Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. Anarchy, State, and Utopia.Robert Nozick - 1974 - Basic Books.
    Winner of the 1975 National Book Award, this brilliant and widely acclaimed book is a powerful philosophical challenge to the most widely held political and social positions of our age--liberal, socialist, and conservative.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1433 citations  
  • Beyond Prejudice: The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals.Evelyn B. Pluhar - 1995 - Duke University Press.
    In _Beyond Prejudice_, Evelyn B. Pluhar defends the view that any sentient conative being—one capable of caring about what happens to him or herself—is morally significant, a view that supports the moral status and rights of many nonhuman animals. Confronting traditional and contemporary philosophical arguments, she offers in clear and accessible fashion a thorough examination of theories of moral significance while decisively demonstrating the flaws in the arguments of those who would avoid attributing moral rights to nonhumans. Exposing the traditional (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  • Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics.L. W. Sumner - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Moral philosophers agree that welfare matters. But they disagree about what it is, or how much it matters. In this vital new work, Wayne Sumner presents an original theory of welfare, investigating its nature and discussing its importance. He considers and rejects all notable theories of welfare, both objective and subjective, including hedonism and theories founded on desire or preference. His own theory connects welfare closely with happiness or life satisfaction. Reacting against the value pluralism that currently dominates moral philosophy, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   250 citations  
  • Animal Morality: What is the Debate About?Simon Fitzpatrick - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1151-1183.
    Empirical studies of the social lives of non-human primates, cetaceans, and other social animals have prompted scientists and philosophers to debate the question of whether morality and moral cognition exists in non-human animals. Some researchers have argued that morality does exist in several animal species, others that these species may possess various evolutionary building blocks or precursors to morality, but not quite the genuine article, while some have argued that nothing remotely resembling morality can be found in any non-human species. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Meaning in the Lives of Humans and Other Animals.Duncan Purves & Nicolas Delon - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (2):317-338.
    This paper argues that contemporary philosophical literature on meaning in life has important implications for the debate about our obligations to non-human animals. If animal lives can be meaningful, then practices including factory farming and animal research might be morally worse than ethicists have thought. We argue for two theses about meaning in life: that the best account of meaningful lives must take intentional action to be necessary for meaning—an individual’s life has meaning if and only if the individual acts (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  • Concepts of Animal Welfare in Relation to Positions in Animal Ethics.Kirsten Schmidt - 2011 - Acta Biotheoretica 59 (2):153-171.
    When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • The Opposite of Human Enhancement: Nanotechnology and the Blind Chicken Problem. [REVIEW]Paul B. Thompson - 2008 - NanoEthics 2 (3):305-316.
    Nanotechnologies that have been linked to the possibility of enhancing cognitive capabilities of human beings might also be deployed to reduce or eliminate such capabilities in non-human vertebrate animals. A surprisingly large literature on the ethics of such disenhancement has been developed in response to the suggestion that it would be an ethically defensible response to animal suffering both in medical experimentation and in industrial livestock production. However, review of this literature illustrates the difficulty of formulating a coherent ethical debate. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  • Review of Sumner, *Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics*. [REVIEW]Bruce Brower - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (2):309.
    Despite being co-opted by economists and politicians for their own purposes, ‘welfare’ traditionally refers to well-being, and it is in this sense that L. W. Sumner understands the term. His book is a clear, careful, and well-crafted investigation into major theories of welfare, accompanied by a one-chapter defense of “welfarism,” the view that welfare is the only foundational value necessary for ethics. Sumner himself is attracted to utilitarianism, but he makes no commitment to it in this work, which will be (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   190 citations  
  • Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status.Brian Luke & David DeGrazia - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (2):300.
    David DeGrazia’s stated purposes for Taking Animals Seriously are to apply a coherentist methodology to animal ethics, to do the philosophical work necessary for discussing animal minds, and to fill in some of the gaps in the existing literature on animal ethics.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  • Minding What Already Matters: A Critique of Moral Individualism.Alice Crary - 2010 - Philosophical Topics 38 (1):17-49.
    This article offers a critique of moral individualism. I introduce the topic of moral individualism by discussing how its characteristic assumptions play an organizing role in contemporary conversations about how animals should be treated. I counter that moral individualism fails to do justice not only to our ethical relationships with animals but also to our ethical relationships with human beings. My main argument draws on elements of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy of psychology, and in presenting the argument I address the case (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership.Martha C. Nussbaum (ed.) - 2006 - Belknap Press.
