Results for 'Shahrar Ali'

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Shahrar Ali
University College London
  1. Why Shouldn't I Lie? Ten Preliminaries.Shahrar Ali - 2011 - Ethical Record 116 (10):6-10.
    I introduce the reader to the character and complexity of lying, in terms of how the lie should be defined as a particular type of intentionally deceptive utterance, whether or not the deceiver succeeded in that aim, and examine how we might usefully avoid prejudging the justifiability of the lying utterance when compared to alternative forms of intentional deception and the overall outcome sought.
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  2. A Product Life Cycle Ontology for Additive Manufacturing.Munira Mohd Ali, Rahul Rai, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2019 - Computers in Industry 105:191-203.
    The manufacturing industry is evolving rapidly, becoming more complex, more interconnected, and more geographically distributed. Competitive pressure and diversity of consumer demand are driving manufacturing companies to rely more and more on improved knowledge management practices. As a result, multiple software systems are being created to support the integration of data across the product life cycle. Unfortunately, these systems manifest a low degree of interoperability, and this creates problems, for instance when different enterprises or different branches of an enterprise interact. (...)
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  3. An Evidential Argument for Islamic Theism.Zain Ali - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (4):55.
    In this paper, I argue that Islamic theism is best explained by the hypothesis of Divine Commission, whereby Muhammad is viewed as being divinely commissioned to serve the overall salvific purposes of God. To this end, I present three observation reports relating to Islamic theism and evaluate HDC against an alternative hypothesis, the hypothesis of Non-Commission whereby Muhammad is not viewed as being divinely commissioned. I argue that the probability of the observation reports is greater on the assumption that HDC (...)
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  4. An Ontological Approach to Representing the Product Life Cycle.J. Neil Otte, Dimitris Kiritsi, Munira Mohd Ali, Ruoyu Yang, Binbin Zhang, Ron Rudnicki, Rahul Rai & Barry Smith - 2019 - Applied Ontology 14 (2):1-19.
    The ability to access and share data is key to optimizing and streamlining any industrial production process. Unfortunately, the manufacturing industry is stymied by a lack of interoperability among the systems by which data are produced and managed, and this is true both within and across organizations. In this paper, we describe our work to address this problem through the creation of a suite of modular ontologies representing the product life cycle and its successive phases, from design to end of (...)
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  5.  53
    Enriching the Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) Ontology for Digital Manufacturing.Munira Mohd Ali, Ruoyu Yang, Binbin Zhang, Francesco Furini, Rahul Rai, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2020 - International Journal of Production Research:1-18.
    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been used in many different kinds of applications in recent years and have attracted significant research attention. However, we do not yet have a commonly accepted way of representing the various aspects of FGMs. Lack of standardised vocabulary creates obstacles to the extraction of useful information relating to pertinent aspects of different applications. A standard resource is needed for describing various elements of FGMs, including existing applications, manufacturing techniques, and material characteristics. This motivated the creation (...)
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  6. A New Solution to the Gamer’s Dilemma.Rami Ali - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (4):267-274.
    Luck (2009) argues that gamers face a dilemma when it comes to performing certain virtual acts. Most gamers regularly commit acts of virtual murder, and take these acts to be morally permissible. They are permissible because unlike real murder, no one is harmed in performing them; their only victims are computer-controlled characters, and such characters are not moral patients. What Luck points out is that this justification equally applies to virtual pedophelia, but gamers intuitively think that such acts are not (...)
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  7. Does Hallucinating Involve Perceiving?Rami Ali - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):601-627.
    A natural starting point for theories of perceptual states is ordinary perception, in which a subject is successfully related to her mind-independent surroundings. Correspondingly, the simplest theory of perceptual states models all such states on perception. Typically, this simple, common-factor relational view of perceptual states has received a perfunctory dismissal on the grounds that hallucinations are nonperceptual. But I argue that the nonperceptual view of hallucinations has been accepted too quickly. I consider three observations thought to support the view, and (...)
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  8. Fiona Macpherson and Dimitris Platchias , Hallucination: Philosophy and Psychology: MIT Press, 2013, 432 Pages, ISBN 0262019205, $40.22. [REVIEW]Rami Ali - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (3):455-460.
