Switch to: References

Citations of:

Relativism

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2008)

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. Structures and Logics: A Case for (a) Relativism.Stewart Shapiro - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S2):309-329.
    In this paper, I use the cases of intuitionistic arithmetic with Church’s thesis, intuitionistic analysis, and smooth infinitesimal analysis to argue for a sort of pluralism or relativism about logic. The thesis is that logic is relative to a structure. There are classical structures, intuitionistic structures, and (possibly) paraconsistent structures. Each such structure is a legitimate branch of mathematics, and there does not seem to be an interesting logic that is common to all of them. One main theme of my (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • The Relativist Response to Radical Skepticism.Peter J. Graham - 2008 - In John Greco (ed.), The Oxford handbook of skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Elevating the Role of Divestment in Socially Responsible Investing.Cedric E. Dawkins - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (2):465-478.
    The divest movement has focused attention on strategic and ethical differences in the practice of socially responsible investing and highlighted an unnecessary bifurcation of best-of-class engagement and divestment. Although best-of-class engagement is favored as a contemporary and pragmatic approach, this paper calls for a more pronounced recognition of absolute dealbreakers and divestment as an underpinning for best-of-class engagement. After linking divestment and best-of-class engagement to their foundations of absolutism and relativism, respectively, I critique best-of-class engagement and argue that without a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Perspectivism as a Way of Knowing in the Zhuangzi.Tim Connolly - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):487-505.
    A perspectivist theory is usually taken to mean that (1) our knowledge of the world is inevitably shaped by our particular perspectives, (2) any one of these perspectives is as good as any other, and (3) any claims to objective or authoritative knowledge are consequently without ground. Recent scholarship on Nietzsche, however, has challenged the prevalent view that the philosopher holds (2) and (3), arguing instead that his perspectivism aims at attaining a greater level of objectivity. In this essay, I (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • It Ain’t Easy: Fictionalism, Deflationism, and Easy Arguments in Ontology.Gabriele Contessa - 2016 - Mind 125 (499):763-773.
    Fictionalism and deflationism are two moderate meta-ontological positions that try to occupy a middle ground between the extremes of heavy-duty realism and hard-line eliminativism. Deflationists believe that the existence of certain entities (e.g.: numbers) can be established by means of ‘easy’ arguments—arguments that, supposedly, rely solely on uncontroversial premises and trivial inferences. Fictionalists, however, find easy arguments unconvincing. Amie Thomasson has recently argued that, in their criticism of easy arguments, fictionalists beg the question against deflationism and that the fictionalist alternative (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • The Politics of Military Force: Antimilitarism, Ideational Change, and Post-Cold War German Security Discourse.Frank Stengel - 2020 - Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
    The Politics of Military Force uses discourse theory to examine the dynamics of discursive change that made participation in military operations possible against the background of German antimilitarist culture. Once considered a strict taboo, so-called out-of-area operations have now become widely considered by German policymakers to be without alternative. The book argues that an understanding of how certain policies are made possible (in this case, military operations abroad and force transformation), one needs to focus on processes of discursive change that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Why we Should Still Take it Easy.Amie L. Thomasson - 2017 - Mind 126 (503):769-779.
    In an earlier paper in this journal I argued that deflationism is preferable to fictionalism as an alternative to both traditional realism and eliminativism. Gabriele Contessa questions this conclusion, denying that fictionalist arguments beg the question against easy ontological arguments, presenting a new argument against easy ontology, and suggesting a response to the challenge I raise for fictionalists. Below I respond to these points in turn. In so doing, I hope to clarify the broader theoretic orientation of easy ontology—in particular, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • The Ontological Significance of the History of Science.Olga Stoliarova - 2015 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 9 (1):140-165.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Is a Universal Morality possible?Ferenc Horcher (ed.) - 2015 - L’Harmattan Publishing.
    This volume - the joint effort of the research groups on practical philosophy and the history of political thought of the Institute of Philosophy of the Research Centre for the Humanities of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences - brings together scholarly essays that attempt to face the challenges of the contemporary situation. The authors come from rather divergent disciplinary backgrounds, including philosophy, law, history, literature and the social sciences, from different cultural and political contexts, including Central, Eastern and Western Europe, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Fictionalism versus deflationism: a new look.Matteo Plebani - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (2):301-316.
