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  1. Surveillance in ubiquitous network societies: normative conflicts related to the consumer in-store supermarket experience in the context of the Internet of Things.Jenifer Sunrise Winter - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):27-41.
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging global infrastructure that employs wireless sensors to collect, store, and exchange data. Increasingly, applications for marketing and advertising have been articulated as a means to enhance the consumer shopping experience, in addition to improving efficiency. However, privacy advocates have challenged the mass aggregation of personally-identifiable information in databases and geotracking, the use of location-based services to identify one’s precise location over time. This paper employs the framework of contextual integrity related to privacy (...)
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  • The ethics of information transparency.Matteo Turilli & Luciano Floridi - 2009 - Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2):105-112.
    The paper investigates the ethics of information transparency (henceforth transparency). It argues that transparency is not an ethical principle in itself but a pro-ethical condition for enabling or impairing other ethical practices or principles. A new definition of transparency is offered in order to take into account the dynamics of information production and the differences between data and information. It is then argued that the proposed definition provides a better understanding of what sort of information should be disclosed and what (...)
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  • Ethical protocols design.Matteo Turilli - 2007 - Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):49-62.
    The paper offers a solution to the problem of specifying computational systems that behave in accordance with a given set of ethical principles. The proposed solution is based on the concepts of ethical requirements and ethical protocols. A new conceptual tool, called the Control Closure of an operation, is defined and used to translate ethical principles into ethical requirements and protocols. The concept of Generalised Informational Privacy (GIP) is used as a paradigmatic example of an ethical principle. GIP is defined (...)
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  • Floridi’s ontological theory of informational privacy: Some implications and challenges. [REVIEW]Herman T. Tavani - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):155-166.
    This essay critically analyzes Luciano Floridi’s ontological theory of informational privacy. Organized into two main parts, Part I examines some key foundational components of Floridi’s privacy theory and it considers some of the ways in which his framework purports to be superior to alternative theories of informational privacy. Part II poses two specific challenges for Floridi’s theory of informational privacy, arguing that an adequate privacy theory should be able to: (i) differentiate informational privacy from other kinds of privacy, including psychological (...)
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  • Information privacy, the right to receive information and (mobile) ICTs.Litska Strikwerda - 2010 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2 (2):27-40.
    The first part of this paper is about the notion of privacy and its grounding in law. It discusses the tension between the right to privacy and the right to receive information. The second part of this paper explores how ICTs challenge and complicate privacy claims and satisfy the right to receive information.
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  • Alienation in a World of Data. Toward a Materialist Interpretation of Digital Information Technologies.Michael Steinmann - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-24.
    The essay proposes to use alienation as a heuristic and conceptual tool for the analysis of the impact of digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) on users. It follows a historical materialist understanding, according to which data can be considered as things produced in an industrial fashion. A representational interpretation, according to which data would merely reflect a given reality, is untenable. It will be argued instead to understand data as an additional layer which has a transformative impact on reality (...)
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  • Virtual Worlds and Their Challenge to Philosophy: Understanding the “Intravirtual” and the “Extravirtual”.Johnny Hartz Søraker - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (4):499-512.
    The Web, in particular real-time interactions in three-dimensional virtual environments (virtual worlds), comes with a set of unique characteristics that leave our traditional frameworks inapplicable. The present article illustrates this by arguing that the notion of “technology relations,” as put forward by Ihde and Verbeek, becomes inapplicable when it comes to the Internet, and this inapplicability shows why these phenomena require new philosophical frameworks. Against this background, and more constructively, the article proposes a fundamental distinction between “intravirtual” and “extravirtual” consequences—a (...)
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  • Self-exposure and exposure of the self: Informational privacy and the presentation of identity. [REVIEW]David W. Shoemaker - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):3-15.
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  • Nonnatural Personal Information. Accounting for Misleading and Non-misleading Personal Information.Sille Obelitz Søe - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1243-1262.
