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  1. A Computational Model of the Cultural Co-Evolution of Language and Mindreading.Marieke Woensdregt, Chris Cummins & Kenny Smith - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):1347-1385.
    Several evolutionary accounts of human social cognition posit that language has co-evolved with the sophisticated mindreading abilities of modern humans. It has also been argued that these mindreading abilities are the product of cultural, rather than biological, evolution. Taken together, these claims suggest that the evolution of language has played an important role in the cultural evolution of human social cognition. Here we present a new computational model which formalises the assumptions that underlie this hypothesis, in order to explore how (...)
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  • The structure of communicative acts.Sarah E. Murray & William B. Starr - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (2):425-474.
    Utterances of natural language sentences can be used to communicate not just contents, but also forces. This paper examines this topic from a cross-linguistic perspective on sentential mood. Recent work in this area focuses on conversational dynamics: the three sentence types can be associated with distinctive kinds of conversational effects called sentential forces, modeled as three kinds of updates to the discourse context. This paper has two main goals. First, it provides two arguments, on empirical and methodological grounds, for treating (...)
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  • Expectation Biases and Context Management with Negative Polar Questions.Alex Silk - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (1):51-92.
    This paper examines distinctive discourse properties of preposed negative 'yes/no' questions (NPQs), such as 'Isn’t Jane coming too?'. Unlike with other 'yes/no' questions, using an NPQ '∼p?' invariably conveys a bias toward a particular answer, where the polarity of the bias is opposite of the polarity of the question: using the negative question '∼p?' invariably expresses that the speaker previously expected the positive answer p to be correct. A prominent approach—what I call the context-management approach, developed most extensively by Romero (...)
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  • The Interplay Between Gesture and Speech in the Production of Referring Expressions: Investigating the Tradeoff Hypothesis.Jan P. de Ruiter, Adrian Bangerter & Paula Dings - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):232-248.
    The tradeoff hypothesis in the speech–gesture relationship claims that (a) when gesturing gets harder, speakers will rely relatively more on speech, and (b) when speaking gets harder, speakers will rely relatively more on gestures. We tested the second part of this hypothesis in an experimental collaborative referring paradigm where pairs of participants (directors and matchers) identified targets to each other from an array visible to both of them. We manipulated two factors known to affect the difficulty of speaking to assess (...)
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  • Compositionality and the Modelling of Complex Concepts.Nick Braisby - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (4):479-508.
    The nature of complex concepts has important implications for the computational modelling of the mind, as well as for the cognitive science of concepts. This paper outlines the way in which RVC – a Relational View of Concepts – accommodates a range of complex concepts, cases which have been argued to be non-compositional. RVC attempts to integrate a number of psychological, linguistic and psycholinguistic considerations with the situation-theoretic view that information-carrying relations hold only relative to background situations. The central tenet (...)
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  • A World Unto Itself: Human Communication as Active Inference.Jared Vasil, Paul B. Badcock, Axel Constant, Karl Friston & Maxwell J. D. Ramstead - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Context, Syntactic Priming, and Referential Form in an Interactive Dialogue Task: Implications for Models of Alignment.Kathleen M. Carbary, Ellen E. Frohning & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 109--114.
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  • Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  • Exploring the Cognitive Infrastructure of Communication.Jan Peter de Ruiter, Matthijs L. Noordzij, Sarah Newman-Norlund, Roger Newman-Norlund, Peter Hagoort, Stephen C. Levinson & Ivan Toni - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (1):51-77.
    Human communication is often thought about in terms of transmitted messages in a conventional code like a language. But communication requires a specialized interactive intelligence. Senders have to be able to perform recipient design, while receivers need to be able to do intention recognition, knowing that recipient design has taken place. To study this interactive intelligence in the lab, we developed a new task that taps directly into the underlying abilities to communicate in the absence of a conventional code. We (...)
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  • Cued by What We See and Hear: Spatial Reference Frame Use in Language.Kenny R. Coventry, Elena Andonova, Thora Tenbrink, Harmen B. Gudde & Paul E. Engelhardt - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Pooling the Ground: Understanding and Coordination in Collective Sense Making.Joanna Rä…Czaszek-Leonardi, Agnieszka Dä™Bska & Adam Sochanowicz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Socially Situated Transmission: The Bias to Transmit Negative Information is Moderated by the Social Context.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Yoshihisa Kashima & Andrew Perfors - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (9):e13033.
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  • Identifying Knowledge and Communication.Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima - 2006 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 10 (2):125-141.
    In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961), and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964) turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with (...)