    In the recent literature there has been some debate between advocates of deflationist and fictionalist positions in metaontology. The purpose of this paper is to advance the debate by reconsidering one objection presented by Amie Thomasson against fictionalist strategies in metaontology. The objection can be reconstructed in the following way. Fictionalists need to distinguish between the literal and the real content of sentences belonging to certain areas of discourse. In order to make that distinction, they need to assign different truth-conditions (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Relativism and the Ontological Turn within Anthropology.Martin Paleček & Mark Risjord - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):3-23.
    The “ontological turn” is a recent movement within cultural anthropology. Its proponents want to move beyond a representationalist framework, where cultures are treated as systems of belief that provide different perspectives on a single world. Authors who write in this vein move from talk of many cultures to many “worlds,” thus appearing to affirm a form of relativism. We argue that, unlike earlier forms of relativism, the ontological turn in anthropology is not only immune to the arguments of Donald Davidson’s (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • The aporetics of religious diversity.Geert Drieghe - unknown
    My thesis situates itself within the field of the Philosophy of Worldviews. Specifically, it aims to address the normative question of what the task should be of such a philosophy when faced with the problem of conflicting beliefs between religious worldviews. To answer this question, I turn to the procedure of aporetical analysis, in short, aporetics. Firstly, aporetics offers a distinct method of consistency restoration within inconsistent sets on the basis of thesis rejection and thesis modification. Secondly, aporetics leads to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Structure of Scientific Theories.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientific inquiry has led to immense explanatory and technological successes, partly as a result of the pervasiveness of scientific theories. Relativity theory, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonics were, and continue to be, wildly successful families of theories within physics, biology, and geology. Other powerful theory clusters inhabit comparatively recent disciplines such as cognitive science, climate science, molecular biology, microeconomics, and Geographic Information Science (GIS). Effective scientific theories magnify understanding, help supply legitimate explanations, and assist in formulating predictions. Moving from their (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • Relativism.Chris Swoyer - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  • Relativism.Maria Baghramian & Adam J. Carter - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Relativism has been, in its various guises, both one of the most popular and most reviled philosophical doctrines of our time. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness. Debates about relativism permeate the whole spectrum of philosophical sub-disciplines. From ethics to epistemology, science to religion, political theory to ontology, theories of meaning and even logic, philosophy (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   34 citations  
  • Paradox and Relativism.H. Muhammad Legenhausen - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 11 (21):75-80.
    Since the time of Plato, relativism has been attacked as a self-refuting theory. Today, there are two basic kinds of argument that are used to show that global relativism is logically incoherent: first, a direct descendent of the argument Plato uses against Protagoras, called the peritrope; and, second, a more recent argument that relativism leads to an infinite regress. Although some relativist theories may be formulated in such a way as to be susceptible to these arguments, there are other versions (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Internalism and Externalism in the Foundations of Mathematics.Alex A. B. Aspeitia - unknown
    Without a doubt, one of the main reasons Platonsim remains such a strong contender in the Foundations of Mathematics debate is because of the prima facie plausibility of the claim that objectivity needs objects. It seems like nothing else but the existence of external referents for the terms of our mathematical theories and calculations can guarantee the objectivity of our mathematical knowledge. The reason why Frege – and most Platonists ever since – could not adhere to the idea that mathematical (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Moral conditions for methodologically rational decisions.Jan F. Jacko - 2018 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 111:209–223.
    The study’s main thesis is that respect for some moral values is a condition for methodologically rational decisions, namely, decisions which do not satisfy the condition are either not methodologically rational at all, or not fully rational. The paper shows supporting arguments for the thesis in terms of the philosophical theories by Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Max Weber, Jean-Paul Sartre and some other thinkers. Their presentation undergoes phenomenological analysis of the phenomenon of decision making.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • A Wittgensteinian Approach to Rationality in Argumentation.Menashe Schwed - unknown
    The central supposition of the sceptical controversy regarding rationality in the theory of argumentation is that either there are universal standards against which the reasonableness of arguments can be evaluate or, conversely, that there are no determinate standards against which arguments can be evaluated, and hence no methods by which disputes can be rationally resolved. The paper argues that the basic terms of this debate are erroneously defined and that there is a middle path in this sceptical controversy. The paper (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • The Theory and Application of Critical Realist Philosophy and Morphogenetic Methodology: Emergent Structural and Agential Relations at a Hospice.Martin Lipscomb - unknown
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Four Arguments for Universal Relativism.Gregor Flock - 2015 - In Christian Kanzian, Josef Mitterer & Katharina Neges (eds.), Contributions of the 38th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society. pp. 89-91.
