely (1) that the order of nature makes possible the rewards and punishments of rational souls, and (2) that the rewards and punishments of rational souls are administered naturally. I argue that the harmony is (...)
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  7. Leibniz's Observations on Hydrology: An Unpublished Letter on the Great Lombardy Flood of 1705.Lloyd Strickland & Michael Church - 2015 - Annals of Science 72 (4):517-532.
    Although the historical reputation of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) largely rests on his philosophical and mathematical work, it is widely known that he made important contributions to many of the emerging but still inchoate branches of natural science of his day. Among the many scientific papers Leibniz published during his lifetime are ones on the nascent science we now know as hydrology. While Leibniz’s other scientific work has become of increasing interest to scholars in recent years, his thinking about hydrology (...)
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  8.  44
    How Leibniz Would Have Responded to the Lisbon Earthquake.Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - In Julia Weckend, Erik Vynckier & Lloyd Strickland (eds.), Tercentenary Essays in the Philosophy and Science of Leibniz. Basingstoke: Palgrave. pp. 257-278.
    On 1 November 1755, the city of Lisbon in Portugal was virtually destroyed by the largest documented seismic event ever to hit Europe. It is often claimed that the catastrophe severely damaged the plausibility of Leibniz’s optimism, and even the wider project of theodicy. Leibniz died several decades before the Lisbon earthquake struck, and so was unable to address it and the challenges thrown up by it, which would have included an account of how the event was consistent with God’s (...)
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  9.  27
    Review of God's Goodness and God's Evil by James Kellenberger. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - Reading Religion.
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  10.  4
    Review of "Leibniz: Protestant Theologian" by Irena Backus. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - forthcoming - Renaissance Quarterly.
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  11.  69
    God's Problem of Multiple Choice.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - Religious Studies 42 (2):141-157.
    A question that has been largely overlooked by philosophers of religion is how God would be able to effect a rational choice between two worlds of unsurpassable goodness. To answer this question, I draw a parallel with the paradigm cases of indifferent choice, including Buridan's ass, and argue that such cases can be satisfactorily resolved provided that the protagonists employ what Otto Neurath calls an ‘auxiliary motive’. I supply rational grounds for the employment of such a motive, and then argue (...)
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  12. Leibniz’s Philosophy of Purgatory.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (3):531-548.
    As a lifelong Lutheran who resisted numerous attempts by Catholic acquaintances to convert him, one might reasonably expect Leibniz to have followedthe orthodox Lutheran line on disputed doctrinal issues, and thus held amongst other things that the doctrine of purgatory was false. Yet there is strong evidencethat Leibniz personally accepted the doctrine of purgatory. After examining this evidence, I determine how Leibniz sought to justify his endorsement of purgatory and explain how his endorsement sits alongside his frequent rehearsal of familiar (...)
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  13.  37
    Leibniz and Millenarianism.Lloyd Strickland & Daniel J. Cook - 2011 - In F. Beiderbeck & S. Waldhoff (eds.), Pluralität der Perspektiven und Einheit der Wahrheit im Werk von G. W. Leibniz. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 77-90.
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  14.  25
    Leibniz’s Egypt Plan (1671–1672): From Holy War to Ecumenism.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - Intellectual History Review 26 (4):461-476.
    At the end of 1671 and start of 1672, while in the service of the Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, Leibniz composed his Egypt Plan, which sought to persuade Louis XIV to invade Egypt. Scholars have generally supposed that Leibniz’s rationale for devising the plan was to divert Louis from his intended war with Holland. Little attention has been paid to the religious benefits that Leibniz identified in the plan, and those who do acknowledge them are often quick to downplay (...)
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  15.  58
    The Doctrine of ‘the Resurrection of the Same Body’ in Early Modern Thought.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):163.
    The Judaeo-Christian belief in the general resurrection has long been troubled by the issue of personal identity, but prior to the advent of such concerns there existed a cognate concern about the identity not of the resurrected person, but of the resurrected person's body. Although this latter issue has exercised scholars of various ages, concern with it was particularly keen in early modern times. In this paper I chart the various ways bodily identity was conceived by early modern thinkers in (...)
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  16.  22
    Review of "Leibniz's Mill" by Charles Landesman. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - Heythrop Journal 58 (3):545-546.
