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Definite Knowledge and Mutual Knowledge

In Aravind K. Joshi, Bonnie L. Webber & Ivan A. Sag (eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–63 (1981)

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  1. A Conceptual Analysis of Perspective Taking in Support of Socioscientific Reasoning.Sami Kahn & Dana L. Zeidler - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (6-7):605-638.
    Perspective taking is a critical yet tangled construct that is used to describe a range of psychological processes and that is applied interchangeably with related constructs. The resulting ambiguity is particularly vexing in science education, where although perspective taking is recognized as critical to informed citizens’ ability to negotiate scientifically related societal issues, or socioscientific issues via socioscientific reasoning, the precise nature of perspective taking remains elusive. To operationalize perspective taking, a theoretical conceptual analysis was employed and used to position (...)
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  • Being Realistic About Common Knowledge: A Lewisian Approach.Cedric Paternotte - 2011 - Synthese 183 (2):249-276.
    Defined and formalized several decades ago, widely used in philosophy and game theory, the concept of common knowledge is still considered as problematic, although not always for the right reasons. I suggest that the epistemic status of a group of human agents in a state of common knowledge has not been thoroughly analyzed. In particular, every existing account of common knowledge, whether formal or not, is either too strong to fit cognitively limited individuals, or too weak to adequately describe their (...)
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  • Semantics Without Semantic Content.Daniel W. Harris - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    I argue that semantics is the study of the proprietary database of a centrally inaccessible and informationally encapsulated input–output system. This system’s role is to encode and decode partial and defeasible evidence of what speakers are saying. Since information about nonlinguistic context is therefore outside the purview of semantic processing, a sentence’s semantic value is not its content but a partial and defeasible constraint on what it can be used to say. I show how to translate this thesis into a (...)
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  • On Interactive Knowledge with Bounded Communication.Ido Ben-Zvi & Yoram Moses - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):323-354.
    The effect of upper bounds on message delivery times in a computer network upon the dynamics of knowledge gain is investigated. Recent work has identified centipedes and brooms?causal structures that combine message chains with time bound information?as necessary conditions for knowledge gain and common knowledge gain, respectively. This paper shows that, under the full-information protocol, these structures are both necessary and sufficient for such epistemic gain. We then apply this analysis to gain insights into the relation between ?everyone knows? and (...)
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  • Logical Foundations for Belief Representation.William Rapaport - 1986 - Cognitive Science 10 (4):371-422.
    This essay presents a philosophical and computational theory of the representation of de re, de dicto, nested, and quasi-indexical belief reports expressed in natural language. The propositional Semantic Network Processing System (SNePS) is used for representing and reasoning about these reports. In particular, quasi-indicators (indexical expressions occurring in intentional contexts and representing uses of indicators by another speaker) pose problems for natural-language representation and reasoning systems, because--unlike pure indicators--they cannot be replaced by coreferential NPs without changing the meaning of the (...)
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  • Pragmatic markers: the missing link between language and Theory of Mind.Paula Rubio-Fernandez - forthcoming - Synthese:1-34.
    Language and Theory of Mind come together in communication, but their relationship has been intensely contested. I hypothesize that pragmatic markers connect language and Theory of Mind and enable their co-development and co-evolution through a positive feedback loop, whereby the development of one skill boosts the development of the other. I propose to test this hypothesis by investigating two types of pragmatic markers: demonstratives and articles. Pragmatic markers are closed-class words that encode non-representational information that is unavailable to consciousness, but (...)
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  • Producing Pronouns and Definite Noun Phrases: Do Speakers Use the Addressee’s Discourse Model?Kumiko Fukumura & Roger P. G. van Gompel - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (7):1289-1311.
    We report two experiments that investigated the widely held assumption that speakers use the addressee’s discourse model when choosing referring expressions (e.g., Ariel, 1990; Chafe, 1994; Givón, 1983; Prince, 1985), by manipulating whether the addressee could hear the immediately preceding linguistic context. Experiment 1 showed that speakers increased pronoun use (and decreased noun phrase use) when the referent was mentioned in the immediately preceding sentence compared to when it was not, even though the addressee did not hear the preceding sentence, (...)