    In the academic literature and elsewhere, specific relativisms are often a hotly debated topic. In this paper, I considerably up the ante by proposing an across the board universal relativism that is supported by four arguments: an inductive argument, an argument from causality, an argument from elimination, and an argument against self-refutation.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Pluralismo, Monismo e Relativismo Lógico.Diogo Dias - 2018 - Revista de Filosofia Moderna E Contemporânea 6 (2):21-36.
    Is there only one logic? Or are there several equally adequate logics? What does it mean, after all, that different logics can be equally adequate? And they would be adequate with respect to what?This article intends to analyze the different answers to these questions, that is, we will evaluate the central arguments of the debate between pluralism, relativism and logical monism. We will explain,on the one hand, the main assumptions of this discussion and, on the other hand, its philosophical ramifications. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • A phenomenological account of practices.Matthew Louis Drabek - unknown
    Appeals to practices are common the humanities and social sciences. They hold the potential to explain interesting or compelling similarities, insofar as similarities are distributed within a community or group. Why is it that people who fall under the same category, whether men, women, Americans, baseball players, Buddhists, feminists, white people, or others, have interesting similarities, such as similar beliefs, actions, thoughts, foibles, and failings? One attractive answer is that they engage in the same practices. They do the same things, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Relativism and Alethic Functionalism.Dan Zeman - 2007 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 14 (1):53-71.
    The essay is an attempt to offer a version of conceptual relativism that escapes Donald Davidson’s decisive criticisms of the notion of “conceptual scheme”. Two variants of relativism are distinguished, a weaker and a stronger one, and a clear formulation of what a strong version amounts to is put forward. The concrete proposal involves accepting a version of alethic pluralism. After discussing alethic pluralism in general, and after exploring both strong and weak versions of it, a suitable version is presented: (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Obstacles to the Relativity of Truth.Tomáš Marvan - 2006 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 13 (4):439-450.
    The introductory section of the paper attempts to clarify the theoretical frame-work of truth-relativism. The paper then presents three obstacles to those who would like to relativise truth of a statement. These concern the distinction between absolutely and relatively true statements, the identity of a proposition across different perspectives and the possibility of distinguishing between various ways of construing the truth predicate.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • In Defence of Epistemic Relativism: The Concept of Truth in Georg Simmel’s Philosophy of Money.Johannes Steizinger - 2015 - Proceedings of the 38th International Ludwig Wittgenstein-Symposium:300−302.
    As one of the first modern philosophers, Georg Simmel systematically developed a “relativistic world view” (Simmel 2004, VI). In this paper I attempt to examine Simmel’s relativistic answer to the question of truth. I trace his main arguments regarding the concept of truth and present his justification of epistemic relativism. In doing so, I also want to show that some of Simmel’s claims are surprisingly timely. Simmel’s relativistic concept of truth is supported by an evolutionary argument. The first part of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Commentary on Menashe Schwed, "A Wittgensteinian approach to rationality in argumentation".Andrew Aberdein - 2009 - In Juho Ritola (ed.), Argument cultures: Proceedings of OSSA 2009. OSSA.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Overcoming the Obstacles to the Relativity of Truth.Dan Zeman - 2007 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 14 (2):232-241.
    This is a reply to Tomas Marvan's paper "Obstacles to the Relativity of Truth", published in the same issue, in which I attempt to provide an interpretation of the relativist schema "x is true relative to y" by understanding x as ranging over propositions and y as ranging over circumstances of evaluation, as in the familiar Kaplanian picture of semantics. I then answer some of Marvan's worries and reject certain views considered relativist on the basis that they are, in fact, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark