Switch to: References

Citations of:

Exploratory experiments

Philosophy of Science 72 (5):888-899 (2005)

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. Hypothesis-Driven Science in Large-Scale Studies: The Case of GWAS.Sumana Sharma & James Read - 2021 - Biology and Philosophy 36 (5):1-21.
    It is now well-appreciated by philosophers that contemporary large-scale ‘-omics’ studies in biology stand in non-trivial relationships to more orthodox hypothesis-driven approaches. These relationships have been clarified by Ratti ; however, there remains much more to be said regarding how an important field of genomics cited in that work—‘genome-wide association studies’ —fits into this framework. In the present article, we propose a revision to Ratti’s framework more suited to studies such as GWAS. In the process of doing so, we introduce (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Argument From Surprise.Adrian Currie - 2018 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 48 (5):639-661.
    I develop an account of productive surprise as an epistemic virtue of scientific investigations which does not turn on psychology alone. On my account, a scientific investigation is potentially productively surprising when results can conflict with epistemic expectations, those expectations pertain to a wide set of subjects. I argue that there are two sources of such surprise in science. One source, often identified with experiments, involves bringing our theoretical ideas in contact with new empirical observations. Another, often identified with simulations, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • The Evidence for the Accelerating Universe: Endorsement and Robust Consistency.Genco Guralp - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (2):1-52.
    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to researchers from the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-z Supernova Search Team for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. In this paper, I provide a historical analysis of the supernova cosmology evidence put forward by these teams for the accelerating universe, in terms of an iterative model of scientific progress developed by Hasok Chang in the context of his study of the development of measurement standards. I argue, using (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology.Sven Ove Hansson - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (3):1-23.
    Farmers all over the world perform experiments, and have done so since long before modern experimental science and its recognized forerunners. There is a rich anthropological literature on these experiments, but the philosophical issues that they give rise to have not received much attention. Based on the anthropological literature, this study investigates methodological and philosophical issues pertaining to farmers’ experiments, including the choice of interventions to be tested, the planning of experiments, and the use of control fields and other means (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Expert Text Analysis in the Inclusion of History and Philosophy of Science in Higher Education.Vitaly Pronskikh & Galina V. Sorina - forthcoming - Science & Education.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Rethinking the Role of Theory in Exploratory Experimentation.David Colaço - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):38.
    To explain their role in discovery and contrast them with theory-driven research, philosophers of science have characterized exploratory experiments in terms of what they lack: namely, that they lack direction from what have been called “local theories” of the target system or object under investigation. I argue that this is incorrect: it’s not whether or not there is direction from a local theory that matters, but instead how such a theory is used to direct an experiment that matters. Appealing to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Why Experiments Matter.Arnon Levy & Adrian Currie - 2018 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (9-10):1066-1090.
    ABSTRACTExperimentation is traditionally considered a privileged means of confirmation. However, why and how experiments form a better confirmatory source relative to other strategies is unclear, and recent discussions have identified experiments with various modeling strategies on the one hand, and with ‘natural’ experiments on the other hand. We argue that experiments aiming to test theories are best understood as controlled investigations of specimens. ‘Control’ involves repeated, fine-grained causal manipulation of focal properties. This capacity generates rich knowledge of the object investigated. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Goltz Against Cerebral Localization: Methodology and Experimental Practices.J. P. Gamboa - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 84:101304.
    In the late 19th century, physiologists such as David Ferrier, Eduard Hitzig, and Hermann Munk argued that cerebral brain functions are localized in discrete structures. By the early 20th century, this became the dominant position. However, another prominent physiologist, Friedrich Goltz, rejected theories of cerebral localization and argued against these physiologists until his death in 1902. I argue in this paper that previous historical accounts have failed to comprehend why Goltz rejected cerebral localization. I show that Goltz adhered to a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Horizon for Scientific Practice: Scientific Discovery and Progress.James A. Marcum - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (2):187-215.
    In this article, I introduce the notion of horizon for scientific practice (HSP), representing limits or boundaries within which scientists ply their trade, to facilitate analysis of scientific discovery and progress. The notion includes not only constraints that delimit scientific practice, e.g. of bringing experimentation to a temporary conclusion, but also possibilities that open up scientific practice to additional scientific discovery and to further scientific progress. Importantly, it represents scientific practice as a dynamic and developmental integration of activities to investigate (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Arche-Writing and Data-Production in Theory-Oriented Scientific Practice: The Case of Free-Viewing as Experimental System to Test the Temporal Correlation Hypothesis.Juan Felipe Espinosa Cristia, Carla Fardella & Juan Manuel Garrido Wainer - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-27.
    Data production in experimental sciences depends on localised experimental systems, but the epistemic properties of data transcend the contingencies of the processes that produce them. Philosophers often believe that experimental systems instantiate but do not produce the epistemic properties of data. In this paper, we argue that experimental systems' local functioning entails intrinsic capacities to produce the epistemic properties of data. We develop this idea by applying Derrida's model of arche-writing to study a case of theory-oriented experimental practice. Derrida's model (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Model Organisms as Simulators: The Context of Cross-Species Research and Emergence.Sim-Hui Tee - 2019 - Axiomathes 29 (4):363-382.
    Model organisms are a living form of scientific models. Despite the widespread use of model organisms in scientific research, the actual representational relationship between model organisms and their target species is often poorly characterized in the context of cross-species research. Many model organisms do not represent the target species adequately, let alone accurately. This is partly due to the complex and emergent life phenomena in the organism, and partly due to the fact that a model organism is always taken to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Computational Construction of the Reality: Abstraction and Exploration-Driven Strategies in Constructing Protein–Protein Interfaces.Sim-Hui Tee - 2019 - Axiomathes 29 (3):311-328.
    Computational modeling is one of the primary approaches to constructing protein–protein interfaces in the laboratory. The algorithm-driven computational protein design has been successfully applied to the construction of functional proteins with improved binding affinity and increased thermostability. It is intriguing how a computational protein modeling approach can construct and shape the reality of new functional proteins from scratch. I articulate an account of abstraction and exploration-driven strategies in this computational endeavor. I aim to show that how a computational modelling approach, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Robot life: simulation and participation in the study of evolution and social behavior.Christopher M. Kelty - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):16.
    This paper explores the case of using robots to simulate evolution, in particular the case of Hamilton’s Law. The uses of robots raises several questions that this paper seeks to address. The first concerns the role of the robots in biological research: do they simulate something or do they participate in something? The second question concerns the physicality of the robots: what difference does embodiment make to the role of the robot in these experiments. Thirdly, how do life, embodiment and (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Scientific Coordination Beyond the A Priori: A Three-Dimensional Account of Constitutive Elements in Scientific Practice.Michele Luchetti - 2020 - Dissertation, Central European University
    In this dissertation, I present a novel account of the components that have a peculiar epistemic role in our scientific inquiries, since they contribute to establishing a form of coordination. The issue of coordination is a classic epistemic problem concerning how we justify our use of abstract conceptual tools to represent concrete phenomena. For instance, how could we get to represent universal gravitation as a mathematical formula or temperature by means of a numerical scale? This problem is particularly pressing when (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Social Experiments in Stem Cell Biology.Melinda B. Fagan - 2011 - Perspectives on Science 19 (3):235-262.
    Stem cell biology is driven by experiment. Its major achievements are striking experimental productions: "immortal" human cell lines from spare embryos (Thomson et al. 1998); embryo-like cells from "reprogrammed" adult skin cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006); muscle, blood and nerve tissue generated from stem cells in culture (Lanza et al. 2009, and references therein). Well-confirmed theories are not so prominent, though stem cell biologists do propose and test hypotheses at a profligate rate. 1 This paper aims to characterize the role (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • A New Account of Replication in the Experimental Life Sciences.Stephan Guttinger - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (3):453-471.
    The life sciences are said to be in the midst of a replication crisis because a majority of published results are irreproducible, and scientists rarely replicate existing data. Here I argue that point 2 of this assessment is flawed because there is a hitherto unidentified form of replication in the experimental life sciences, which I call ‘microreplications’. Using a case study from biochemistry, I illustrate how MRs depend on a key element of experimentation, namely, experimental controls. I end by reflecting (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • On MicroRNA and the Need for Exploratory Experimentation in Post-Genomic Molecular Biology.Richard M. Burian - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):285 - 311.
    This paper is devoted to an examination of the discovery, characterization, and analysis of the functions of microRNAs, which also serves as a vehicle for demonstrating the importance of exploratory experimentation in current (post-genomic) molecular biology. The material on microRNAs is important in its own right: it provides important insight into the extreme complexity of regulatory networks involving components made of DNA, RNA, and protein. These networks play a central role in regulating development of multicellular organisms and illustrate the importance (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  • Scientific Protocols as Recipes: A New Way to Look at Experimental Practice in the Life Sciences and the Hidden Philosophy Within.Federico Boem - 2020 - Humana Mente 13 (38).
    The experimental practice in contemporary molecular biology oscillates between the creativity of the researcher in tinkering with the experimental system, and the necessity of standardization of methods of inquiry. Experimental procedures, when standardized in lab protocols, might definitely be seen as actual recipes. Considering these protocols as recipes can help us understand some epistemological characteristics of current practice in molecular biology. On the one hand, protocols represent a common ground, i.e. the possibility of reproducibility, which constitutes one of the essential (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Exploratory Dimension of Fmri Experiments.A. Nicolás Venturelli - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (1):1-36.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Mixtures and Psychological Inference with Resting State fMRI.Joseph McCaffrey & David Danks - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In this essay, we examine the use of resting state fMRI data for psychological inferences. We argue that resting state studies hold the paired promises of discovering novel functional brain networks, and of avoiding some of the limitations of task-based fMRI. However, we argue that the very features of experimental design that enable resting state fMRI to support exploratory science also generate a novel confound. We argue that seemingly key features of resting state functional connectivity networks may be artefacts resulting (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Farmers’ experiments and scientific methodology.Sven Ove Hansson - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (3):1-23.
    Farmers all over the world perform experiments, and have done so since long before modern experimental science and its recognized forerunners. There is a rich anthropological literature on these experiments, but the philosophical issues that they give rise to have not received much attention. Based on the anthropological literature, this study investigates methodological and philosophical issues pertaining to farmers’ experiments, including the choice of interventions to be tested, the planning of experiments, and the use of control fields and other means (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • ‘Models of’ and ‘Models For’: On the Relation Between Mechanistic Models and Experimental Strategies in Molecular Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (2):773-797.
    Molecular biologists exploit information conveyed by mechanistic models for experimental purposes. In this article, I make sense of this aspect of biological practice by developing Keller’s idea of the distinction between ‘models of’ and ‘models for’. ‘Models of (phenomena)’ should be understood as models representing phenomena and are valuable if they explain phenomena. ‘Models for (manipulating phenomena)’ are new types of material manipulations and are important not because of their explanatory force, but because of the interventionist strategies they afford. This (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Varieties of Exploratory Experimentation in Nanotoxicology.Kevin Elliott - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):313 - 336.
    There has been relatively little effort to provide a systematic overview of different forms of exploratory experimentation (EE). The present paper examines the growing subdiscipline of nanotoxicology and suggests that it illustrates at least four ways that researchers can engage in EE: searching for regularities; developing new techniques, simulation models, and instrumentation; collecting and analyzing large swaths of data using new experimental strategies (e.g., computer-based simulation and "high-throughput" instrumentation); and structuring an entire disciplinary field around exploratory research agendas. In order (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  • The Strong and Weak Senses of Theory-Ladenness of Experimentation: Theory-Driven Versus Exploratory Experiments in the History of High-Energy Particle Physics.Koray Karaca - 2013 - Science in Context 26 (1):93-136.
    ArgumentIn the theory-dominated view of scientific experimentation, all relations of theory and experiment are taken on a par; namely, that experiments are performed solely to ascertain the conclusions of scientific theories. As a result, different aspects of experimentation and of the relations of theory to experiment remain undifferentiated. This in turn fosters a notion of theory-ladenness of experimentation that is toocoarse-grainedto accurately describe the relations of theory and experiment in scientific practice. By contrast, in this article, I suggest that TLE (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • Intervention as Both Test and Exploration: Reexamining the PaJaMo Experiment Based on Aims and Modes of Interventions.Hsiao-Fan Yeh & Ruey-Lin Chen - unknown
    This paper explores multiple experimental interventions in molecular biology. By “multiple,” we mean that molecular biologists often use different modes of experimental interventions in a series of experiments for one and the same subject. In performing such a series of experiment, scientists may use different modes of interventions to realize plural goals such as testing given hypotheses and exploring novel phenomena. In order to illustrate this claim, we develop a framework of multiple modes of experimental interventions to analyze a series (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Selection Does Not Operate Primarily on Genes.Richard Burian - 2008 - In Francisco José Ayala & Robert Arp (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Biology. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This chapter offers a review of standard views about the requirements for natural selection to shape evolution and for the sorts of ‘units’ on which selection might operate. It then summarizes traditional arguments for genic selectionism, i.e., the view that selection operates primarily on genes (e.g., those of G. C. Williams, Richard Dawkins, and David Hull) and traditional counterarguments (e.g., those of William Wimsatt, Richard Lewontin, and Elliott Sober, and a diffuse group based on life history strategies). It then offers (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Aspects of Theory-Ladenness in Data-Intensive Science.Wolfgang Pietsch - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):905-916.
    Recent claims, mainly from computer scientists, concerning a largely automated and model-free data-intensive science have been countered by critical reactions from a number of philosophers of science. The debate suffers from a lack of detail in two respects, regarding the actual methods used in data-intensive science and the specific ways in which these methods presuppose theoretical assumptions. I examine two widely-used algorithms, classificatory trees and non-parametric regression, and argue that these are theory-laden in an external sense, regarding the framing of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • A Case Study in Experimental Exploration: Exploratory Data Selection at the Large Hadron Collider.Koray Karaca - 2017 - Synthese 194 (2):333-354.
    In this paper, I propose an account that accommodates the possibility of experimentation being exploratory in cases where the procedures necessary to plan and perform an experiment are dependent on the theoretical accounts of the phenomena under investigation. The present account suggests that experimental exploration requires the implementation of an exploratory procedure that serves to extend the range of possible outcomes of an experiment, thereby enabling it to pursue its objectives. Furthermore, I argue that the present account subsumes the notion (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • Insights & Perspectives.Hallam Stevens - unknown - Bioessays 34:103 - 105.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Exploratory Experimentation and Scientific Practice: Metagenomics and the Proteorhodopsin Case.Maureen O'Malley - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):337 - 360.
    Exploratory experimentation and high-throughput molecular biology appear to have considerable affinity for each other. Included in the latter category is metagenomics, which is the DNA-based study of diverse microbial communities from a vast range of non-laboratory environments. Metagenomics has already made numerous discoveries and these have led to reinterpretations of fundamental concepts of microbial organization, evolution, and ecology. The most outstanding success story of metagenomics to date involves the discovery of a rhodopsin gene, named proteorhodopsin, in marine bacteria that were (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  • Stretching the Traditional Notion of Experiment in Computing: Explorative Experiments.Viola Schiaffonati - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):647-665.
    Experimentation represents today a ‘hot’ topic in computing. If experiments made with the support of computers, such as computer simulations, have received increasing attention from philosophers of science and technology, questions such as “what does it mean to do experiments in computer science and engineering and what are their benefits?” emerged only recently as central in the debate over the disciplinary status of the discipline. In this work we aim at showing, also by means of paradigmatic examples, how the traditional (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Dr. Sanger, Meet Mr. Moore.Hallam Stevens - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (2):103-105.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • “Exploratory Experimentation” as a Probe Into the Relation Between Historiography and Philosophy of Science.Jutta Schickore - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 55:20-26.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • From Genetic to Genomic Regulation: Iterativity in microRNA Research.Maureen A. O’Malley, Kevin C. Elliott & Richard M. Burian - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):407-417.
    The discovery and ongoing investigation of microRNAs suggest important conceptual and methodological lessons for philosophers and historians of biology. This paper provides an account of miRNA research and the shift from viewing these tiny regulatory entities as minor curiosities to seeing them as major players in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Conceptually, the study of miRNAs is part of a broader change in understandings of genetic regulation, in which simple switch-like mechanisms were reinterpreted as aspects of complex cellular and genome-wide (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  • Epistemic and Methodological Iteration in Scientific Research.Kevin C. Elliott - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (2):376-382.
    A number of scholars have recently drawn attention to the importance of iteration in scientific research. This paper builds on these previous discussions by drawing a distinction between epistemic and methodological forms of iteration and by clarifying the relationships between them. As defined here, epistemic iteration involves progressive alterations to scientific knowledge claims, whereas methodological iteration refers to an interplay between different modes of research practice. While distinct, these two forms of iteration are related in important ways. Contemporary research on (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations