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Ecological Justice and the Extinction Crisis: Giving Living Beings their Due

Bristol, Vereinigtes Königreich: Bristol University Press (2020)

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  1. Biocentrism Defended.James P. Sterba - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):167 - 169.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 167-169, June 2011.
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  • An Essay on Rights.Hillel Steiner - 1994 - Oxford, Uk ;Blackwell.
    This book addresses the perennial question: What is justice?
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  • A Biocentrist Strikes Back.James P. Sterba - 1998 - Environmental Ethics 20 (4):361-376.
    Biocentrists are criticized (1) for being biased in favor of the human species, (2) for basing their view on an ecology that is now widely challenged, and (3) for failing to reasonably distinguish the life that they claim has intrinsic value from the animate and inanimate things that they claim lack intrinsic value. In this paper, I show how biocentrism can be defended against these three criticisms, thus permitting biocentrists to justifiably appropriate the salutation, “Let the life force (or better (...)
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  • Why Speciesism is Wrong: A Response to Kagan.Peter Singer - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):31-35.
    In Animal Liberation I argued that we commonly ignore or discount the interests of sentient members of other species merely because they are not human, and that this bias in favour of members of our own species is, in important respects, parallel to the biases that lie behind racism and sexism. Shelly Kagan, in ‘What's Wrong With Speciesism’ misconstrues this argument, as well as the principle of equal consideration of interests, which I offer as an alternative to speciesism. Kagan also (...)
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  • Animal Liberation.Peter Singer (ed.) - 1977 - Avon Books.
    Since its original publication in 1975, this groundbreaking work has awakened millions of concerned men and women to the shocking abuse of animals everywhere--inspiring a worldwide movement to eliminate much of the cruel and unnecessary laboratory animal experimentation of years past. In this newly revised and expanded edition, author Peter Singer exposes the chilling realities of today's "factory farms" and product-testing procedures--offering sound, humane solutions to what has become a profound environmental and social as well as moral issue. An important (...)
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  • Hugo Grotius.John Salter - 2001 - Political Theory 29 (4):537-555.
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  • Hume and Mutual Advantage.John Salter - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (3):302-321.
    Hume’s theory of justice is commonly regarded by contemporary theorists of justice as a theory of justice as mutual advantage. It is thus widely thought to manifest all the unattractive features of such theories: in particular, it is thought to endorse the exclusion of people with serious mental or physical disabilities from the scope and protection of justice and to justify the European expropriation of the lands of defenceless aboriginal people. I argue that this reading of Hume is mistaken. Mutual (...)
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  • Reply to Abizadeh, Chung and Farrelly.Mathias Risse - 2013 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 8 (2):62-73.
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  • Delimiting Justice: Animal, Vegetable, Ecosystem?Angie Pepper - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (1):210-230.
    ANGIE PEPPER | : This paper attempts to bring some clarity to the debate among sentientists, biocentrists, and ecocentrists on the issue of who or what can count as a candidate recipient of justice. I begin by examining the concept of justice and argue that the character of duties and entitlements of justice sets constraints on the types of entities that can be recipients of justice. Specifically, I contend that in order to be a recipient of justice, one must be (...)
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  • The Varieties of Intrinsic Value.John O’Neill - 1992 - The Monist 75 (2):119-137.
    To hold an environmental ethic is to hold that non-human beings and states of affairs in the natural world have intrinsic value. This seemingly straightforward claim has been the focus of much recent philosophical discussion of environmental issues. Its clarity is, however, illusory. The term ‘intrinsic value’ has a variety of senses and many arguments on environmental ethics suffer from a conflation of these different senses: specimen hunters for the fallacy of equivocation will find rich pickings in the area. This (...)
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  • Towards Justice and Virtue.Onora O'neill - 1999 - Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 59 (4):1103-1105.
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  • Species Extinction and Collective Responsibility.Markku Oksanen - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:179-183.
    In this article I explore, from a philosophical perspective, what the responsibility for biodiversity means. Biodiversity is a peculiar thing because it consists of the variety of life in its all manifestations, that is, in all its forms, levels and combinations. Variation is a main characteristic of life on earth. Because of its vastness a collective has not only a right but also a duty to take responsibility for biodiversity conservation, and furthermore it has a prima facie duty to implement (...)
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  • Women and Human Development.Martha C. Nussbaum - 2003 - Mind 112 (446):372-375.
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  • Future Generations: Present Harms.John O' Neill - 1993 - Philosophy 68:35.
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  • Towards an Eco-Marxism.Matthias Lievens - 2010 - Radical Philosophy Review 13 (1):1-17.