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  • Selected Published Research on Modeling Face-to-Face Conversation.Justine Cassell & Matthew Stone - unknown
    The following list contains a survey of some important and recent research in modeling face-to-face conversation. The list below is a presented as a guide to the literature by topic and date; we include complete citations afterwards in alphabetical order. For brevity, research works are keyed by first author and date only (we use these keys on the slides as well as in this list). Of course, most papers are multiply authored. The list is not intended to be exhaustive. Our (...)
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  • Representing Communicative Intentions in Collaborative Conversational Agents.Matthew Stone - unknown
    This paper pursues a formal analogy between natural language dialogue and collaborative real-world action in general. The analogy depends on an analysis of two aspects of collaboration that figure crucially in language use. First, agents must be able to coordinate abstractly about future decisions which cannot be made on present information. Second, when agents finally take such decisions, they must again coordinate in order to interpret one anothers’ actions as collaborative. The contribution of this paper is a general representation of (...)
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  • Designing Meaningful Agents.Matthew Stone - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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  • Communicative Intentions and Conversational Processes in Human-Human and Human-Computer Dialogue.Matthew Stone - unknown
    This chapter investigates the computational consequences of a broadly Gricean view of language use as intentional activity. In this view, dialogue rests on coordinated reasoning about communicative intentions. The speaker produces each utterance by formulating a suitable communicative intention. The hearer understands it by recognizing the communicative intention behind it. When this coordination is successful, interlocutors succeed in considering the same intentions— that is, the same representations of utterance meaning—as the dialogue proceeds. In this paper, I emphasize that these intentions (...)
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  • Learning to Interpret Utterances Using Dialogue History.Matthew Stone - unknown
    We describe a methodology for learning a disambiguation model for deep pragmatic interpretations in the context of situated task-oriented dialogue. The system accumulates training examples for ambiguity resolution by tracking the fates of alternative interpretations across dialogue, including subsequent clarificatory episodes initiated by the system itself. We illustrate with a case study building maximum entropy models over abductive interpretations in a referential communication task. The resulting model correctly resolves 81% of ambiguities left unresolved by an initial handcrafted baseline. A key (...)
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  • Cross-Linguistic Trade-Offs and Causal Relationships Between Cues to Grammatical Subject and Object, and the Problem of Efficiency-Related Explanations.Natalia Levshina - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Cross-linguistic studies focus on inverse correlations between linguistic variables that reflect different cues to linguistic meanings. For example, if a language has no case marking, it is likely to rely on word order as a cue for identification of grammatical roles. Such inverse correlations are interpreted as manifestations of language users’ tendency to use language efficiently. The present study argues that this interpretation is problematic. Linguistic variables, such as the presence of case, or flexibility of word order, are aggregate properties, (...)
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  • The Emergence of the Physical World From Information Processing.Brian Whitworth - 2010 - Quantum Biosystems 2 (1):221-249.
    This paper links the conjecture that the physical world is a virtual reality to the findings of modern physics. What is usually the subject of science fiction is here proposed as a scientific theory open to empirical evaluation. We know from physics how the world behaves, and from computing how information behaves, so whether the physical world arises from ongoing information processing is a question science can evaluate. A prima facie case for the virtual reality conjecture is presented. If a (...)
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  • Lexical Misunderstandings and Prototype Theory.Rebecca Clift - 1998 - AI and Society 12 (3):109-133.
    This paper uses examples of conversational understandings, misunderstandings and non-understandings to explore the role of prototypes and schemata in conversational understanding. An investigation of the procedures by which we make sense of lexical items in utterances by fitting prototypes into schemata is followed by an examination of how schemata are instantiated across conversational sequences by means of topics. In interaction, conflicts over meaning illuminate the decisive role of social and cultural factors in understanding. Overall, understanding is seen to be critically (...)
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  • Age Differences in Adults' Use of Referring Expressions.Petra Hendriks, Christina Englert, Ellis Wubs & John Hoeks - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):443-466.
    The aim of this article is to investigate whether choosing the appropriate referring expression requires taking into account the hearer’s perspective, as is predicted under some versions of bidirectional Optimality Theory but is unexpected under other versions. We did this by comparing the results of 25 young and 25 elderly adults on an elicitation task based on eight different picture stories, and a comprehension task based on eight similar written stories. With respect to the elicitation task, we found that elderly (...)
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  • Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
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  • Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ‘‘one-shot’’ referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that (...)
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  • Effects of Ambiguous Gestures and Language on the Time Course of Reference Resolution.Max M. Louwerse & Adrian Bangerter - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1517-1529.
    Two eye-tracking experiments investigated how and when pointing gestures and location descriptions affect target identification. The experiments investigated the effect of gestures and referring expressions on the time course of fixations to the target, using videos of human gestures and human voice, and animated gestures and synthesized speech. Ambiguous, yet informative pointing gestures elicited attention and facilitated target identification, akin to verbal location descriptions. Moreover, target identification was superior when both pointing gestures and verbal location descriptions were used. These findings (...)
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  • The Effects of Feature-Label-Order and Their Implications for Symbolic Learning.Michael Ramscar, Daniel Yarlett, Melody Dye, Katie Denny & Kirsten Thorpe - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):909-957.
    Symbols enable people to organize and communicate about the world. However, the ways in which symbolic knowledge is learned and then represented in the mind are poorly understood. We present a formal analysis of symbolic learning—in particular, word learning—in terms of prediction and cue competition, and we consider two possible ways in which symbols might be learned: by learning to predict a label from the features of objects and events in the world, and by learning to predict features from a (...)
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  • Language Acquisition Meets Language Evolution.Nick Chater & Morten H. Christiansen - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (7):1131-1157.
    Recent research suggests that language evolution is a process of cultural change, in which linguistic structures are shaped through repeated cycles of learning and use by domain-general mechanisms. This paper draws out the implications of this viewpoint for understanding the problem of language acquisition, which is cast in a new, and much more tractable, form. In essence, the child faces a problem of induction, where the objective is to coordinate with others (C-induction), rather than to model the structure of the (...)
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  • The Interactive Evolution of Human Communication Systems.Nicolas Fay, Simon Garrod, Leo Roberts & Nik Swoboda - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (3):351-386.
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  • The Functions of Imitative Behaviour in Humans.Harry Farmer, Anna Ciaunica & Antonia F. De C. Hamilton - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (4):378-396.
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  • Convention and Common Ground.Bart Geurts - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (2):115-129.
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  • Minds and Language: Social Cognition, Social Interaction and the Acquisition of Language.Kevin Durkin - 1987 - Mind and Language 2 (2):105-140.
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  • Intersubjectivity: Towards a Dialogical Analysis.Alex Gillespie & Flora Cornish - 2010 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 40 (1):19-46.
    Intersubjectivity refers to the variety of possible relations between perspectives. It is indispensable for understanding human social behaviour. While theoretical work on intersubjectivity is relatively sophisticated, methodological approaches to studying intersubjectivity lag behind. Most methodologies assume that individuals are the unit of analysis. In order to research intersubjectivity, however, methodologies are needed that take relationships as the unit of analysis. The first aim of this article is to review existing methodologies for studying intersubjectivity. Four methodological approaches are reviewed: comparative self-report, (...)
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  • Language From the Ground Up: A Study of Homesign Communication.Endre Begby - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (3):693-714.
    Philosophers are often beholden to a picture of language as a largely static, well-defined structure which is handed over from generation to generation by an arduous process of learning: language, on this view, is something that we are given, and that we can make use of, but which we play no significant role in creating ourselves. This picture is often maintained in conjunction with the idea that several distinctively human cognitive capacities could only develop via the language acquisition process, as (...)
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  • Abductive Reasoning, Interpretation and Collaborative Processes.Claudia Arrighi & Roberta Ferrario - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):75-87.
    In this paper we want to examine how the mutual understanding of speakers is reached during a conversation through collaborative processes, and what role is played by abductive inference (in the Peircean sense) in these processes. We do this by bringing together contributions coming from a variety of disciplines, such as logic, philosophy of language and psychology. When speakers are engaged in a conversation, they refer to a supposed common ground: every participant ascribes to the others some knowledge, belief, opinion (...)
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  • Video Gaming as Practical Accomplishment: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and Play.Stuart Reeves, Christian Greiffenhagen & Eric Laurier - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical “work” of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a “tactical zoom.” We start very much “outside” the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within (...)
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  • Video Gaming as Practical Accomplishment: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and Play.Stuart Reeves, Christian Greiffenhagen & Eric Laurier - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (2):308-342.
    Accounts of video game play developed from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic perspective remain relatively scarce. This study collects together an emerging, if scattered, body of research which focuses on the material, practical “work” of video game players. The study offers an example-driven explication of an EMCA perspective on video game play phenomena. The materials are arranged as a “tactical zoom.” We start very much “outside” the game, beginning with a wide view of how massive-multiplayer online games are played within (...)
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  • Systematicity and Arbitrariness in Novel Communication Systems.Carrie Ann Theisen, Jon Oberlander & Simon Kirby - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (1):14-32.
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  • What We Do and Presuppose When We Demonstrate.Eduarda Calado Barbosa & Felipe Nogueira De Carvalho - 2021 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 65 (3):e38525.
    In this paper, we defend that demonstratives are expressions of joint attention. Though this idea is not exactly new in the philosophical or linguistic literature, we argue here that their proponents have not yet shown how to incorporate these observations into more traditional theories of demonstratives. Our purpose is then to attempt to fill this gap. We argue that coordinated attentional activities are better integrated into a full account of demonstratives as meta-pragmatic information. Our claim is twofold. First, we claim (...)
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  • How Packaging of Information in Conversation Is Impacted by Communication Medium and Restrictions.Sarah A. Bibyk, Leslie M. Blaha & Christopher W. Myers - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    In team-based tasks, successful communication and mutual understanding are essential to facilitate team coordination and performance. It is well-established that an important component of human conversation is the maintenance of common ground. Maintaining common ground has a number of associated processes in which conversational participants engage. Many of these processes are lacking in current synthetic teammates, and it is unknown to what extent this lack of capabilities affects their ability to contribute during team-based tasks. We focused our research on how (...)
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  • Universal Principles of Human Communication: Preliminary Evidence From a Cross‐Cultural Communication Game.Nicolas Fay, Bradley Walker, Nik Swoboda, Ichiro Umata, Takugo Fukaya, Yasuhiro Katagiri & Simon Garrod - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2397-2413.
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  • Reductionism About Understanding Why.Insa Lawler - 2016 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 116 (2):229-236.
    Paulina Sliwa (2015) argues that knowing why p is necessary and sufficient for understanding why p. She tries to rebut recent attacks against the necessity and sufficiency claims, and explains the gradability of understanding why in terms of knowledge. I argue that her attempts do not succeed, but I indicate more promising ways to defend reductionism about understanding why throughout the discussion.
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  • Anchoring Utterances.Herbert H. Clark - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (2):329-350.
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  • Referential Form and Memory for the Discourse History.Si On Yoon, Aaron S. Benjamin & Sarah Brown-Schmidt - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12964.
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  • Syntactic Co-Ordination in Dialogue.Holly P. Branigan, Martin J. Pickering & Alexandra A. Cleland - 2000 - Cognition 75 (2):B13-B25.
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  • An Integrated Theory of Language Production and Comprehension.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):329-347.
    Currently, production and comprehension are regarded as quite distinct in accounts of language processing. In rejecting this dichotomy, we instead assert that producing and understanding are interwoven, and that this interweaving is what enables people to predict themselves and each other. We start by noting that production and comprehension are forms of action and action perception. We then consider the evidence for interweaving in action, action perception, and joint action, and explain such evidence in terms of prediction. Specifically, we assume (...)
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  • Do People Regard Robots as Human-Like Social Partners? Evidence From Perspective-Taking in Spatial Descriptions.Chengli Xiao, Liufei Xu, Yuqing Sui & Renlai Zhou - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Spatial communications are essential to the survival and social interaction of human beings. In science fiction and the near future, robots are supposed to be able to understand spatial languages to collaborate and cooperate with humans. However, it remains unknown whether human speakers regard robots as human-like social partners. In this study, human speakers describe target locations to an imaginary human or robot addressee under various scenarios varying in relative speaker–addressee cognitive burden. Speakers made equivalent perspective choices to human and (...)
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  • Speakers Extrapolate Community-Level Knowledge From Individual Linguistic Encounters.Anita Tobar-Henríquez, Hugh Rabagliati & Holly P. Branigan - 2021 - Cognition 210:104602.
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  • What’s New to You? Preschoolers’ Partner-Specific Online Processing of Disfluency.Si On Yoon, Kyong-sun Jin, Sarah Brown-Schmidt & Cynthia L. Fisher - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Speech disfluencies can signal that a speaker is about to refer to something difficult to name. In two experiments, we found evidence that 4-year-olds, like adults, flexibly interpret a particular partner’s disfluency based on their estimate of that partner’s knowledge, derived from the preceding conversation. In entrainment trials, children established partner-specific shared knowledge of names for tangram pictures with one or two adult interlocutors. In each test trial, an adult named one of two visible tangrams either fluently or disfluently while (...)
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  • Factors That Influence the Processing of Noun-Noun Metaphors.Juana Park, Faria Sana, Christina L. Gagné & Thomas L. Spalding - 2021 - Metaphor and Symbol 36 (1):20-44.
    We analyzed the processing of noun-noun metaphors, which have been relatively understudied, compared to other types of figurative expressions, such as X is Y metaphors (e.g., He...
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  • Processing Speaker-Specific Information in Two Stages During the Interpretation of Referential Precedents.Edmundo Kronmüller & Ernesto Guerra - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    To reduce ambiguity across a conversation, interlocutors reach temporary conventions or referential precedents on how to refer to an entity. Despite their central role in communication, the cognitive underpinnings of the interpretation of precedents remain unclear, specifically the role and mechanisms by which information related to the speaker is integrated. We contrast predictions of one-stage, original two-stage, and extended two-stage models for the processing of speaker information and provide evidence favoring the latter: we show that both stages are sensitive to (...)
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