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  • Conversation, Gaze Coordination, and Beliefs About Visual Context.Daniel C. Richardson, Rick Dale & John M. Tomlinson - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (8):1468-1482.
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  • Two Paradoxes of Common Knowledge: Coordinated Attack and Electronic Mail.Harvey Lederman - 2018 - Noûs:921-945.
    The coordinated attack scenario and the electronic mail game are two paradoxes of common knowledge. In simple mathematical models of these scenarios, the agents represented by the models can coordinate only if they have common knowledge that they will. As a result, the models predict that the agents will not coordinate in situations where it would be rational to coordinate. I argue that we should resolve this conflict between the models and facts about what it would be rational to do (...)
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  • Sociogenesis, Coordination and Mutualism.Ivan Leudar - 1991 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 21 (2):197–220.
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  • Dialogue Coherence: A Generation Framework. [REVIEW]Robbert-Jan Beun & Rogier M. van Eijk - 2007 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):365-385.
    This paper presents a framework for the generation of coherent elementary conversational sequences at the speech act level. We will embrace the notion of a cooperative dialogue game in which two players produce speech acts to transfer relevant information with respect to their commitments. Central to the approach is that participants try to achieve some sort of balanced cognitive state as a result of speech act generation and interpretation. Cognitive states of the participants change as a result of the interpretation (...)
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  • Backward Induction and Beliefs About Oneself.Michael Bacharach - 1992 - Synthese 91 (3):247-284.
    According to decision theory, the rational initial action in a sequential decision-problem may be found by backward induction or folding back. But the reasoning which underwrites this claim appeals to the agent's beliefs about what she will later believe, about what she will later believe she will still later believe, and so forth. There are limits to the depth of people's beliefs. Do these limits pose a threat to the standard theory of rational sequential choice? It is argued, first, that (...)
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  • Should Remote Collaborators Be Represented by Avatars? A Matter of Common Ground for Collective Medical Decision-Making.J. Tapie, P. Terrier, L. Perron & J.-M. Cellier - 2006 - AI and Society 20 (3):331-350.
    In a collaborative work situation at a distance, the use of avatars to represent collaborators reduces collaborative effort. Also, animated avatars can help distant users to ground their relationship and facilitate their interaction because they materialise visual clues for the distant collaborators and their current activity. To check the validity of these hypotheses we set up an experiment based on the use of a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) synchronised for collective medical decision-making. Several teams of practitioners from different disciplines will (...)
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  • A Representational Account of Mutual Belief.Robert C. Koons - 1989 - Synthese 81 (1):21 - 45.
    Although the notion of common or mutual belief plays a crucial role in game theory, economics and social philosophy, no thoroughly representational account of it has yet been developed. In this paper, I propose two desiderata for such an account, namely, that it take into account the possibility of inconsistent data without portraying the human mind as logically and mathematically omniscient. I then propose a definition of mutual belief which meets these criteria. This account takes seriously the existence of computational (...)
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  • Linguistic Meaning in Discourse Representation Theory.Franz Guenthner - 1987 - Synthese 73 (3):569 - 598.
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  • Anchoring Utterances.Herbert H. Clark - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (2):329-350.
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  • Intersystemic Discourse and Co-Ordinated Dissent: A Critique of Luhmann's Concept of Ecological Communication.Max Miller - 1994 - Theory, Culture and Society 11 (2):101-121.
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  • Iteration Principles in Epistemology II: Arguments Against.Daniel Greco - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (11):765-771.
    The prequel to this paper introduced the topic of iteration principles in epistemology and surveyed some arguments in support of them. In this sequel, I'll consider two influential families of objection to iteration principles. The first turns on the idea that they lead to some variety of skepticism, and the second turns on ‘margin for error’ considerations adduced by Timothy Williamson.
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  • Processing Speaker-Specific Information in Two Stages During the Interpretation of Referential Precedents.Edmundo Kronmüller & Ernesto Guerra - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    To reduce ambiguity across a conversation, interlocutors reach temporary conventions or referential precedents on how to refer to an entity. Despite their central role in communication, the cognitive underpinnings of the interpretation of precedents remain unclear, specifically the role and mechanisms by which information related to the speaker is integrated. We contrast predictions of one-stage, original two-stage, and extended two-stage models for the processing of speaker information and provide evidence favoring the latter: we show that both stages are sensitive to (...)