    For about the last ten years, a steadily growing stream of publications is feeding a fascinating international debate on the development of an Eco-Marxism. In this paper, the attempts to “ecologize” Marxism are critically discussed, starting with John Bellamy Foster’s path-breaking reconstruction of Marx’s conceptof “metabolic rift” and the Marxian analysis of the privatization of the commons. Although Marx’s understanding of the limits of nature is only partial, authors such as Paul Burkett have convincingly shown a reconstructed Eco-Marxism follows the (...)
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  • Is Broad the New Deep in Environmental Ethics? A Comparison of Broad Ecological Justice and Deep Ecology. Kortetmäki - 2016 - Ethics and the Environment 21 (1):89-108.
    There are different views on which issues can be considered as questions of justice. Until rather recently, the distributive paradigm, or the view that justice is primarily and mostly an issue of distributing certain goods, has dominated the discussion in social justice. Today, distributive paradigm has been challenged by the idea that justice also has other important dimensions such as recognition—the ‘cultural’ dimension of justice that concerns respect and social relations—and participation, the ‘political’ dimension. I propose that this multidimensional approach (...)
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  • Should the Lion Eat Straw Like the Ox? Animal Ethics and the Predation Problem.Jozef Keulartz - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (5):813-834.
    Stephen Clark’s article The Rights of Wild Things from 1979 was the starting point for the consideration in the animal ethics literature of the so-called ‘predation problem’. Clark examines the response of David George Ritchie to Henry Stephens Salt, the first writer who has argued explicitly in favor of animal rights. Ritchie attempts to demonstrate—via reductio ad absurdum—that animals cannot have rights, because granting them rights would oblige us to protect prey animals against predators that wrongly violate their rights. This (...)
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  • Nussbaum and the Capacities of Animals.T. J. Kasperbauer - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (5):977-997.
    Martha Nussbaum’s capabilities approach emphasizes species-specific abilities in grounding our treatment of animals. Though this emphasis provides many action-guiding benefits, it also generates a number of complications. The criticism registered here is that Nussbaum unjustifiably restricts what is allowed into our concept of species norms, the most notable restrictions being placed on latent abilities and those that arise as a result of human intervention. These restrictions run the risk of producing inaccurate or misleading recommendations that fail to correspond to the (...)
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  • A Matter of Individuality.David L. Hull - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (3):335-360.
    Biological species have been treated traditionally as spatiotemporally unrestricted classes. If they are to perform the function which they do in the evolutionary process, they must be spatiotemporally localized individuals, historical entities. Reinterpreting biological species as historical entities solves several important anomalies in biology, in philosophy of biology, and within philosophy itself. It also has important implications for any attempt to present an "evolutionary" analysis of science and for sciences such as anthropology which are devoted to the study of single (...)
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  • The Circumstances of Justice.Simon Hope - 2010 - Hume Studies 36 (2):125-148.
    David Hume famously states, in his A Treatise of Human Nature, “that ’tis only from the selfishness and confin’d generosity of men, along with the scanty provision nature has made for his wants, that justice derives its origin”.1 This is Hume’s summary of the conditions under which the very idea of rules of justice makes practical sense, and he effectively repeats it in the Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals.2 To put it briefly at the outset, Hume’s point is simply (...)
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  • Teleology and Biocentrism.Sune Holm - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4).
    In this paper I examine the connection between accounts of biological teleology and the biocentrist claim that all living beings have a good of their own. I first present the background for biocentrists’ appeal to biological teleology. Then I raise a problem of scope for teleology-based biocentrism and, drawing in part on recent work by Basl and Sandler, I discuss Taylor and Varner’s responses to this problem. I then challenge Basl and Sandler’s own response to the scope problem for its (...)
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  • Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant's Moral Theory.Thomas E. Hill - 1992 - Cornell University Press.
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  • Anthropocentrism: A Misunderstood Problem.Tim Hayward - 1997 - Environmental Values 6 (1):49 - 63.
    Anthropocentrism can intelligibly be criticised as an ontological error, but attempts to conceive of it as an ethical error are liable to conceptual and practical confusion. After noting the paradox that the clearest instances of overcoming anthropocentrism involve precisely the sort of objectivating knowledge which many ecological critics see as itself archetypically anthropocentric, the article presents the follwoing arguments: there are some ways in which anthropocentrism is not objectionable; the defects associated with anthropocentrism in ethics are better understood as instances (...)
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  • On Being Morally Considerable.Kenneth E. Goodpaster - 1978 - Journal of Philosophy 75 (6):308-325.
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  • Interpreting Responsibility Politically.Michael Goodhart - 2017 - Journal of Political Philosophy 25 (2):173-195.
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  • Standing Humbly Before Nature.Lisa Gerber - 2002 - Ethics and the Environment 7 (1):39-53.
    : Humility is a virtue that is helpful in a persons relationship with nature. A humble person sees value in nature and acts accordingly with the proper respect. In this paper, humility is discussed in three aspects. First, humility entails an overcoming of self-absorption. Second, humility involves coming into contact with a larger, more complex reality. Third, humility allows a person to develop a sense of perspective on herself and the world.
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  • Representing Non-Human Interests.Alfonso Donoso - 2017 - Environmental Values 26 (5):607-628.
    In environmental ethics, the legal and political representation of non-humans is a widespread aspiration. Its supporters see representative institutions that give voice to non-humans' interests as a promising strategy for responding to the illegitimate worldwide exploitation of non-human beings. In this article I engage critically with those who support this form of representation, and address two issues central to any account concerned with the legal and political representation of non-human living beings: what should be represented? And what are the conditions (...)
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  • The Nature of Extinction.Julien Delord - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (3):656-667.
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  • Ownership and Justice for Animals.Alasdair Cochrane - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (4):424-442.
    This article argues that it is not necessary to abolish all incidents of animal ownership in order to achieve justice for them. It claims that ownership does not grant owners a right to absolute control of their property. Rather, it argues that ownership is a much more qualified concept, conveying different rights in different contexts. With this understanding of ownership in mind, the article argues that it is possible for humans to own animals and at the same time to treat (...)
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  • The Possibility of Parity.Ruth Chang - 2002 - Ethics 112 (4):659-688.
    This paper argues for the existence of a fourth positive generic value relation that can hold between two items beyond ‘better than’, ‘worse than’, and ‘equally good’: namely ‘on a par’.
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  • Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair.J. Baird Callicott - 1980 - Environmental Ethics 2 (4):311-338.
    The ethical foundations of the “animal liberation” movement are compared with those of Aldo Leopold’s “land ethic,” which is taken as the paradigm for environmental ethics in general. Notwithstanding certain superficial similarities, more profound practical and theoretical differences are exposed. While only sentient animals are moraIly considerable according to the humane ethic, the land ethic includes within its purview plants as weIl as animals and even soils and waters. Nor does the land ethic prohibit the hunting, killing, and eating ofcertain (...)
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  • Poverty, Puritanism and Environmental Conflict.A. Brennan - 1998 - Environmental Values 7 (3):305-331.
    The paper proposes two ideas: (1) The wilderness preservation movement has failed to identify key elements involved in situations of environmental conflict. (2) The same movement seems unaware of its location within a tradition which is both elitist and Puritan. Holmes Rolston's recent work on the apparent conflict between feeding people and saving nature appears to exemplify the two points. With respect to point (1), Rolston's treatment fails to address the institutional and structural features which set the agenda for individual (...)
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  • The Circumstances of Intergenerational Justice.Eric Brandstedt - 2015 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 2 (1):33-56.
    Some key political challenges today, e.g. climate change, are future oriented. The intergenerational setting differs in some notable ways from the intragenerational one, creating obstacles to theorizing about intergenerational justice. One concern is that as the circumstances of justice do not pertain intergenerationally, intergenerational justice is not meaningful. In this paper, I scrutinize this worry by analysing the presentations of the doctrine of the circumstances of justice by David Hume and John Rawls. I argue that we should accept the upshot (...)
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  • Is Metabolism Necessary?M. A. Boden - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (2):231-248.
    Metabolism is a criterion of life. Three senses are distinguished. The weakest allows strong A-Life: virtual creatures having physical existence in computer electronics, but not bodies, are classes as 'alive'. The second excludes strong A-Life but allows that some non-biochemical A-Life robots could be classed as alive. The third, which stresses the body's self-production by energy budgeting and self-equilibrating energy exchanges of some (necessary) complexity, excludes both strong A-Life and living non-biochemical robots.
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  • Sustainability and Intergenerational Justice.Brian Barry - 1997 - Theoria 44:43-64.
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  • Saving Nature, Feeding People and Ethics.R. Attfield - 1998 - Environmental Values 7 (3):291-304.
    Holmes Rolston's case for holding that it is sometimes right to let people starve in order to save nature is argued to be inconclusive at best; some alternative responses to population growth are also presented. The very concept of development implies that authentic development, being socially and ecologically sustainable, will seldom conflict with saving nature (sections 1 and 2). While Rolston's argument about excessive capture of net primary product is fallacious, his view should be endorsed about the wrongness of 'development' (...)
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  • Extinction.G. M. Aitken - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):393-411.
    A significant proportion of conservationists' work is directed towards efforts to save disappearing species. This relies upon the belief that species extinction is undesirable. When justifications are offered for this belief, they very often rest upon the assumption that extinction brought about by humans is different in kind from other forms of extinction. This paper examines this assumption and reveals that there is indeed good reason to suppose current anthropogenic extinctions to be different in kind from extinctions brought about at (...)
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  • Biocentrism and the Concept of Life.Nicholas Agar - 1997 - Ethics 108 (1):147-168.
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  • The Death of the Ethic of Life.John Basl - 2019 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Many subscribe to an Ethic of Life, an ethical perspective on which all living things are deserving of some level of moral concern. Within philosophy, the Ethic of Life has been clarified, developed, and rigorously defended; it has also found its strongest critics. Currently, the debate is at a standstill. This book ends this stalemate by proving that the Ethic of Life must be abandoned.
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  • Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics.Paul W. Taylor - 1986
    What rational justification is there for conceiving of all living things as possessing inherent worth? In Respect for Nature, Paul Taylor draws on biology, moral philosophy, and environmental science to defend a biocentric environmental ethic in which all life has value. Without making claims for the moral rights of plants and animals, he offers a reasoned alternative to the prevailing anthropocentric view--that the natural environment and its wildlife are valued only as objects for human use or enjoyment. Respect for Nature (...)
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  • Property Rights and the Resource Curse.Leif Wenar - 2008 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 36 (1):2–32.
    forthcoming in Philosophy & Public Affairs [2008].
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  • The Right to Private Property.Jeremy Waldron - 1990 - Clarendon Press.
    Can the right to private property be claimed as one of the `rights of mankind'? This is the central question of this comprehensive and critical examination of the subject of private property. Jeremy Waldron contrasts two types of arguments about rights: those based on historical entitlement, and those based on the importance of property to freedom. He provides a detailed discussion of the theories of property found in Locke's Second Treatise and Hegel's Philosophy of Right to illustrate this contrast. The (...)
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  • Interspecific Justice.Donald VanDeVeer - 1979 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 22 (1-4):55 – 79.
    This essay supposes that the question of what treatment of animals is morally acceptable cannot be decided in any straightforward way by appeals to 'equal consideration of interests' or to animal rights. Instead it seeks to survey a variety of proposals as to how we ought to adjudicate interspecific conflicts of interests - proposals that are both 'speciesist' and 'non-speciesist' in nature. In the end one proposal is defended as the most reasonable one, and is claimed to provide a partial (...)
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  • Allocating Ecological Space.Steve Vanderheiden - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (2):257-275.
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  • On Collective Ownership of the Earth.Anna Stilz - 2014 - Ethics and International Affairs 28 (4):501-510.
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  • The Global Fund: A Reply to Casal.Hillel Steiner - 2011 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (3):328-334.
    The Global Fund is a mechanism for the global application of the Left Libertarian conception of distributive justice. As a form of luck egalitarianism, this conception confers upon each person an entitlement to an equal share of all natural resource values, since natural resources - broadly, geographical sites - are objects for the production of which no person is responsible. Owners of these sites, i.e. states, are liable to a 100% Global Fund tax on their unimproved value: that is, their (...)
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  • Natural Relations: Ecology, Animal Rights and Social Justice.Ted Benton - 1993 - Verso.
    In this challenging book, Ted Benton takes recent debates about the moral status of animals as a basis for reviewing the discourse of “human rights.” Liberal-individualist views of human rights and advocates of animal rights tend to think of individuals, whether human or animals, in isolation from their social position. This makes them vulnerable to criticisms from the left which emphasize the importance of social relationships to individual well-being. Benton's argument supports the important assumption, underpinning the cause for human rights, (...)
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  • A Pragmatic Reconsideration of Anthropocentrism.Eric Katz - 1999 - Environmental Ethics 21 (4):377-390.
    For much of its brief history, the field of environmental ethics has been critical of anthropocentrism. I here undertake a pragmatic reconsideration of anthropocentrism. In the first part of this essay, I explain what a pragmatic reconsideration of anthropocentrism means. I differentiate two distinct pragmatic strategies, one substantive and one methodological, and I adopt methodological pragmatism as my guiding principle. In the second part of this essay, I examine a case study of environmental policy—the problem of beach replenishment on Fire (...)
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  • An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals.David Hume - 1751 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Introduction to the work David Hume described as the best of his many writings.
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  • A Perfect Moral Storm: The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2011 - Oup Usa.
    Climate change is a global problem that is predominantly an intergenerational conflict, and which takes place in a setting where our ethical impulses are weak. This "perfect moral storm" poses a profound challenge to humanity. This book explains how the "perfect storm" metaphor makes sense of our current malaise, and why a better ethics can help see our way out.
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