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  17.  10
    Review of "A History of the Concept of God: A Process Approach" by Daniel A. Dombrowski. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Reading Religion.
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  18.  19
    How Sincere Was Leibniz’s Religious Justification for War in the Justa Dissertatio?Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer (volume 5). Hildesheim: Georg Olms. pp. 401-412.
    This paper is concerned with Leibniz’s Egypt Plan, written in 1671 and 1672, when Leibniz was in the service of the Elector of Mainz. One of the aims of this paper is to offer a more balanced and plausible reading of the religious benefits of war that Leibniz outlines in his Egypt plan.
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  19.  73
    Leibniz's Monadological Positive Aesthetics.Pauline Phemister & Lloyd Strickland - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (6):1214-1234.
    One of the most intriguing – and arguably counter-intuitive – doctrines defended by environmental philosophers is that of positive aesthetics, the thesis that all of nature is beautiful. The doctrine has attained philosophical respectability only comparatively recently, thanks in no small part to the work of Allen Carlson, one of its foremost defenders. In this paper, we argue that the doctrine can be found much earlier in the work of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz who devised and defended a version of positive (...)
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  20.  25
    On The Necessity Of The Best (Possible) World.Lloyd Strickland - 2005 - Ars Disputandi 5.
    Many have argued that if God exists then he must necessarily create the best possible world , which entails that the bpw necessarily exists, and is therefore the only possible world. But without any scope for comparison, the superlative term ‘best’ is clearly inappropriate and so the bpw cannot be the bpw at all! As such, it must be impossible for God to create it. Hence if God exists then he must of necessity make something that is impossible to create! (...)
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  21.  15
    Leibniz and the Two Sophies: The Philosophical Correspondence.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - Toronto: Iter.
    LEIBNIZ AND THE TWO SOPHIES is a critical edition of all of the philosophically important material from the correspondence between the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) and his two royal patronesses, Electress Sophie of Hanover (1630-1714), and her daughter, Queen Sophie Charlotte of Prussia (1668-1705). In this correspondence, Leibniz expounds in a very accessible way his views on topics such as the nature and operation of the mind, innate knowledge, the afterlife, ethics, and human nature. The correspondence also contains the (...)
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  22.  14
    The Reception of the Theodicy in England.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Leibniz, Caroline und die Folgen der englischen Sukzession. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. pp. 69-91.
    Leibniz wished that his Theodicy (1710) would have as great and as wide an impact as possible, and to further this end we find him in his correspondence with Caroline often expressing his desire that the book be translated into English. Despite his wishes, and Caroline’s efforts, this was not to happen in his lifetime (indeed, it did not happen until 1951, almost 250 years after Leibniz’s death). But even though the Theodicy did not make quite the impact in England (...)
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  23.  3
    Leibniz’s Universal Rational Religion.Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - In Herbert Breger (ed.), Natur und Subjekt. Berlin: pp. 1126-1133.
    This paper is concerned with Leibniz's doctrine of “universal rational religion,” i.e. a religion derived from reason and hence accessible to all, Christians and non-Christians alike, by virtue of the universality of reason. In this paper I shall identify some of the key theological truths and doctrines that Leibniz believed could be reached via reason, and as such would be accessible to non-Christians. While Leibniz held that there were a number of theological truths and doctrines that were potentially available to (...)
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  24.  63
    God’s Creatures? Divine Nature and the Status of Animals in the Early Modern Beast-Machine Controversy.Lloyd Strickland - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 74 (4):291-309.
    In early modern times it was not uncommon for thinkers to tease out from the nature of God various doctrines of substantial physical and metaphysical import. This approach was particularly fruitful in the so-called beast-machine controversy, which erupted following Descartes’ claim that animals are automata, that is, pure machines, without a spiritual, incorporeal soul. Over the course of this controversy, thinkers on both sides attempted to draw out important truths about the status of animals simply from the notion or attributes (...)
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  25.  20
    Leibniz Vs. Transmigration: A Previously Unpublished Text From the Early 1700s.Lloyd Strickland - 2017 - Quaestiones Disputatae 7 (2):139-159.
    In this paper, I analyze a previously unpublished Leibniz text from the early 1700s. I give it the title “On Unities and Transmigration” since it contains an outline of his doctrine of unities and an examination of the doctrine of transmigration. The text is valuable because in it Leibniz considers three very specific versions of transmigration that he does not address elsewhere in his writings; these are where a soul is released by the destruction of its body and is then (...)
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  26.  11
    Review of "After We Die: Theology, Philosophy, and the Question of Life After Death" by Stephen T. Davis. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (3):321-323.
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  27.  32
    Leibniz on Eternal Punishment.Lloyd Strickland - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (2):307-331.
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  28.  67
    The “Who Designed the Designer?” Objection to Design Arguments.Lloyd Strickland - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 75 (2):87-100.
    One of the most commonly-raised objections to the design argument is the so-called “who designed the designer?” objection, which charges that any designer invoked to explain complexity in the universe will feature complexity of its own, and thus require explanation in terms of design. There are two distinct versions of this objection in the contemporary literature, with it being couched in terms of: (1) Complexity of designer: a designer exhibits complexity, which calls for explanation in terms of design; (2) Complexity (...)
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  29.  54
    False Optimism? Leibniz, Evil, and the Best of All Possible Worlds.Lloyd Strickland - 2010 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 15 (1):17-35.
    Leibniz’s claim that this is the best of all possible worlds has been subject to numerous criticisms, both from his contemporaries and ours. In this paper I investigate a cluster of such criticisms based on the existence, abundance or character of worldly evil. As several Leibniz-inspired versions of optimism have been advanced in recent years, the aim of my investigation is to assess not just how Leibniz’s brand of optimism fares against these criticisms, but also whether optimism as a philosophy (...)
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  30.  45
    Determining the Best of All Possible Worlds.Lloyd Strickland - 2005 - Journal of Value Inquiry 39 (1):37-47.
    The concept of the best of all possible worlds is widely considered to be incoherent on the grounds that, for any world that might be termed the best, there is always another that is better. I note that underlying this argument is a conviction that the goodness of a world is determined by a single kind of good, the most plausible candidates for which are not maximizable. Against this I suggest that several goods may have to combine to determine the (...)
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  31.  31
    Review of "Leibniz Et le Meilleur des Mondes Possibles" by Paul Rateau. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2015 - Philosophy in Review 35 (6):304-306.
    L'affirmation de l'existence du meilleur des mondes possibles est l'une des thèses leibniziennes les plus connues et sans doute l'une des plus mal comprises. Cet ouvrage en explique le sens, montre sur quels fondements théoriques elle repose et envisage ses implications sur les plans métaphysique et moral. The affirmation of the existence of the best of all possible worlds is one of Leibniz's best known and doubtless least understood theses. This work explains what it means, shows what theoretical foundations it (...)
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  32.  11
    The Use of Scripture in the Beast Machine Controversy.Lloyd Strickland - 2015 - In David Beck (ed.), Knowing Nature in Early Modern Europe. London: Pickering & Chatto. pp. 65-82.
    The impression we are often given by historians of philosophy is that the readiness of medieval philosophers to appeal to authorities, such as The Bible, the Church, and Aristotle, was not shared by many early modern philosophers, for whom there was a marked preference to look for illumination via experience, the exercise of reason, or a combination of the two. Although this may be accurate, broadly speaking, it is notable that, in spite of the waning enthusiasm for deferring to traditional (...)
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  33.  50
    Philosophy and the Search for Truth.Lloyd Strickland - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (4):1079-1094.
    Philosophy, as it is understood and practiced in the West, is and has been generally considered to be the search for truth. But even if philosophy is the search for truth, it does not automatically follow that those who are identified as ‘philosophers’ are themselves actually engaged in that search. And indeed, in this paper I argue that many philosophers have in fact not been genuinely engaged in the search for truth (in other words, many philosophers have not been doing (...)
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  34.  27
    How Modern Was Leibniz's Biology?Lloyd Strickland - 2005 - Studia Leibnitiana 37 (2):186 - 207.
    Mein Ziel in dieser Arbeit ist es zu bestimmen, in welchem Umfang Leibniz moderne Ansichten in drei Bereichen der Biologie vertreten hat, nämlich in der Frage zum Ursprung von Fossilien, zum Aussterben von Arten und zur Evolution von Arten. In neuerer Zeit haben Forscher behauptet, Leibniz hätte folgende Thesen akzeptiert: (1) Fossilien haben einen organischen Ursprung; (2) einige Arten sind ausgestorben; (3) einige Arten haben sich im Laufe der Zeit entwickelt. Anhand der Betrachtung einer Reihe von Leibniz' Schriften, eingeschlossen solche, (...)
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  35.  60
    Leibniz, the "Flower of Substance," and the Resurrection of the Same Body.Lloyd Strickland - 2009 - Philosophical Forum 40 (3):391-410.
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  36.  39
    John Locke and Personal Identity: Immortality and Bodily Resurrection in 17th-Century Philosophy. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (4):826 - 830.
    British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 826-830, July 2011.
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  37.  36
    God and Prepunishment.Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (1):105-127.
    The belief that some misfortunes are punishments sent from God has been affirmed by many different cultures and religions throughout human history. The belief has proved a pervasive one, and is still endorsed today by many adherents of the great western religions of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. Invariably, what is believed is that a present misfortune is divine punishment for a past sin. But could a present misfortune in fact be divine punishment for a future sin? That is, could God prepunish (...)
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  38.  20
    The Philosophy of Sophie, Electress of Hanover.Lloyd Strickland - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (2):186 - 204.
    In philosophical circles, Electress Sophie of Hanover (1630-1714) is known mainly as the friend, patron, and correspondent of Leibniz. While many scholars acknowledge Sophie's interest in philosophy, some also claim that Sophie dabbled in philosophy herself, but did not do so either seriously or competently. In this paper I show that such a view is incorrect, and that Sophie did make interesting philosophical contributions of her own, principally concerning the nature of mind and thought.
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  39.  23
    Leibniz on Whether the World Increases in Perfection.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (1):51 – 68.
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  40.  17
    Taking Scripture Seriously: Leibniz and the Jehoshaphat Problem.Lloyd Strickland - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (1):40-51.
    Leibniz’s commitment to Christianity has been questioned for centuries; even today, some scholars claim that he was inclined towards deism or little more than a pagan metaphysician. Such an interpretation seems prima facie to be at odds with certain Christianized features of Leibniz's work, such as his decision to advance a solution to 'the Jehoshaphat problem', the problem of whether (or how) all the humans who have ever lived can simultaneously fit into the valley of Jehoshaphat. This problem has its (...)
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  41.  7
    The Shorter Leibniz Texts: A Collection of New Translations.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz & Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - London: Continuum.
    This volume contains more than 60 original translations of papers written by the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). As well as contributing to Leibniz scholarship, it is intended to function as an introductory text for students.
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  42.  23
    Leibniz's Monadology: A New Translation and Guide.Lloyd Strickland - 2014 - Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    A fresh translation and in-depth commentary of Leibniz's seminal text, the Monadology. -/- Written in 1714, the Monadology is widely considered to be the classic statement of Leibniz's mature philosophy. In the space of 90 numbered paragraphs, totalling little more than 6000 words, Leibniz outlines - and argues for - the core features of his philosophical system. Although rightly regarded as a masterpiece, it is also a very condensed work that generations of students have struggled to understand. -/- Lloyd Strickland (...)
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  43.  8
    Leibniz Reinterpreted.Lloyd Strickland - 2006 - London, UK: Continuum.
    Leibniz Reinterpreted tackles head on the central idea in Leibniz's philosophy, namely that we live in the best of all possible worlds. Strickland argues that Leibniz's theory has been consistently misunderstood by previous commentators. In the process Strickland provides both an elucidation and reinterpretation of a number of concepts central to Leibniz's work, such as 'richness', 'simplicity', 'harmony' and 'incompossibility', and shows where previous attempts to explain these concepts have failed. This clear and concise study is tightly focussed and assumes (...)
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  44.  60
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Waco, TX, USA: Baylor University Press.
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe offers a fascinating window into early modern efforts to prove God’s existence. Assembled here are twenty-two key texts, many translated into English for the first time, which illustrate the variety of arguments that philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries offered for God. These selections feature traditional proofs—such as various ontological, cosmological, and design arguments—but also introduce more exotic proofs, such as the argument from eternal truths, the argument from universal aseity, and the (...)
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  45.  15
    The Philosophical Writings of Prémontval.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Lexington Books.
    In this volume, Lloyd Strickland makes the key philosophical writings of maverick Enlightenment philosopher André-Pierre Le Guay de Prémontval available in English for the first time. His writings contain many provocative ideas and arguments, and anticipate modern developments such as open theism, process theology, and animal theodicy.
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