    Personal information is key to informational privacy and the algorithmically generated profiles of individuals. However, the concept of personal information and its nature is rarely discussed. The concept of personal information thus seems to be based on an idea of information as objective and truthful—as natural information—that is depicted as digital footprints in the online and digital realm. I argue that the concept of personal information should exit the realm of natural information and enter the realm of nonnatural information—grounded in (...)
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  • Optimization of what? For-profit health apps as manipulative digital environments.Marijn Sax - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):345-361.
    Mobile health applications that promise the user to help her with some aspect of her health are very popular: for-profit apps such as MyFitnessPal, Fitbit, or Headspace have tens of millions of users each. For-profit health apps are designed and run as optimization systems. One would expect that these health apps aim to optimize the health of the user, but in reality they aim to optimize user engagement and, in effect, conversion. This is problematic, I argue, because digital health environments (...)
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  • Big data: Finders keepers, losers weepers?Marijn Sax - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (1):25-31.
    This article argues that big data’s entrepreneurial potential is based not only on new technological developments that allow for the extraction of non-trivial, new insights out of existing data, but also on an ethical judgment that often remains implicit: namely the ethical judgment that those companies that generate these new insights can legitimately appropriate these insights. As a result, the business model of big data companies is essentially founded on a libertarian-inspired ‘finders, keepers’ ethic. The article argues, next, that this (...)
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  • Spinoza, Feminism and Privacy: Exploring an Immanent Ethics of Privacy.Janice Richardson - 2014 - Feminist Legal Studies 22 (3):225-241.
    In this article I explore the usefulness of Spinoza’s ethics for feminism by considering ways in which it allows feminists to rethink privacy. I draw upon some of Spinoza’s central ideas to address the following question: when should information be classed as private and when should it be communicated? This is a question that is considered by the common law courts. Attempts to find a moral underpinning for such a tortious action against invasions of privacy have tended to draw upon (...)
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  • Security-by-Experiment: Lessons from Responsible Deployment in Cyberspace.Wolter Pieters, Dina Hadžiosmanović & Francien Dechesne - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):831-850.
    Conceiving new technologies as social experiments is a means to discuss responsible deployment of technologies that may have unknown and potentially harmful side-effects. Thus far, the uncertain outcomes addressed in the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments have been mostly safety-related, meaning that potential harm is caused by the design plus accidental events in the environment. In some domains, such as cyberspace, adversarial agents may be at least as important when it comes to undesirable effects of deployed technologies. In (...)
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  • On thinging things and serving services: technological mediation and inseparable goods. [REVIEW]Wolter Pieters - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):195-208.
    In our high-tech society, the design process involves profound questions about the effects of the resulting goods, and the responsibilities of designers. In the philosophy of technology, effects of “things” on user experience and behaviour have been discussed in terms of the concept of technological mediation. Meanwhile, what we create has moved more and more towards services (processes) rather than products (things), in particular in the context of information services. The question is raised to what extent the concept of technological (...)
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  • Lifelogging: Privacy and empowerment with memories for life. [REVIEW]Kieron O’Hara, Mischa M. Tuffield & Nigel Shadbolt - 2008 - Identity in the Information Society 1 (1):155-172.
    The growth of information acquisition, storage and retrieval capacity has led to the development of the practice of lifelogging, the undiscriminating collection of information concerning one’s life and behaviour. There are potential problems in this practice, but equally it could be empowering for the individual, and provide a new locus for the construction of an online identity. In this paper we look at the technological possibilities and constraints for lifelogging tools, and set out some of the most important privacy, identity (...)
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  • Beware of the Virtual Doll: ISPs and the Protection of Personal Data of Minors. [REVIEW]Daniel Nagel - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (4):411-418.
    Once upon a time, they managed to bring Neverland into the bedrooms; they were seen as the heroes of a new era. However, as heroes always tend to walk a fine line between good and evil, it does not come as a surprise that a decade later the perception has dramatically changed; the fairy tale turned into a nightmare. Are Internet Service Providers (ISPs) no more than data-guzzling monsters that need to be tamed? In November, the European Commission published a (...)
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  • Philosophy, privacy, and pervasive computing.Diane P. Michelfelder - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (1):61-70.
    Philosophers and others concerned with the moral good of personal privacy most often see threats to privacy raised by the development of pervasive computing as primarily being threats to the loss of control over personal information. Two reasons in particular lend this approach plausibility. One reason is that the parallels between pervasive computing and ordinary networked computing, where everyday transactions over the Internet raise concerns about personal information privacy, appear stronger than their differences. Another reason is that the individual devices (...)
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  • Ethical issues in the employment of user-generated content as experimental stimulus: Defining the interests of creators.Ben Merriman - 2014 - Research Ethics 10 (4):196-207.
    Social experimental research commonly employs media to elicit responses from research subjects. This use of media is broadly protected under fair use exemptions to copyright, and creators of content used in experiments are generally not afforded any formal consideration or protections in existing research ethics frameworks. Online social networking sites are an emerging and important setting for social experiments, and in this context the material used to elicit responses is often content produced by other users. This article argues that users (...)
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  • Building theory from consumer reactions to RFID: discovering Connective Proximity.Anna Margulis, Harold Boeck, Ygal Bendavid & Fabien Durif - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):81-101.
    Academic research into RFID technology has largely neglected ethics. What scarce research was being performed has now dwindled despite having some consumers continue to express their ethical concerns. This article aims at reducing this apparent void by exploring the antecedents that cause the public to react when consumers are targeted by RFID technology. Through the analysis of 11 real RFID implementations used to target consumers, our research indicates that several factors can influence consumer response through the distinct nature of the (...)
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  • Personal information as communicative acts.Jens-Erik Mai - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (1):51-57.
    The paper extends previous accounts of informational privacy as a contextual notion. Where previous accounts have focused on interpretations of the privacy context itself as being contextual and open for negotiation and interpretation, this paper extends those analyses and shows that personal information itself is in fact best understood as contextual and situational—and as such open for interpretation. The paper reviews the notion of information as it has been applied in informational privacy and philosophy of information, and suggests that personal (...)
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  • Data identity: privacy and the construction of self.Jens-Erik Mai & Sille Obelitz Søe - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-22.
    This paper argues in favor of a hybrid conception of identity. A common conception of identity in datafied society is a split between a digital self and a real self, which has resulted in concepts such as the data double, algorithmic identity, and data shadows. These data-identity metaphors have played a significant role in the conception of informational privacy as control over information—the control of or restricted access to your digital identity. Through analyses of various data-identity metaphors as well as (...)
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  • Negotiating Privacy Through Phatic Communication. A Case Study of the Blogging Self.Stine Lomborg - 2012 - Philosophy and Technology 25 (3):415-434.
    The article provides an instructive in-depth analysis of communicative practices in the personal blog. Its aim is to document the discursive dynamics and interactional ethics of blogging, with a specific focus on negotiations of the blogging self in-between public and private. Based on key findings from an empirical case study of personal blogs, the article addresses the negotiation of the blogging self from three interdependent perspectives: the network structures, patterns of interaction, and thematic orientations of the blog. Instead of approaching (...)
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  • A practice–theoretical account of privacy.Wulf Loh - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (4):233-247.
    This paper distinguishes between two main questions regarding the notion of privacy: “What is privacy?” and “Why do/should we value privacy?”. In developing a social-ontological recognitional model of privacy, it gives an answer to the first question. According to the SORM, Privacy is a second order quality of roles within social practices. It is a function of who is or should be recognized as a “standard authority”. Enjoying standard authority means to have the right to interpret and contest role behavior (...)
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  • Making Data Valuable: Political, Economic, and Conceptual Bases of Big Data.Anna Lauren Hoffmann - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (2):209-212.
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  • Who Needs Stories if You Can Get the Data? ISPs in the Era of Big Number Crunching.Mireille Hildebrandt - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (4):371-390.
    Who Needs Stories if You Can Get the Data? ISPs in the Era of Big Number Crunching Content Type Journal Article Category Special Issue Pages 371-390 DOI 10.1007/s13347-011-0041-8 Authors Mireille Hildebrandt, Institute of Computer and Information Sciences (ICIS), Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Journal Philosophy & Technology Online ISSN 2210-5441 Print ISSN 2210-5433 Journal Volume Volume 24 Journal Issue Volume 24, Number 4.
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  • Care ethics and the responsible management of power and privacy in digitally enhanced disaster response.Paul Hayes & Damian Jackson - 2020 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 18 (1):157-174.
    PurposeThis paper aims to argue that traditional ethical theories used in disaster response may be inadequate and particularly strained by the emergence of new technologies and social media, particularly with regard to privacy. The paper suggests incorporation of care ethics into the disaster ethics nexus to better include the perspectives of disaster affected communities.Design/methodology/approachThis paper presents a theoretical examination of privacy and care ethics in the context of social media/digitally enhanced disaster response.FindingsThe paper proposes an ethics of care can fruitfully (...)
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  • Algorithms and values in justice and security.Paul Hayes, Ibo van de Poel & Marc Steen - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):533-555.
    This article presents a conceptual investigation into the value impacts and relations of algorithms in the domain of justice and security. As a conceptual investigation, it represents one step in a value sensitive design based methodology. Here, we explicate and analyse the expression of values of accuracy, privacy, fairness and equality, property and ownership, and accountability and transparency in this context. We find that values are sensitive to disvalue if algorithms are designed, implemented or deployed inappropriately or without sufficient consideration (...)
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  • From privacy to anti-discrimination in times of machine learning.Thilo Hagendorff - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (4):331-343.
    Due to the technology of machine learning, new breakthroughs are currently being achieved with constant regularity. By using machine learning techniques, computer applications can be developed and used to solve tasks that have hitherto been assumed not to be solvable by computers. If these achievements consider applications that collect and process personal data, this is typically perceived as a threat to information privacy. This paper aims to discuss applications from both fields of personality and image analysis. These applications are often (...)
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  • Forbidden knowledge in machine learning reflections on the limits of research and publication.Thilo Hagendorff - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):767-781.
    Certain research strands can yield “forbidden knowledge”. This term refers to knowledge that is considered too sensitive, dangerous or taboo to be produced or shared. Discourses about such publication restrictions are already entrenched in scientific fields like IT security, synthetic biology or nuclear physics research. This paper makes the case for transferring this discourse to machine learning research. Some machine learning applications can very easily be misused and unfold harmful consequences, for instance, with regard to generative video or text synthesis, (...)
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  • The philosophy of information as a conceptual framework.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):1-31.
    The article contains the replies to the collection of contributions discussing my research on the philosophy of information.
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  • The informational nature of personal identity.Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (4):549-566.
    In this paper, I present an informational approach to the nature of personal identity. In “Plato and the problem of the chariot”, I use Plato’s famous metaphor of the chariot to introduce a specific problem regarding the nature of the self as an informational multiagent system: what keeps the self together as a whole and coherent unity? In “Egology and its two branches” and “Egology as synchronic individualisation”, I outline two branches of the theory of the self: one concerning the (...)
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  • On human dignity as a foundation for the right to privacy.Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (4):307-312.
    In 2016, the European Parliament approved the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) whose core aim is the safeguarding of information privacy, and, by corollary, human dignity. Drawing on the field of philosophical anthropology, this paper analyses various interpretations of human dignity and human exceptionalism. It concludes that privacy is essential for humans to flourish and enable individuals to build a sense of self and the world.
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  • Informational privacy and its ontological interpretation.Luciano Floridi - 2006 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 36 (3):1.
    The article provides an outline of the ontological interpretation of informational privacy based on information ethics. It is part of a larger project of research, in which I have developed the foundations of ideas presented here and their consequences. As an outline, it is meant to be self-sufficient and to provide enough information to enable the reader to assess how the approach fares with respect to other alternatives. However, those interested in a more detailed analysis, and especially in the reasons (...)
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  • Four challenges for a theory of informational privacy.Luciano Floridi - 2006 - Ethics and Information Technology 8 (3):109–119.
    In this article, I summarise the ontological theory of informational privacy (an approach based on information ethics) and then discuss four types of interesting challenges confronting any theory of informational privacy: (1) parochial ontologies and non-Western approaches to informational privacy; (2) individualism and the anthropology of informational privacy; (3) the scope and limits of informational privacy; and (4) public, passive and active informational privacy. I argue that the ontological theory of informational privacy can cope with such challenges fairly successfully. In (...)
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  • Digital’s cleaving power and its consequences.Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (2):123-129.
    The digital is deeply transforming reality. Through discussion of concepts such as identity, location, presence, law and territoriality, this article explores why and how these transformations are occurring, and highlights the importance of having a design and a plan for our new digital world.
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  • Distributed morality in an information society.Luciano Floridi - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):727-743.
    The phenomenon of distributed knowledge is well-known in epistemic logic. In this paper, a similar phenomenon in ethics, somewhat neglected so far, is investigated, namely distributed morality. The article explains the nature of distributed morality, as a feature of moral agency, and explores the implications of its occurrence in advanced information societies. In the course of the analysis, the concept of infraethics is introduced, in order to refer to the ensemble of moral enablers, which, although morally neutral per se, can (...)
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  • A Critique of Information Ethics.Tony Doyle - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
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  • A Critique of Information Ethics.Tony Doyle - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
    Luciano Floridi presents Information Ethics (IE) as an alternative to traditional moral theories. IE consists of two tenets. First, reality can be interpreted at numerous, mutually consistent levels of abstraction, the highest of which is information. This level, unlike the others, applies to all of reality. Second, everything, insofar as it is an information object, has some degree of intrinsic value and hence moral dignity. I criticize IE, arguing that Floridi fails to show that the moral community should be expanded (...)
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  • Information ethics and the law of data representations.Dan L. Burk - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):135-147.
    The theories of information ethics articulated by Luciano Floridi and his collaborators have clear implications for law. Information law, including the law of privacy and of intellectual property, is especially likely to benefit from a coherent and comprehensive theory of information ethics. This article illustrates how information ethics might apply to legal doctrine, by examining legal questions related to the ownership and control of the personal data representations, including photographs, game avatars, and consumer profiles, that have become ubiquitous with the (...)
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  • Post-mortem privacy and informational self-determination.J. C. Buitelaar - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (2):129-142.
    Post-mortem privacy is becoming a vital topic of public and scholarly legal concern. Post-mortem privacy is understood as the right of a person to preserve and control what becomes of his reputation and dignity after death. The assumption that the deceased does not qualify for privacy rights, because his bodily presence has been terminated, no longer holds in our networked society. In the digital age, the phenomenon of the digital legacy that an Internet user leaves behind after his demise, has (...)
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  • Is there a philosophy of information?Filip Buekens, Alessandro Salice, Luciano Floridi, Bert Baumgaertner & Filippo Domaneschi - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):161-171.
    In 2002, Luciano Floridi published a paper called What is the Philosophy of Information?, where he argues for a new paradigm in philosophical research. To what extent should his proposal be accepted? Is the Philosophy of Information actually a new paradigm, in the Kuhninan sense, in Philosophy? Or is it only a new branch of Epistemology? In our discussion we will argue in defense of Floridi’s proposal. We believe that Philosophy of Information has the types of features had by other (...)
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  • Smart homes, private homes? An empirical study of technology researchers’ perceptions of ethical issues in developing smart-home health technologies.Giles Birchley, Richard Huxtable, Madeleine Murtagh, Ruud ter Meulen, Peter Flach & Rachael Gooberman-Hill - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):23.
    Smart-home technologies, comprising environmental sensors, wearables and video are attracting interest in home healthcare delivery. Development of such technology is usually justified on the basis of the technology’s potential to increase the autonomy of people living with long-term conditions. Studies of the ethics of smart-homes raise concerns about privacy, consent, social isolation and equity of access. Few studies have investigated the ethical perspectives of smart-home engineers themselves. By exploring the views of engineering researchers in a large smart-home project, we sought (...)
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  • Identity as Convention: Biometric Passports and the Promise of Security.Maren Behrensen - 2014 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 12 (1):44-59.
    Purpose – The paper is a conceptual investigation of the metaphysics of personal identity and the ethics of biometric passports. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Philosophical argument, discussing both the metaphysical and the social ethics/computer ethics literature on personal identity and biometry. Findings – The author argues for three central claims in this paper: passport are not simply representations of personal identity, they help constitute personal identity. Personal identity is not a metaphysical fact, but a set (...)
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  • Contextual Exceptionalism After Death: An Information Ethics Approach to Post-Mortem Privacy in Health Data Research.Marieke A. R. Bak & Dick L. Willems - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (4):1-20.
    In this article, we use the theory of Information Ethics to argue that deceased people have a prima facie moral right to privacy in the context of health data research, and that this should be reflected in regulation and guidelines. After death, people are no longer biological subjects but continue to exist as informational entities which can still be harmed/damaged. We find that while the instrumental value of recognising post-mortem privacy lies in the preservation of the social contract for health (...)
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  • Is There a Philosophy of Information?Fred Adams & João Antonio de Moraes - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):161-171.
    In 2002, Luciano Floridi published a paper called What is the Philosophy of Information?, where he argues for a new paradigm in philosophical research. To what extent should his proposal be accepted? Is the Philosophy of Information actually a new paradigm, in the Kuhninan sense, in Philosophy? Or is it only a new branch of Epistemology? In our discussion we will argue in defense of Floridi’s proposal. We believe that Philosophy of Information has the types of features had by other (...)
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  • The artifactualization of reference and "substances" on the Web.Alexandre Monnin - unknown
    In this paper we show that URIs, sometimes dubbed "philosophical proper names, in fact do not always refer as proper names does. We provide an account explaining why, centered around the notion of "resource", central to webarch, and that we qualify ontologically.
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  • Privacy as Informational Commodity.Jarek Gryz - 2013 - Proceedings of IACAP Conference.
    Many attempts to define privacy have been made since the publication of the seminal paper by Warren and Brandeis (Warren & Brandeis, 1890). Early definitions and theories of privacy had little to do with the concept of information and, when they did, only in an informal sense. With the advent of information technology, the question of a precise and universally acceptable definition of privacy became an urgent issue as legal and business problems regarding privacy started to accrue. In this paper, (...)
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  • Mind and artifact: A multidimensional matrix for exploring cognition-artifact relations.Richard Heersmink - 2012 - In J. M. Bishop & Y. J. Erden (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th AISB Symposium on Computing and Philosophy (pp. 54-61).
    What are the possible varieties of cognition-artifact relations, and which dimensions are relevant for exploring these varieties? This question is answered in two steps. First, three levels of functional and informational integration between human agent and cognitive artifact are distinguished. These levels are based on the degree of interactivity and direction of information flow, and range from monocausal and bicausal relations to continuous reciprocal causation. In these levels there is a hierarchy of integrative processes in which there is an increasing (...)
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  • Correspondents theory 1800/2000: philosophical reflections upon epistolary technics and praxis in the analogue and digital. [REVIEW]Anthony John Charles Ross - unknown
    When we talk about things like the 'lost art of letter-writing' or the 'digital communications revolution,' what do we mean? What do we lose and what do we gain as we move towards digital ways of being in the world? Critically engaging with many of the canonical writers in the philosophy of technology , and following what has been termed the 'empirical turn' in that discipline, this thesis answers such questions by means of a philosophical, comparative study of epistolary technics (...)
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  • Information ethics and infosphere.Ariel Antonio Morán Reyes - 2013 - Escritos 21 (46):21-37.
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