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  • The Epistemic Core of Weak Joint Action.Cedric Paternotte - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology (1):1-24.
    Over the last three decades, joint action has received various definitions, which for all their differences share many features. However, they cannot fit some perplexing cases of weak joint action, such as demonstrations, where agents rely on distinct epistemic sources, and as a result, have no first-hand knowledge about each other. I argue that one major reason why the definition of such collective actions is akin to the classical ones is that it crucially relies on the concept of common knowledge. (...)
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  • The Structure of Context: Deciphering Frame Analysis.Thomas J. Scheff - 2005 - Sociological Theory 23 (4):368-385.
    This article proposes that Goffman's Frame Analysis can be interpreted as a step toward unpacking the idea of context. His analysis implies a recursive model involving frames within frames. The key problem is that neither Goffman nor anyone else has clearly defined what is meant by a frame. I propose that it can be represented by a word, phrase, or proposition. A subjective context can be represented as an assembly of these items, joined together by operators such as and, since, (...)
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  • Deixis, Meta-Perceptive Gaze Practices, and the Interactional Achievement of Joint Attention.Anja Stukenbrock - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • How Redundant Are Redundant Color Adjectives? An Efficiency-Based Analysis of Color Overspecification.Paula Rubio-Fernández - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Less Is More: A Minimalist Account of Joint Action in Communication.Hadas Shintel & Boaz Keysar - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):260-273.
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  • Collaborative Remembering in Conversational Narration.Neal R. Norrick - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (4):733-751.
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  • Generating References in Naturalistic Face‐to‐Face and Phone‐Mediated Dialog Settings.Dominique Knutsen, Christine Ros & Ludovic Le Bigot - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):796-818.
    During dialog, references are presented, accepted, and potentially reused. Two experiments were conducted to examine reuse in a naturalistic setting. In Experiment 1, where the participants interacted face to face, self-presented references and references accepted through verbatim repetition were reused more. Such biases persisted after the end of the interaction. In Experiment 2, where the participants interacted over the phone, reference reuse mainly depended on whether the participant could see the landmarks being referred to, although this bias seemed to be (...)
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  • Revisiting the Memory‐Based Processing Approach to Common Ground.William S. Horton & Richard J. Gerrig - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):780-795.
    Horton and Gerrig outlined a memory-based processing model of conversational common ground that provided a description of how speakers could both strategically and automatically gain access to information about others through domain-general memory processes acting over ordinary memory traces. In this article, we revisit this account, reviewing empirical findings that address aspects of this memory-based model. In doing so, we also take the opportunity to clarify what we believe this approach implies about the cognitive psychology of common ground, and just (...)
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  • To Name or to Describe: Shared Knowledge Affects Referential Form.Daphna Heller, Kristen S. Gorman & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):290-305.
    The notion of common ground is important for the production of referring expressions: In order for a referring expression to be felicitous, it has to be based on shared information. But determining what information is shared and what information is privileged may require gathering information from multiple sources, and constantly coordinating and updating them, which might be computationally too intensive to affect the earliest moments of production. Previous work has found that speakers produce overinformative referring expressions, which include privileged names, (...)
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  • Introduction to Volume 8, Issue 4 of topiCS.Wayne D. Gray - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):720-721.
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  • Just How Joint Is Joint Action in Infancy?Malinda Carpenter - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):380-392.
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  • Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use.Sarah Brown‐Schmidt & Melissa C. Duff - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):722-736.
    During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners—their common ground—serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in common ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and common ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of common ground in (...)
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  • Partner‐Specific Adaptation in Dialog.Susan E. Brennan & Joy E. Hanna - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):274-291.
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  • Grounded Cognition: Past, Present, and Future.Lawrence W. Barsalou - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):716-724.
    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive (...)
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  • Explicit and Emergent Mechanisms of Information Status.Jennifer E. Arnold - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4):737-760.
    It is well established that language production and comprehension are influenced by information status, for example, whether information is given, new, topical, or predictable, and many scholars suggest that an important component of information status is keeping track of what information is in common ground, and what is not. Information status affects both speakers' choices and how listeners interpret the speaker's meaning. Although there is a wealth of scholarly work on information status, there is no consensus on the mechanisms by (...)