    Hallucination: Philosophy and Psychology is an edited MIT press collection that contributes to the philosophy of perception. This collection is a significant addition to the literature both for its excellent choice of texts, and its emphasis on the case of hallucinations. Dedicating a volume to hallucinatory phenomena may seem somewhat peculiar for those not entrenched in the analytic philosophy of perception, but it is easy enough to grasp their significance. Theories of perception aim to give a fundamental characterization of perceptual (...)
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  9. Contributing Factors to Under-Five Child Malnutrition in Rural Bangladesh.Md Sazedur Rahman, Mohammad Ali & N. A. M. Faisal Ahmed - 2017 - Juniper Publishers Juniper Online Journal of Case Studies 4 (1):1-4.
    Background and objectives: Bangladesh has the highest malnutrition rates in the world. The main objective of this study is to identify and determine the main factors for child malnutrition among children under the age 5 years in rural Bangladesh. -/- Material and methods: This research was conducted in rural areas at Meherpur district in Bangladesh. Convenience sampling method is used and 85 under 5 child information is collected through a structured questionnaire. The information’s of child’s are gathered from the mothers (...)
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  10.  10
    Protective Effects of Vitamin A on Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.Amna Abdallah Ali, Mohammed Ahmed Abdalla & Omer Mohamed Abdalla - 2019 - International Journal of Academic and Applied Research (IJAAR) 3 (3).
    Abstract: Paracetamol which is widely used as anti-inflammatory drug and pain killer is known to cause liver injury. Vitamins A and E are among the antioxidants vitamins that have attracted the attention of biochemical and toxicological researchers in the recent times as vitamin A is reported to enhance a marked reduction in CCl-induced hepatic damage, this study was aiming to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of vitamin A (retinol) against paracetamol-induced toxicity in Wister rats. Five groups of rats were used in (...)
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  11.  9
    Regulation of Trace Elements by Vitamin A in Paracetamol-Induced Liver Toxicity in Rats.Amna Abdallah Ali, Khalda Awad Albdwai, Wafaa Ali Siddeg & Omer Mohamed Abdalla - 2019 - IJAMR 3 (3):1-9.
    Abstract: This study was aiming to determine the effect of the Vitamin A on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Fifteen rats were randomly divided into five groups; (three rats each) control group, paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Vitamin A (Retinyl palmtate) administered at the dose levels of 100, 500 and1000 IU/kg body weights orally for 7 days prior to paracetamol dose. Hepatic toxicity was observed in paracetamol group; aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level was high as compared (...)
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  12. Increasing Polarization: Enumerating the Consequences of Increasing Inequality.Syed Danish Ali - manuscript
    “Remember your humanity. Forget the rest”. (Bertrand Russell in Russell-Einstein Manifesto) In a nutshell, this review is not trying to propagate rocket science or eureka moment that scientifically finds the cure for all the ills of economic inequality like penicillin does for infections. This review is a basic but effective exploration into the true nature of social realities. This review holistically elaborates how economic inequality is leading to increasing polarization in our societies. Two important drivers of increasing inequality are highlighted (...)
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  13.  79
    Philosophical & Sociological Inquires in Material Aspects of the Human Life Namely Risk, Finance and Insurance.Syed Danish Ali - manuscript
    Given how much importance there is of economics and finance in our lives as humans (materialist side is foremost as per Marx), it should be given more importance by Philosophy and Sociology. This brief report is meant to highlight few research paradigms available in Philosophy and Sociology to give its proper social context and provide deep underlying of Risk, Insurance and Finance.
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  14. The Critique of Religion as Political Critique: Mīrzā Fatḥ ʿAlī Ākhūndzāda's Pre-Islamic Xenology.Rebecca Gould - 2016 - Intellectual History Review 26 (2):171-184.
    (Awarded the International Society for Intellectual History’s Charles Schmitt Prize) Mīrzā Fatḥ 'Alī Ākhūndzāda’s Letters from Prince Kamāl al-Dawla to the Prince Jalāl al-Dawla (1865) is often read as a Persian attempt to introduce European Enlightenment political thought to modern Iranian society. This essay frames Ākhūndzāda’s text within a broader intellectual tradition. I read Ākhūndzāda as a radical reformer whose intellectual ambition were shaped by prior Persian and Arabic endeavors to map the diversity of religious belief and to critically assess (...)
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  15.  86
    A critical analysis of Persian Poetry of Shah Turab Ali Qalandar.Zunnoorain Haider Alavi - 2013 - SOCRATES 1 (1):106-121.
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  16.  66
    Review: Muhammad Ali Khalidi's Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. [REVIEW]Matthew H. Slater - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):1017-1023.
