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Basic concepts of formal ontology

In Nicola Guarino (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. IOS Press. pp. 19-28 (1998)

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  1. A Science of Topography: Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide.David M. Mark & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology. Chichester, England: Springer-Praxis. pp. 75--100.
    The shape of the Earth's surface, its topography, is a fundamental dimension of the environment, shaping or mediating many other environmental flows or functions. But there is a major divergence in the way that topography is conceptualized in different domains. Topographic cartographers, information scientists, geomorphologists and environmental modelers typically conceptualize topographic variability as a continuous field of elevations or as some discrete approximation to such a field. Pilots, explorers, anthropologists, ecologists, hikers, and archeologists, on the other hand, typically conceptualize this (...)
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  • Worlds, Models and Descriptions.John F. Sowa - 2006 - Studia Logica 84 (2):323-360.
    Since the pioneering work by Kripke and Montague, the term possible world has appeared in most theories of formal semantics for modal logics, natural languages, and knowledge-based systems. Yet that term obscures many questions about the relationships between the real world, various models of the world, and descriptions of those models in either formal languages or natural languages. Each step in that progression is an abstraction from the overwhelming complexity of the world. At the end, nothing is left but a (...)
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