    Theories of social justice are necessarily abstract, reaching beyond the particular and the immediate to the general and the timeless. Yet such theories, addressing the world and its problems, must respond to the real and changing dilemmas of the day. A brilliant work of practical philosophy, Frontiers of Justice is dedicated to this proposition. Taking up three urgent problems of social justice neglected by current theories and thus harder to tackle in practical terms and everyday life, Martha Nussbaum seeks a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   392 citations  
  • Animals Like Us.Mark Rowlands - 2002 - Verso.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals.Marc Bekoff & Jessica Pierce - 2009 - University of Chicago Press.
    Scientists have long counseled against interpreting animal behavior in terms of human emotions, warning that such anthropomorphizing limits our ability to understand animals as they really are. Yet what are we to make of a female gorilla in a German zoo who spent days mourning the death of her baby? Or a wild female elephant who cared for a younger one after she was injured by a rambunctious teenage male? Or a rat who refused to push a lever for food (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  • Ape Imagination? A Sentimentalist Critique of Frans de Waal’s Gradualist Theory of Human Morality.Paul Carron - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):22.
    This essay draws on Adam Smith’s moral sentimentalism to critique primatologist Frans de Waal’s gradualist theory of human morality. De Waal has spent his career arguing for continuity between primate behavior and human morality, proposing that empathy is a primary moral building block evident in primate behavior. Smith’s moral sentimentalism—with its emphasis on the role of sympathy in moral virtue—provides the philosophical framework for de Waal’s understanding of morality. Smith’s notion of sympathy and the imagination involved in sympathy is qualitatively (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Why Human Beings May Use Animals.Tibor R. Machan - 2002 - Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (1):9-16.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Animal Disenhancement for Animal Welfare: The Apparent Philosophical Conundrums and the Real Exploitation of Animals. A Response to Thompson and Palmer. [REVIEW]Arianna Ferrari - 2012 - NanoEthics 6 (1):65-76.
    Abstract In his paper “The Opposite of Human Enhancement: Nanotechnology and the Blind Chicken problem” ( Nanoethics 2: 305-36, 2008) Thompson argued that technological attempts to reduce or eliminate selected non-human animals’ capabilities (animal disenhancements) in order to solve or mitigate animal welfare problems in animals’ use pose a philosophical conundrum, because there is a contradiction between rational arguments in favor of these technological interventions and intuitions against them. In her response “Animal Disenhancement and the Non-Identity Problem: A Response to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Morality Without Mindreading.Susana Monsó - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (3):338-357.
    Could animals behave morally if they can’t mindread? Does morality require mindreading capacities? Moral psychologists believe mindreading is contingently involved in moral judgements. Moral philosophers argue that moral behaviour necessarily requires the possession of mindreading capacities. In this paper, I argue that, while the former may be right, the latter are mistaken. Using the example of empathy, I show that animals with no mindreading capacities could behave on the basis of emotions that possess an identifiable moral content. Therefore, at least (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Moral Agency in Other Animals.Paul Shapiro - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):357-373.
    Some philosophers have argued that moral agency is characteristic of humans alone and that its absence from other animals justifies granting higher moral status to humans. However, human beings do not have a monopoly on moral agency, which admits of varying degrees and does not require mastery of moral principles. The view that all and only humans possess moral agency indicates our underestimation of the mental lives of other animals. Since many other animals are moral agents (to varying degrees), they (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • In Defense of Dolphins: The New Moral Frontier.Thomas White - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Have humans been sharing the planet with other intelligent life for millions of years without realizing it? _In Defense of Dolphins_ combines accessible science and philosophy, surveying the latest research on dolphin intelligence and social behavior, to advocate for their ethical treatment. Encourages a reassessment of the human-dolphin relationship, arguing for an end to the inhuman treatment of dolphins Written by an expert philosopher with almost twenty-years of experience studying dolphins Combines up-to-date research supporting the sophisticated cognitive and emotional capacities (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • Morals, Reason, and Animals.S. F. Sapontzis - 1987 - Temple University Press.
    This book criticizes the common belief that we are entitled to exploit animals for our benefit because they are not as rational as people. After discussing the moral (in)significance of reason in general, the author proceeds to develop a clear, commonsensical conception of what "animal rights" is about and why everyday morality points toward the liberation of animals as the next logical step in Western moral progress. The book evaluates criticisms of animal rights that have appeared in recent philosophical literature (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   99 citations  
  • Beyond 'Compassion and Humanity': Justice for Nonhuman Animals.Martha C. Nussbaum - 2004 - In Cass R. Sunstein & Martha Craven Nussbaum (eds.), Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions. Oxford University Press. pp. 299--320.
    This chapter discusses the application of the capabilities approach to the question of animal rights. It explains that this approach provides better theoretical guidance on the issue of animal entitlements over contractarian and utilitarian approaches because it is capable of recognising a wide range of types of animal dignity and of corresponding needs for flourishing. The chapter criticises the view of philosopher Immanuel Kant and his followers that mistreatment of animals does not raise questions of justice and suggests that the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  • A Theory of Justice.John Rawls - unknown
    Though the revised edition of A Theory of Justice, published in 1999, is the definitive statement of Rawls's view, so much of the extensive literature on Rawls's theory refers to the first edition.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3509 citations  
  • Can Animals Be Moral?Mark Rowlands - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Can animals act morally? Philosophical tradition answers 'no,' and has apparently convincing arguments on its side. Cognitive ethology supplies a growing body of empirical evidence that suggests these arguments are wrong. This groundbreaking book assimilates both philosophical and ethological frameworks into a unified whole and argues for a qualified 'yes.'.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  • Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats.Inbal Ben-Ami Bartal, Haozhe Shan, Nora M. R. Molasky, Teresa M. Murray, Jasper Z. Williams, Jean Decety & Peggy Mason - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Morality and the Distinctiveness of Human Action.Christine Korsgaard - 2006 - In Stephen Macedo & Josiah Ober (eds.), Primates and Philosophers. Princeton University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  • Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status.David Degrazia - 1999 - Philosophical Quarterly 49 (195):246-247.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   69 citations  
  • Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals.Marc Bekoff & Jessica Pierce - 2009 - University of Chicago Press.
    Scientists have long counseled against interpreting animal behavior in terms of human emotions, warning that such anthropomorphizing limits our ability to understand animals as they really are. Yet what are we to make of a female gorilla in a German zoo who spent days mourning the death of her baby? Or a wild female elephant who cared for a younger one after she was injured by a rambunctious teenage male? Or a rat who refused to push a lever for food (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   45 citations  
  • Morals, Reasons, and Animals.R. G. Frey - 1989 - Ethics 100 (1):191-192.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   72 citations  
  • The Moral Case for Experimentation on Animals.H. J. McCloskey - 1987 - The Monist 70 (1):64-82.
    The moral case for experimentation on animals rests both on the goods to be realized, the evils to be avoided thereby, and on the duty to respect persons and to secure them in the enjoyment of their natural moral rights. Some experimentation on animals presents no problems of justification as it involves no harm at all to the animals which are the subject of experiments and is such as to seek to achieve an advance in knowledge. Experiments on non-sentient animals, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Anarchy, State, and Utopia.Robert Nozick - 1974 - Philosophy 52 (199):102-105.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1455 citations  
  • Darwin's Mistake: Explaining the Discontinuity Between Human and Nonhuman Minds.Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):109-130.
    Over the last quarter century, the dominant tendency in comparative cognitive psychology has been to emphasize the similarities between human and nonhuman minds and to downplay the differences as (Darwin 1871). In the present target article, we argue that Darwin was mistaken: the profound biological continuity between human and nonhuman animals masks an equally profound discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. To wit, there is a significant discontinuity in the degree to which human and nonhuman animals are able to approximate (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   201 citations  
  • Painism: Some Moral Rules for the Civilized Experimenter.Richard D. Ryder - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (1):35-42.
    One of the barriers between ordinarily compassionate animal researchers and pro-animal ethicists is that the ethicists are usually seen as asking for far too much. They are perceived as demanding the complete abandonment of careers. In consequence, the ethicist is often ignored. Ethicists rarely give clear-cut rules to animal researchers as to how they can continue in animal research while at the same time adopting an increasingly moral approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide some rules to help (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Cognitive Relatives yet Moral Strangers? Benz-Schwarzburg & Knight - 2011 - Journal of Animal Ethics 1 (1):9.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Defending the Objective List Theory of Well‐Being.Christopher M. Rice - 2013 - Ratio 26 (2):196-211.
    The objective list theory of well-being holds that a plurality of basic objective goods directly benefit people. These can include goods such as loving relationships, meaningful knowledge, autonomy, achievement, and pleasure. The objective list theory is pluralistic (it does not identify an underlying feature shared by these goods) and objective (the basic goods benefit people independently of their reactive attitudes toward them). In this paper, I discuss the structure of this theory and show how it is supported by people's considered (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  • Animals That Act for Moral Reasons.Mark Rowlands - unknown
    Non-human animals (henceforth, “animals”) are typically regarded as moral patients rather than moral agents. Let us define these terms as follows: 1) X is a moral patient if and only if X is a legitimate object of moral concern: that is, roughly, X is something whose interests should be taken into account when decisions are made concerning it or which otherwise impact on it. 2) X is a moral agent if and only if X can be morally evaluated–praised or blamed (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • On Ethics and Economics.Amartya Sen - 1989 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 51 (4):722-723.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   177 citations  
  • Welfare is to Do with What Animals Feel.Ian J. H. Duncan - forthcoming - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations