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  1. A United Framework of Five Principles for AI in Society.Luciano Floridi & Josh Cowls - 2019 - Harvard Data Science Review 1 (1).
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already having a major impact on society. As a result, many organizations have launched a wide range of initiatives to establish ethical principles for the adoption of socially beneficial AI. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of proposed principles threatens to overwhelm and confuse. How might this problem of ‘principle proliferation’ be solved? In this paper, we report the results of a fine-grained analysis of several of the highest-profile sets of ethical principles for AI. We assess whether these (...)
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  • AI and its New Winter: From Myths to Realities.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):1-3.
    An AI winter may be defined as the stage when technology, business, and the media come to terms with what AI can or cannot really do as a technology without exaggeration. Through discussion of previous AI winters, this paper examines the hype cycle (which by turn characterises AI as a social panacea or a nightmare of apocalyptic proportions) and argues that AI should be treated as a normal technology, neither as a miracle nor as a plague, but rather as of (...)
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  • The Ethics of AI in Health Care: A Mapping Review.Jessica Morley, Caio C. V. Machado, Christopher Burr, Josh Cowls, Indra Joshi, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Social Science & Medicine 260.
    This article presents a mapping review of the literature concerning the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in health care. The goal of this review is to summarise current debates and identify open questions for future research. Five literature databases were searched to support the following research question: how can the primary ethical risks presented by AI-health be categorised, and what issues must policymakers, regulators and developers consider in order to be ‘ethically mindful? A series of screening stages were carried out—for (...)
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  • Ethical Foresight Analysis: What It is and Why It is Needed?Luciano Floridi & Andrew Strait - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):77-97.
    An increasing number of technology firms are implementing processes to identify and evaluate the ethical risks of their systems and products. A key part of these review processes is to foresee potential impacts of these technologies on different groups of users. In this article, we use the expression Ethical Foresight Analysis to refer to a variety of analytical strategies for anticipating or predicting the ethical issues that new technological artefacts, services, and applications may raise. This article examines several existing EFA (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence as a Public Service: Learning From Amsterdam and Helsinki.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):541-546.
    In September 2020, Helsinki and Amsterdam announced the launch of their open AI registers—the first cities in the world to offer such a service. The AI registers describe what, where, and how AI applications are being used in the two municipalities; how algorithms were assessed for potential bias or risks; and how humans use the AI services. Examining issues of security and transparency, this paper discusses the potential for implementing AI in an urban public service setting and how this might (...)
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  • GPT-3: Its Nature, Scope, Limits, and Consequences.Luciano Floridi & Massimo Chiriatti - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (4):681-694.
    In this commentary, we discuss the nature of reversible and irreversible questions, that is, questions that may enable one to identify the nature of the source of their answers. We then introduce GPT-3, a third-generation, autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like texts, and use the previous distinction to analyse it. We expand the analysis to present three tests based on mathematical, semantic, and ethical questions and show that GPT-3 is not designed to pass any of them. (...)
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  • The Ethics of Algorithms: Key Problems and Solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  • The Making of AI Society: AI Futures Frames in German Political and Media Discourses.Lea Köstler & Ringo Ossewaarde - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    In this article, we shed light on the emergence, diffusion, and use of socio-technological future visions. The artificial intelligence future vision of the German federal government is examined and juxtaposed with the respective news media coverage of the German media. By means of a content analysis of frames, it is demonstrated how the German government strategically uses its AI future vision to uphold the status quo. The German media largely adapt the government´s frames and do not integrate alternative future narratives (...)
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  • Computer Simulations Then and Now: An Introduction and Historical Reassessment.Arianna Borrelli & Janina Wellmann - 2019 - NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin 27 (4):407-417.
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  • Artificial Intelligence Assistants and Risk: Framing a Connectivity Risk Narrative.Martin Cunneen, Martin Mullins & Finbarr Murphy - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):625-634.
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  • Enactive Hermeneutics and Smart Medical Technologies.Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    Embodied cognition is an interpretative—or hermeneutical—cognition inherent in motor-sensory perception intrinsically informed by biological and sociocultural memory, a cognition embedded in the organism as well as the socio-cultural environment interacting with it, of which technologies are a part. Yet, smart machines are advancing on human abilities to perceive and interpret concerning the accuracy, quantity, and quality of the data processed. Machines process and categorize images, perform classification tasks, they calculate and perform pattern analysis, all machine learning processes are task-specific. Machine (...)
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  • Deep Learning: A Philosophical Introduction.Cameron Buckner - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (10).
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