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  1. Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2021 - AI and Society 2:1-10.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  • Computer Says I Don’t Know: An Empirical Approach to Capture Moral Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence.Andreia Martinho, Maarten Kroesen & Caspar Chorus - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (2):215-237.
    As AI Systems become increasingly autonomous, they are expected to engage in decision-making processes that have moral implications. In this research we integrate theoretical and empirical lines of thought to address the matters of moral reasoning and moral uncertainty in AI Systems. We reconceptualize the metanormative framework for decision-making under moral uncertainty and we operationalize it through a latent class choice model. The core idea being that moral heterogeneity in society can be codified in terms of a small number of (...)
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  • The Influence of Business Incentives and Attitudes on Ethics Discourse in the Information Technology Industry.Sanju Ahuja & Jyoti Kumar - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-26.
    As information technologies have become synonymous with progress in modern society, several ethical concerns have surfaced about their societal implications. In the past few decades, information technologies have had a value-laden impact on social evolution. However, there is limited agreement on the responsibility of businesses and innovators concerning the ethical aspects of information technologies. There is a need to understand the role of business incentives and attitudes in driving technological progress and to understand how they steer the ethics discourse on (...)
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  • Embedding Values in Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems.Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (3):385-409.
    Organizations such as the EU High-Level Expert Group on AI and the IEEE have recently formulated ethical principles and values that should be adhered to in the design and deployment of artificial intelligence. These include respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, fairness, transparency, explainability, and accountability. But how can we ensure and verify that an AI system actually respects these values? To help answer this question, I propose an account for determining when an AI system can be said to embody certain values. (...)
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  • Ethics of Digital Contact Tracing and COVID-19: Who is (Not) Free to Go?Michael Klenk & Hein Duijf - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Digital tracing technologies are heralded as an effective way of containing SARS-CoV-2 faster than it is spreading, thereby allowing the possibility of easing draconic measures of population-wide quarantine. But existing technological proposals risk addressing the wrong problem. The proper objective is not solely to maximise the ratio of people freed from quarantine but to also ensure that the composition of the freed group is fair. We identify several factors that pose a risk for fair group composition along with an analysis (...)
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  • (Online) Manipulation: Sometimes Hidden, Always Careless.Michael Klenk - forthcoming - Review of Social Economy.
    Ever-increasing numbers of human interactions with intelligent software agents, online and offline, and their increasing ability to influence humans have prompted a surge in attention toward the concept of (online) manipulation. Several scholars have argued that manipulative influence is always hidden. But manipulation is sometimes overt, and when this is acknowledged the distinction between manipulation and other forms of social influence becomes problematic. Therefore, we need a better conceptualisation of manipulation that allows it to be overt and yet clearly distinct (...)
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