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  17.  47
    el-Mevârîs fi’ş-Şerîati’l-İslâmiyye fî dav’i’l-Kitâbi ve’s-Sünne. Muhammed Ali Sâbûnî. Kahire: Dârü’l-hadîs tarih yok. [REVIEW]Ömer Yılmaz - 2018 - Tasavvur - Tekirdag Theology Journal 4 (2):930 - 935.
    el-Mevârîs fi’ş-Şerîati’l-İslâmiyye fî dav’i’l-Kitâbi ve’s-Sünne. Muhammed Ali Sâbûnî. Kahire: Dârü’l-hadîs tarih yok.
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  18.  30
    Book Review of Humanity Understanding Reality and Inquiring Good.Debra Smith - unknown
    Political Philosophy history is beyond centenaries and there are many books written in each time period and some of them are just the discussion of the current time and other have their impact for long after. With my interest about political philosophy I found this book humanity by” Zaman Ali” just with randomly search on internet and I found it interesting by its label as it is human philosophy and then read it.
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  19. Review of Islamist Thinkers in the Late Ottoman Empire and Early Turkish Republic. [REVIEW]Mehmet Karabela - 2017 - Insight Turkey 19 (1):225-27.
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  20. Origin and Development of Muslim Philosophy.Syful Islam & Md Jannat Hossain - manuscript
    This article tries to find out that what the real causes on origin of Muslim Philosophy were and how the philosophical thinking arises in the community of Muslim? Many Muslim scholars found the cause of the origin and development of Muslim philosophy and gave the historical view. We try the combine and overall view the origin and development of Muslim philosophy. we shows the contribution of Muslim philosophical school who discussed about various critical topic regarding God, attribute of God, The (...)
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  21.  12
    Hyperbolic Functions of Al-Tememe Acceleration Methods for Improving the Values of Integrations Numerically of First Kind.Ali Hassan Mohammed & Asmahan Abed Yasir - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (5):11-15.
    Abstract: The main aim of this work is to introduce acceleration methods called a hyperbolic acceleration methods which are of series of numerated methods. In general, these methods named as AL-Tememe’s acceleration methods of first kind discovered by (Ali Hassan Mohammed). These are very beneficial to acceleration the numerical results for definite integrations with continuous integrands which are of 2nd order main error, with respect to the accuracy and the number of the used subintervals and the fasting obtaining results. Especially, (...)
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  22.  12
    Triangular Acceleration Methods of Second Kind for Improving the Values of Integrals Numerically.Ali Hassan Mohammed & Shatha Hadier Theyab - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (4):45-60.
    Abstract: The aims of this study are to introduce acceleration methods that are called triangular acceleration methods, which come within the series of several acceleration methods that generally known as Al-Tememe's acceleration methods of the second kind which are discovered by (Ali Hassan Mohammed). These methods are useful in improving the results of determining numerical integrals of continuous integrands where the main error is of the forth order with respect to accuracy, partial intervals and the fasting of calculating the results (...)
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  23.  9
    Relative and Logarthmic of AI-Tememe Acceleration Methods for Improving the Values of Integrations Numerically of Second Kind.Ali Hassan Mohammed & Shatha Hadier Theyab - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (5):1-9.
    Abstract: The aims of this study are to introduce acceleration methods that called relative and algorithmic acceleration methods, which we generally call Al-Tememe's acceleration methods of the second kind discovered by (Ali Hassan Mohammed). It is very useful to improve the numerical results of continuous integrands in which the main error is of the 4th order, and related to accuracy, the number of used partial intervals and how fast to get results especially to accelerate the results got by Simpson's method. (...)
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  24.  9
    Triangular Functions of Al-Tememe Acceleration Methods of First Kind for Improving the Values of Integrals Numerically.Ali Hassan Mohammed & Asmahan Abed Yasir - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (4):60-65.
    Abstract: The main aim of this work is to introduce acceleration methods called a Trigonometric acceleration methods which are of series of numerated methods. In general, these methods named as AL-Tememe’s acceleration methods of first kind to his discoverer ''Ali Hassan Mohammed''. These are very beneficial to acceleration the numerical results for definite integrations with continuous integrands which are of 2nd order main error, with respect to the accuracy and the number of the used subintervals and the fasting obtaining results. (...)
