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What Metaphors Mean

Critical Inquiry 5 (1):31-47 (1978)

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  1. The Yummy and the Yucky: Expressive Language and the Agreeable.Nick Zangwill - 2018 - The Monist 101 (3):294-308.
    I probe the judgments of the agreeable that we make about food and drink. I first separate different concerns that we might have with food and drink. After that, I address expressive language by first sketching an evolutionary language-game-theoretic approach for referential language. I then try to extend it to expressive language, showing how expressive signaling might be likely to evolve. Given an account of expressive prediction, and its point, I turn to the Frege-Geach problem for the agreeable. I show (...)
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  • Duchamp And Kant: Together at Last.Robert J. Yanal - 2002 - Angelaki 7 (1):161-167.
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  • What Sort of Experiences Bring About Changes of the Meaning of Words?:言葉の意味の変化をもたらす体験とはどのようなものか.Keiichi Yamada - 2018 - Journal of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 46 (1):1-9.
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  • Go Figure: A Path Through Fictionalism.Stephen Yablo - 2001 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 25 (1):72–102.
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  • Literal Meaning and “Figurative Meaning”.Roger M. White - 2001 - Theoria 67 (1):24-59.
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  • Relevance.Tim Wharton - 2021 - Pragmatics and Cognition 28 (2):321-346.
    Deirdre Wilson provides a reflective overview of a volume devoted to the historic application of relevance-theoretic ideas to literary studies. She maintains a view argued elsewhere that the putative non-propositional nature of literary effects are an illusion, a view which dates to Sperber and Wilson : “If you look at [non-propositional] affective effects through the microscope of relevance theory, you see a wide array of minute cognitive [i.e., propositional] effects.” This paper suggests an alternative, that modern-day humans have two apparently (...)
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  • Philosophy, Language and the Reform of Public Worship.Martin Warner - 1984 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 18:149-171.
    When I studied the Scriptures then I did not feel as I am writing about them now. They seemed to me unworthy of comparison with the grand style of Cicero . As for the absurdities which used to offend me in Scripture, … I now looked for their meanings in the depth of mystery.
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  • New Words for an Old Language.Thorsteinn Gylfason - 1985 - Diogenes 33 (132):17-33.
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  • Multiple Propositions, Contextual Variability, and the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface.Arthur Sullivan - 2013 - Synthese 190 (14):2773-2800.
    A ‘multiple-proposition phenomenon’ is a putative counterexample to the widespread implicit assumption that a simple indicative sentence semantically expresses at most one proposition. Several philosophers and linguists have recently developed hypotheses concerning this notion. The guiding questions motivating this research are: Is there an interesting and homogenous semantic category of MP phenomena? If so, what is the import? Do MP theories have any relevance to important current questions in the study of language? I motivate an affirmative answer to, and then (...)
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  • Are There Non-Propositional Implicatures?Arthur Sullivan - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    Could there be an implicature whose content is not propositional? Grice's canon is somewhat ambivalent on this question, but such figures as Sperber & Wilson, Davis, and Lepore & Stone presume that there cannot be, and argue that this causes glaring failures within the Gricean programme. Building on work by McDowell and Buchanan, I argue that, on the contrary, the notion of non-propositional implicature is very much worth investigating. I show how the notion has promise to illuminate the content of (...)
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  • Unger's Argument From Absolute Terms.Gregory Stoutenburg - 2017 - Philosophical Papers 46 (3):443-461.
    In this paper, I explain the curious role played by the Argument from Absolute Terms in Peter Unger's book Ignorance, I provide a critical presentation of the argument, and I consider some outstanding issues and the argument’s contemporary significance.
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  • Demystifying metaphor: a strategy for literal paraphrase.Megan Henricks Stotts - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (1):113-132.
    There is a long philosophical tradition of skepticism about the possibility of adequate paraphrases for metaphorical utterances. And even among those who favor paraphrasability, there is a tendency to think that paraphrases of metaphorical utterances may themselves have to be non-literal. I argue that even the most evocative and open-ended metaphorical utterances can be literally and adequately paraphrased, once we recognize that they are actually indirect speech acts—specifically, indirect directives that command the hearer to engage in an open-ended comparison. This (...)