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  • Repair: The Interface Between Interaction and Cognition.Saul Albert & J. P. De Ruiter - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (2):279-313.
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  • Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts.Raj Singh, Evelina Fedorenko, Kyle Mahowald & Edward Gibson - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):607-634.
    According to one view of linguistic information, a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: by asserting the content as new information; or by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it. A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to (...)
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  • Overinformative Speakers Are Cooperative: Revisiting the Gricean Maxim of Quantity.Paula Rubio‐Fernandez - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (11).
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  • Comprehending Complex Concepts.Gregory L. Murphy - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (4):529-562.
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  • Compensating for an Inattentive Audience.Nicole N. Craycraft & Sarah Brown‐Schmidt - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (5):1504-1528.
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  • Contributing to Discourse.Herbert H. Clark & Edward F. Schaefer - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (2):259-294.
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  • The Effect of Information Overlap on Communication Effectiveness.Shali Wu & Boaz Keysar - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (1):169-181.
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  • Beliefs, Points of View, and Multiple Environments.Yorick Wilks & Janusz Bien - 1983 - Cognitive Science 7 (2):95-119.
    The paper describes a system for dealing with nestings of belief in terms of the mechanism of computational environment. A method is offered for computing the beliefs of A about B (and so on) in terms of the systems existing knowledge structures about A and B separately. A proposal for belief percolation is put forward: percolation being a side effect of the process of the computation of nested beliefs, but one which could explain the acquisition of unsupported beliefs. It is (...)
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  • Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language.Matthew Stone - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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  • Modeling Reference Production as the Probabilistic Combination of Multiple Perspectives.Mindaugas Mozuraitis, Suzanne Stevenson & Daphna Heller - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):974-1008.
    While speakers have been shown to adapt to the knowledge state of their addressee in choosing referring expressions, they often also show some egocentric tendencies. The current paper aims to provide an explanation for this “mixed” behavior by presenting a model that derives such patterns from the probabilistic combination of both the speaker's and the addressee's perspectives. To test our model, we conducted a language production experiment, in which participants had to refer to objects in a context that also included (...)
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  • Children's Production Adjustments to Generic and Particular Listener Needs.Myrto Grigoroglou & Anna Papafragou - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (10).
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  • Interface of Linguistic and Visual Information During Audience Design.Kumiko Fukumura - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (6):1419-1433.
    Evidence suggests that speakers can take account of the addressee's needs when referring. However, what representations drive the speaker's audience design has been less clear. This study aims to go beyond previous studies by investigating the interplay between the visual and linguistic context during audience design. Speakers repeated subordinate descriptions given in the prior linguistic context less and used basic-level descriptions more when the addressee did not hear the linguistic context than when s/he did. But crucially, this effect happened only (...)
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  • Shareability: The Social Psychology of Epistemology.Jennifer J. Freyd - 1983 - Cognitive Science 7 (3):191-210.
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  • Spatial Language and the Embedded Listener Model in Parents’ Input to Children.Katrina Ferrara, Malena Silva, Colin Wilson & Barbara Landau - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):1877-1910.
    Language is a collaborative act: To communicate successfully, speakers must generate utterances that are not only semantically valid but also sensitive to the knowledge state of the listener. Such sensitivity could reflect the use of an “embedded listener model,” where speakers choose utterances on the basis of an internal model of the listener's conceptual and linguistic knowledge. In this study, we ask whether parents’ spatial descriptions incorporate an embedded listener model that reflects their children's understanding of spatial relations and spatial (...)
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  • Collective Contexts in Conversation: Grounding by Proxy.Arash Eshghi & Patrick G. T. Healey - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):299-324.
    Anecdotal evidence suggests that participants in conversation can sometimes act as a coalition. This implies a level of conversational organization in which groups of individuals form a coherent unit. This paper investigates the implications of this phenomenon for psycholinguistic and semantic models of shared context in dialog. We present a corpus study of multiparty dialog which shows that, in certain circumstances, people with different levels of overt involvement in a conversation, that is, one responding and one not, can nonetheless access (...)
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  • Establishing Conventional Communication Systems: Is Common Knowledge Necessary?Dale J. Barr - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):937-962.
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