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  25.  49
    Review of An Essay on Man. [REVIEW]-Chatterjee Subhasis, Chattopadhyay - 2017 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 122 (10):715-17.
    Alexander Pope's An Essay on Man is part of a long tradition of meditating on the human person. In this review the antecedents of Modernism are revised and the Pope's Essay is reinstated as a tour de force which is all the more pertinent today.
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  26. Manhaj Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al- Asqalani Fi Al- Aqidah Min Khilala Kitabihi "Fath Al-Bari" Risalah Ilmiyah.Muhammad Ishaq Kandu - 1998 - Maktabat Al-Rushd.
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  27. Disagreement About the Kind Law.Muhammad Ali Khalidi & Liam Murphy - forthcoming - Jurisprudence:1-16.
    This paper argues that the disagreement between positivists and nonpositivists about law is substantive rather than merely verbal, but that the depth and persistence of the disagreement about law, unlike for the case of morality, threatens skepticism about law. The range of considerations that can be brought to bear to help resolve moral disagreements is broader than is the case for law, thus improving the prospects of reconciliation in morality. But the central argument of the paper is that law, unlike (...)
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  28. The Aesthetic Response: The Reader in Macbeth.Ali Salami - 2012 - Folia Linguistica Et Litteraria 12.
    This article seeks to explore the different strategies the Bard uses in order to evoke sympathy in the reader for Macbeth who is so persistent in the path of evil. What strategy does Shakespeare use in order to provoke such a deep emotional response from his readers? By using paradoxes in the play, the Bard creates a world of illusion, fear and wild imagination. The paradoxical world in Macbeth startles us into marvel and fear, challenges our commonly held opinions, and (...)
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  29.  37
    When Nothing Looks Blue.Joseph Gottlieb & Ali Rezaei - forthcoming - Synthese:1-9.
    David Pitt (2017) has argued that reductive representationalism entails an absurdity akin to the ‘paramechanical hypothesis’ Gilbert Ryle (1949) attributed to Descartes. This paper focuses on one version of reductive representationalism: the property-complex theory. We contend that at least insofar as the property-complex theory goes, Pitt is wrong. The result is not just a response to Pitt, but also a clarification of the aims and structure of the property-complex theory.
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  30. Things Fall Apart and Chinua Achebe’s Postcolonial Discourse.Ali Salami & Bamshad Hekmat Shoar - 2018 - International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature 6:19-28.
    Chinua Achebe, the contemporary Nigerian novelist, is considered as one of the prominent figures in African anti-colonial literature. What makes his works specific is the way he approaches the issues of colonization of Africa in an objective manner and through an innovative language which aims at providing a pathology; a pathological reading meant to draw on the pre-colonial and colonial history without any presumptions so as to present the readers with possible alternative African discourses in future. His first novel Things (...)
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  31.  36
    Davidson on Self-Knowledge: A Transcendental Explanation.Ali Hossein Khani - forthcoming - Southern Journal of Philosophy.
    Davidson has attempted to offer his own solution to the problem of self-knowledge, but there has been no consensus between his commentators on what this solution is. Many have claimed that Davidson’s account stems from his remarks on disquotational specifications of self-ascriptions of meaning and mental content, the account which I will call the “Disquotational Explanation”. It has also been claimed that Davidson’s account rather rests on his version of content externalism, which I will call the “Externalist Explanation”. I will (...)
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  32.  57
    Davidson’s Wittgenstein.Ali Hossein Khani - 2020 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 8 (5):1-26.
    Although the later Wittgenstein appears as one of the most influential figures in Davidson’s later works on meaning, it is not, for the most part, clear how Davidson interprets and employs Wittgenstein’s ideas. In this paper, I will argue that Davidson’s later works on meaning can be seen as mainly a manifestation of his attempt to accommodate the later Wittgenstein’s basic ideas about meaning and understanding, especially the requirement of drawing the seems right/is right distinction and the way this requirement (...)
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  33.  28
    Islam and Science: The Philosophical Grounds for a Genuine Debate.Ali Hossein Khani - forthcoming - Zygon.
    What does it take for Islam and science to engage in a genuine conversation with each other? This essay is an attempt to answer this question by clarifying the conditions which make having such a conversation possible and plausible. I will first distinguish between three notions of conversation: the trivial conversation (which requires sharing a common language and the meaning of its ordinary expressions), superficial conversation (in which although the language is shared, the communicators fail to share the meaning of (...)
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  34. Philosophical Foundations Of Habermas’ Critique Of Particularistic Liberalism.Ali Rizvi - 2010 - Minerva - An Internet Journal of Philosophy 14:12-35.
    Jürgen Habermas has emerged as a sharp, and occasionally harsh, critic of the Bush administration’s policies since the Iraq war. Habermas has developed this critique in several of his short pieces and interviews, some of which are available in fine collections in both English and other languages. However, the occasional and journalistic character of Habermas’ political interventions often hide the theoretical basis of his critique. In this paper, I argue that Habermas’ critique of the Bush administration’s foreign policy emanates from, (...)
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  35.  43
    Unplanned Coordination: Ensemble Improvisation as Collective Action.Ali Hasan & Jennifer Kayle - manuscript
    The characteristic features of ensemble dance improvisation (“EDI”) make it an interesting case for theories of intentional collective action. These features include the high degree of freedom enjoyed by each individual, and the lack of fixed or hierarchical roles, rigid decision procedures, or detailed plans. In this article, we present a “reductive” approach to collective action, apply it to EDI, and show how the theory enriches our perspective on this practice. We show, with the help of our theory of collective (...)
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  36.  22
    McTaggart on the Unreality of Time: Boghossian's Argument against Error-Theory.Ali Hossein Khani & Saeedeh Shahmir - 2020 - Zehn 81:91-115.
    McTaggart, in his famous paper, “The Unreality of Time” (1908), argues in favor of the sceptical claim that time is unreal. His main argument is based on detecting a paradox in our ordinary descriptions of time or events occurring in time. Based on our common sense conception of time, time and the events happening in it can be described in two ways: either as having the properties of “being past”, “being present” and “being future”, or as having the properties of (...)
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  37. Internalist Foundationalism and the Sellarsian Dilemma.Ali Hasan - 2013 - Res Philosophica 90 (2):171-184.
    According to foundationalism, some beliefs are justified but do not depend for their justification on any other beliefs. According to access internalism, a subject is justified in believing some proposition only if that subject is aware of or has access to some reason to think that the proposition is true or probable. In this paper I discusses a fundamental challenge to internalist foundationalism often referred to as the Sellarsian dilemma. I consider three attempts to respond to the dilemma – phenomenal (...)
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  38. Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rush (Averroes) on Creation and the Divine Attributes.Ali Hasan - 2013 - In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. pp. 141-156.
    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was concerned that early Islamic philosophers were leaning too heavily and uncritically on Aristotelian and Neoplatonic ideas in developing their models of God and His relation to the world. He argued that their views were not only irreligious, but philosophically problematic, and he defended an alternative view aimed at staying closer to the Qur’an and the beliefs of the ordinary Muslim. Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) responded to al-Ghazali’s critique and developed a sophisticated Aristotelian view. The present chapter explores their (...)
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  39. Etiological Kinds.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    Kinds that share historical properties are dubbed “historical kinds” or “etiological kinds” and they have some distinctive features. I will try to characterize etiological kinds in general terms and briefly survey some previous philosophical discussions of these kinds. Then I will take a closer look at a few case studies involving different types of etiological kinds. Finally, I will try to understand the rationale for classifying on the basis of etiology, putting forward reasons for classifying phenomena based on diachronic features, (...)
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  40.  40
    Review of Relativism. By Maria Baghramian and Annalisa Coliva. (New York: Routledge, 2020. Pp. V + 322. $39.36, Paperback.). [REVIEW]Ali Hossein Khani - forthcoming - The Philosophical Quarterly:1-3.
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  41. Acquaintance and Fallible Non-Inferential Justification.Chris Tucker - 2016 - In Michael Bergmann & Brett Coppenger (eds.), Intellectual Assurance: Essays on Traditional Epistemic Internalism. Oxford University Press. pp. 43-60.
    Classical acquaintance theory is any version of classical foundationalism that appeals to acquaintance in order to account for non-inferential justification. Such theories are well suited to account for a kind of infallible non-inferential justification. Why am I justified in believing that I’m in pain? An initially attractive (partial) answer is that I’m acquainted with my pain. But since I can’t be acquainted with what isn’t there, acquaintance with my pain guarantees that I’m in pain. What’s less clear is whether, given (...)
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  42. Classical Foundationalism and Bergmann’s Dilemma for Internalism.Ali Hasan - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Research 36:391-410.
    In Justification without Awareness (2006), Michael Bergmann presents a dilemma for internalism from which he claims there is “no escape”: The awareness allegedly required for justification is either strong awareness, which involves conceiving of some justification-contributor as relevant to the truth of a belief, or weak awareness, which does not. Bergmann argues that the former leads to an infinite regress of justifiers, while the latter conflicts with the “clearest and most compelling” motivation for endorsing internalism, namely, that for a belief (...)
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  43. Relative Blindsight Arises From a Criterion Confound in Metacontrast Masking: Implications for Theories of Consciousness.Ali Jannati & Vincent Di Lollo - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):307-314.
    Relative blindsight is said to occur when different levels of subjective awareness are obtained at equality of objective performance. Using metacontrast masking, Lau and Passingham reported relative blindsight in normal observers at the shorter of two stimulus-onset asynchronies between target and mask. Experiment 1 replicated the critical asymmetry in subjective awareness at equality of objective performance. We argue that this asymmetry cannot be regarded as evidence for relative blindsight because the observers’ responses were based on different attributes of the stimuli (...)
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  44. Are Sexes Natural Kinds?Muhammad Ali Khalidi - forthcoming - In Shamik Dasgupta & Brad Weslake (eds.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science.
    Asking whether the sexes are natural kinds amounts to asking whether the categories, female and male, identify real divisions in nature, like the distinctions between biological species, or whether they mark merely artificial or arbitrary distinctions. The distinction between females and males in the animal kingdom is based on the relative size of the gametes they produce, with females producing larger gametes (ova) and males producing smaller gametes (sperm). This chapter argues that the properties of producing relatively large and small (...)
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  45. Biopower, Governmentality, and Capitalism Through the Lenses of Freedom: A Conceptual Enquiry.Ali M. Rizvi - 2012 - Pakistan Business Review 14 (3):490-517.
    In this paper I propose a framework to understand the transition in Foucault’s work from the disciplinary model to the governmentality model. Foucault’s work on power emerges within the general context of an expression of capitalist rationality and the nature of freedom and power within it. I argue that, thus understood, Foucault’s transition to the governmentality model can be seen simultaneously as a deepening recognition of what capitalism is and how it works, but also as a recognition of the changing (...)
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  46. Is Theism Rational?Ali Hasan - 2019 - In Graham Oppy & Joseph W. Koterski (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference. pp. 119-26.
    This chapter centers around the question of whether theism is rational. We begin by discussing different theories of rationality, and introducing some importantly related epistemic concepts and controversies. We then consider the possible sources of rational belief in God and argue that even if these provide some positive support, the fact of religious disagreement defeats the rationality of theism.
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  47. Incommensurability.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 1999 - In W. H. Newton-Smith (ed.), A Companion to Philosophy of Science. Blackwell. pp. 172-80.
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  48. Gendered Representations of Male and Female Social Actors in Iranian Educational Materials.Ali Salami & Amir Ghajarieh - 2016 - Gender Issues 33 (3):258-270.
    This research investigates the representations of gendered social actors within the subversionary discourse of equal educational opportunities for males and females in Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) books. Using critical discourse analysis (CDA) as the theoretical framework, the authors blend van Leeuwen’s (Texts and practices: Readings in critical discourse analysis, Routledge, London, 2003) ‘Social Actor Network Model’ and Sunderland’s (Gendered discourses, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2004) ‘Gendered Discourses Model’ in order to examine the depictions of male and female social (...)
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  49. The Reliability of Memory: An Argument From the Armchair.Ali Hasan - forthcoming - Episteme:1-18.
    The “problem of memory” in epistemology is concerned with whether and how we could have knowledge, or at least justification, for trusting our apparent memories. I defend an inductive solution—more precisely, an abductive solution—to the problem. A natural worry is that any such solution would be circular, for it would have to depend on memory. I argue that belief in the reliability of memory can be justified from the armchair, without relying on memory. The justification is, roughly, that my having (...)
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  50. Neural correlates without reduction: the case of the critical period.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2020 - Synthese 197 (5):1-13.
    Researchers in the cognitive sciences often seek neural correlates of psychological constructs. In this paper, I argue that even when these correlates are discovered, they do not always lead to reductive outcomes. To this end, I examine the psychological construct of a critical period and briefly describe research identifying its neural correlates. Although the critical period is correlated with certain neural mechanisms, this does not imply that there is a reductionist relationship between this psychological construct and its neural correlates. Instead, (...)
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