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  • The Life and Death of a Metaphor, or the Metaphysics of Metaphor.Josef Stern - 2007 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3.
    This paper addresses two issues: what it is for a metaphor to be either alive or dead and what a metaphor must be in order to be either alive or dead. Both issues, in turn, bear on the contemporary debate whether metaphor is a pragmatic or semantic phenomenon and on the dispute between Contextualists and Literalists. In the first part of the paper, I survey examples of what I take to be live metaphors and dead metaphors in order to establish (...)
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  • Metaphor, Literal, Literalism.Stern Josef - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (3):243–279.
    This paper examines the place of metaphorical interpretation in the current Contextualist-Literalist controversy over the role of context in the determination of truth-conditions in general. Although there has been considerable discussion of 'non-literal' language by both sides of this dispute, the language analyzed involves either so-called implicit indexicality, loose or loosened use, enriched interpretations, or semantic transfer, not metaphor itself. In the first half of the paper, I critically evaluate Recanati's (2004) recent Contextualist account and show that it cannot account (...)
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  • Metaphor and Minimalism.Josef Stern - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 153 (2):273 - 298.
    This paper argues first that, contrary to what one would expect, metaphorical interpretations of utterances pass two of Cappelan and Lepore's Minimalist tests for semantic context-sensitivity. I then propose how, in light of that result, one might analyze metaphors on the model of indexicals and demonstratives, expressions that (even) Minimalists agree are semantically context-dependent. This analysis builds on David Kaplan's semantics for demonstratives and refines an earlier proposal in (Stern, Metaphor in context, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000). In the course of (...)
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  • Imagination, Expectation, and “Thoughts Entangled in Metaphors”.Nathanael Stein - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):9411-9431.
    George Eliot strikingly describes one of her characters as making a mistake because he has gotten his thoughts “entangled in metaphors,” saying that we all do the same. I argue that Eliot is here giving us more than an illuminating description, but drawing our attention to a distinctive kind of mistake—a form of irrationality, in fact—of which metaphor can be an ineliminable part of the correct explanation. Her fictional case helps illuminate both a neglected function of the imagination, and a (...)
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  • Speaker Meaning and Davidson on Metaphor: A Reply to McGuire.Robert J. Stainton - 2003 - Dialogue 42 (2):345-354.
    John Michael McGuire presents a dilemma for Donald Davidson’s denial of metaphorical content in the latter’s “What Metaphors Mean”. Probably, says McGuire, Davidson has simply overlooked the possibility that speakers mean propositions when they speak metaphorically. If so, all Davidson is saying is that expressions do not have additional metaphorical meanings. This is so obvious as to make Davidson’s paper “insignificant”. Besides which, McGuire continues, if Davidson intended to deny that speakers mean propositions in speaking metaphorically, his view is “obviously (...)
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  • Critical Notice of Words and Contents, by Richard Vallée.Robert J. Stainton & Arthur Sullivan - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 51 (2):143-157.
    Section I gives an overview of the contents of “Words and Contents”, and lays out the plan for this Critical Notice. Section II expounds Vallée’s Perry-inspired Pluri-Propositional semantic framework, and Section III is an in-depth case study, focused on complex demonstratives. In Sections IV-V we develop some criticisms, and in Section VI we suggest a solution to these difficulties, which builds on Vallée’s innovative work.
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  • A Deranged Argument Against Public Languages.Robert J. Stainton - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (1):6-32.
    Are there really such things as public languages? Are things like English and Urdu mere myths? I urge that, despite an intriguing line of thought which may be extracted from Davidson’s ‘A Nice Derangement of Epitaphs’, philosophers are right to countenance such things in their final ontology. The argument rebutted, which I concede may not have been one which Davidson himself ultimately embraced, is that knowledge of a public language is neither necessary nor sufficient for successful conversational interaction, so that (...)
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  • Force, Power, and Motive.Stephen R. Yarbrough - 1996 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 29 (4):344 - 358.
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  • Process Vagueness.Roy A. Sorensen - 1990 - Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (5):589 - 618.
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  • Davidson’s Phenomenological Argument Against the Cognitive Claims of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - 2019 - Axiomathes 30:1-24.
    In this paper, I take a critical look at the Davidsonian argument that metaphorical sentences do not express propositions because of the phenomenological experience—seeing one thing as another thing—involved in understanding them as metaphors. According to Davidson, seeing-as is not seeing-that. This verdict is aimed at dislodging metaphor from the position of being assessed with the semantic notions of propositions, meaning, and truth. I will argue that the phenomenological or perceptual experience associated with metaphors does not determine the propositional contentfulness (...)
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  • Metaphysical Experience and Constitutive Error in Adorno's “Meditations on Metaphysics”.Christian Skirke - 2012 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 55 (3):307-328.
    Abstract That current ideals of cognition impoverish experience is a classical observation, and complaint, of the early Frankfurt School. Adorno reacts to this phenomenon in several ways, among them his conception of metaphysical experiences. Metaphysical experiences are conventionally understood as promissory notes, as metaphors for rich experiences. This article takes a different view of metaphysical experiences. It discusses them in light of Adorno's notion that objects have priority in experience and of his further remark that metaphysical experiences are constituted by (...)
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  • The Nature of Appearance in Kant’s Transcendentalism: A Seman- Tico-Cognitive Analysis.Sergey L. Katrechko - 2018 - Kantian Journal 37 (3):41-55.
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  • The Shape of Things to Come? Reflections on the Ontological Turn in Anthropology.Akos Sivado - 2015 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 45 (1):83-99.
    Martin Paleček and Mark Risjord have recently put forward a critical evaluation of the ontological turn in anthropological theory. According to this philosophically informed theory of ethnographic practice, certain insights of twentieth-century analytic philosophy should play a part in the methodological debates concerning anthropological fieldwork: most importantly, the denial of representationalism and the acceptance of the extended mind thesis. In this paper, I will attempt to evaluate the advantages and potential drawbacks of ontological anthropology—arguing that to become a true alternative (...)
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  • Theology, Hermeneutics.Tomas Kačerauskas - 2012 - International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal 14 (1):95-107.
    The article deals with Heidegger’s attitudes towards theology. Heidegger, stating that existential philosophy and theology are incompatible, advances a thesis of not objectivating poetic thinking. Whereas, Ricoeur’s biblical hermeneutics is based on his theory of metaphor. The lingual act here means the destruction of the old outlook for the sake of the new one. In this dramatic way cognition occurs as a meeting. The poetic thinking of the late Heidegger is also based on a meeting that covers both horizontal coexistence (...)
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  • A Revision of the Definition of Lying as an Untruth Told with Intent to Deceive.Warren Shibles - 1988 - Argumentation 2 (1):99-115.
    The traditional and prevailing definition of lying is that lying is some variation or combination of: “an untruth told with intent to deceive.” I establish that this is the case, and that, as a result, contradictions and injustices arise. An alternative definition is proposed which is shown to avoid these difficulties. It is also shown that and how on the new definition the alleged “Liar paradox” is easily dissolved.
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  • The Causal Metaphor Account of Metaphysical Explanation.Jonathan L. Shaheen - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (3):553-578.
    This paper argues that the semantic facts about ‘because’ are best explained via a metaphorical treatment of metaphysical explanation that treats causal explanation as explanation par excellence. Along the way, it defends a commitment to a unified causal sense of ‘because’ and offers a proprietary explanation of grounding skepticism. With the causal metaphor account of metaphysical explanation on the table, an extended discussion of the relationship between conceptual structure and metaphysics ends with a suggestion that the semantic facts about ‘because’ (...)
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  • Metaphoric Pictures, Pulsars, Platypuses.Sonia Sedivy - 1997 - Metaphor and Symbol 12 (2):95-112.
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  • Metaphor and Theological Realism.Gäb Sebastian - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (1):79-92.
    In this paper, I argue that there are indispensable and irreducible metaphors in religious language and that this does not threaten a realist interpretation of religion. I first sketch a realist theory of religious language and argue that we cannot avoid addressing the problems metaphor poses to semantics. I then give a brief account of what it means for a metaphorical sentence to be true and how metaphors can refer to something even if what they mean is not expressible in (...)
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  • The Myth of Epistemic Implicata.Thorsten Sander - 2021 - Theoria 87 (6):1527-1547.
    Quite a few scholars claim that many implicata are propositions about the speaker's epistemic or doxastic states. I argue, on the contrary, that implicata are generally non-epistemic. Some alleged cases of epistemic implicature are not implicatures in the first place because they do not meet Grice's non-triviality requirement, and epistemic implicata in general would infringe on the maxim of quantity. Epistemic implicatures ought to be construed as members of a larger family of implicature-like phenomena.
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  • Envy and Us.Alessandro Salice & Alba Montes Sánchez - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):227-242.
    Within emotion theory, envy is generally portrayed as an antisocial emotion because the relation between the envier and the rival is thought to be purely antagonistic. This paper resists this view by arguing that envy presupposes a sense of us. First, we claim that hostile envy is triggered by the envier's sense of impotence combined with her perception that an equality principle has been violated. Second, we introduce the notion of â hetero-induced self-conscious emotionsâ by focusing on the paradigmatic cases (...)
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  • Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):327–341.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  • A Defence of the Indispensability of Metaphor.Javier González de Prado Salas - 2019 - Philosophical Investigations 42 (3):241-263.
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  • A Defence of the Indispensability of Metaphor.Javier Prado Salas - 2019 - Philosophical Investigations 42 (3):241-263.
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  • "El inmortal" de Jorge Luis Borges: El yo, aleph absolutos Y vocabularios finales.Jorge R. Sagastume - 2011 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 67:269-289.
    Una obra frecuentemente consultada por Jorge Luis Borges fue Matemáticas e imaginación, de E. Kasner y J. Newman, en la que se discute la teoría de los conjuntos , propuesta por el matemático Georg Cantor , y mediante la cual se crea la aritmética transifinita y se establece un sistema epistémico para representar los diversos niveles del infinito. Así, Cantor le asigna a estas infinitudes la primera letra del alfabeto hebreo, el Aleph, seguido de un determinado número, dependiendo del nivel (...)
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  • The Semiotics of Intercultural Exchange: Ostensive Definition and Digital Reason.Horst Ruthrof - 2005 - Semiotica 2005 (157):387-410.
    The paper distinguishes two forms of intercultural exchange, negotiation between cultures at a personal level and global exchange. In the first case, Ostensive Definition appears to be crucial. The paper attempts an intersemiotic rehabilitation of OD in response to Wittgenstein and Quine. In global intercultural exchange the ‘universal grammar’ of digital reason appears to be the crucial component to be analysed. Both forms of negotiation, the paper argues, rely on Vorstellung as an essential ingredient. Yet Vorstellung is missing from the (...)
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  • The Importance of Being Apt: Metaphor Comprehension in Alzheimer's Disease.Carlos Roncero & Roberto G. de Almeida - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
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  • Metaphorical Argumentation.Esther Romero & Belén Soria - 2021 - Informal Logic 41 (3):391-419.
    It is a fact that novel metaphorical utterances appear in natural language argumentation. It seems, moreover, that these put forward metaphorical propositions that can have different roles in argument structure. There can even be good argumentation which is indispensably metaphorical. However, not all metaphor theories provide an explanation of metaphorical meaning compatible with these claims. In this article, we explain the three main views on metaphorical meaning and show, analysing some examples, their consequences for metaphorical argumentation. Our analysis shows that (...)
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  • Personal Ideals as Metaphors.Nick Riggle - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (3):265-283.
    What is it to have and act on a personal ideal? Someone who aspires to be a philosopher might imaginatively think “I am a philosopher” by way of motivating herself to think hard about a philosophical question. But doing so seems to require her to act on an inaccurate self-description, given that she isn’t yet what she regards herself as being. J. David Velleman develops the thought that action-by-ideal involves a kind of fictional self-conception. My aim is to expand our (...)
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  • What Malapropisms Mean: A Reply to Donald Davidson. [REVIEW]Marga Reimer - 2004 - Erkenntnis 60 (3):317-334.
    In this paper, I argue against Davidson's (1986) view that our ability to understand malapropisms forces us to re-think the standard construal of literal word meaning as conventional meaning. Specially, I contend that the standard construal is not only intuitive but also well-motivated, for appeal to conventional meaning is necessary to understand why speakers utter the particular words they do. I also contend that, contra Davidson, we can preserve the intuitive distinction between what a speaker means and what his words (...)
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  • Metaphorical Meanings. Do You See What I Mean?Marga Reimer - 2007 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 3.
    My intention in this paper is to propose a conception of metaphorical meaning on which the meaning of a metaphor includes propositional as well as non-propositional features. I will make two general claims on behalf of the proposed account: first, it is intuitive; second, it is of theoretical value. In claiming that the proposed account is of theoretical value, I mean only that its adoption leads to an increased understanding of the nature of metaphor: of metaphorical thought and ofmetaphorical communication (...)
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  • The Relevance of Relevance for Fiction.Anne Reboul - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):729.
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  • Metaphors and Malapropisms: Davidson on the Limits of the Literal.Ehud Rahat - 1992 - Philosophia 21 (3-4):311-327.
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  • The Argument From Convention Revisited.Francesco Pupa - 2018 - Synthese 195 (5):2175-2204.
    The argument from convention contends that the regular use of definite descriptions as referential devices strongly implies that a referential semantic convention underlies such usage. On the presumption that definite descriptions also participate in a quantificational semantic convention, the argument from convention has served as an argument for the thesis that the English definite article is ambiguous. Here, I revisit this relatively new argument. First, I address two recurring criticisms of the argument from convention: its alleged tendency to overgenerate and (...)
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  • Naturalism and Metaphors. Towards a Rortian Pragmatist Aesthetics.Kalle Puolakka - 2011 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 3 (1):163-175.
    This paper outlines a pragmatist aesthetic theory on the basis of themes relating to naturalism, metaphor, and solidarity found in Richard Rorty’s neopragmatism. A cen-tral part of this attempt is to show that some previous readings of Rorty’s work in aesthet-ics are misguided. I begin by raising aspects of Rorty’s work that have been previously largely overlooked in aesthetics and philosophy of art, and which I believe undermine particularly Richard Shusterman’s critical reading of Rorty. I shall then move on to (...)
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  • Pragmatist Cultural Naturalism: Dewey and Rorty.Kalle Puolakka - 2014 - The European Legacy 19 (2):229-239.
    In this essay I discuss the relationship between naturalism and culture by drawing on the aesthetic notions of two leading pragmatists, John Dewey and Richard Rorty. Rorty’s view of the cultural significance of metaphor, which is based on Donald Davidson’s theory of metaphor, centers on the distinction between a naturalistic and an idealistic view of the cognitive value of metaphor. I then discuss the development from idealism to naturalism in Dewey’s view of the imagination and the parallels that may be (...)
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  • Dwuznaczność metafor i gier językowych w filozofii.Katarzyna Popek - 2015 - Idea. Studia Nad Strukturą I Rozwojem Pojęć Filozoficznych 27:225-245.
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  • Extending Disorder: Essentialism, Family Resemblance and Secondary Sense. [REVIEW]Neil Pickering - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):185-195.
    It is commonly thought that mental disorder is a valid concept only in so far as it is an extension of or continuous with the concept of physical disorder. A valid extension has to meet two criteria: determination and coherence. Essentialists meet these criteria through necessary and sufficient conditions for being a disorder. Two Wittgensteinian alternatives to essentialism are considered and assessed against the two criteria. These are the family resemblance approach and the secondary sense approach. Where the focus is (...)
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  • Metaphor and Reality.C. A. Peursen - 1992 - Man and World 25 (2):165-180.
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