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  1. Engineering Equity: How AI Can Help Reduce the Harm of Implicit Bias.Ying-Tung Lin, Tzu-Wei Hung & Linus Ta-Lun Huang - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):65-90.
    This paper focuses on the potential of “equitech”—AI technology that improves equity. Recently, interventions have been developed to reduce the harm of implicit bias, the automatic form of stereotype or prejudice that contributes to injustice. However, these interventions—some of which are assisted by AI-related technology—have significant limitations, including unintended negative consequences and general inefficacy. To overcome these limitations, we propose a two-dimensional framework to assess current AI-assisted interventions and explore promising new ones. We begin by using the case of human (...)
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  • Evaluating the Prospects for University-Based Ethical Governance in Artificial Intelligence and Data-Driven Innovation.Christine Hine - 2021 - Research Ethics 17 (4):464-479.
    There has been considerable debate around the ethical issues raised by data-driven technologies such as artificial intelligence. Ethical principles for the field have focused on the need to ensure...
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  • Implementing Ethics in Healthcare AI-Based Applications: A Scoping Review.Robyn Clay-Williams, Elizabeth Austin & Magali Goirand - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (5):1-53.
    A number of Artificial Intelligence ethics frameworks have been published in the last 6 years in response to the growing concerns posed by the adoption of AI in different sectors, including healthcare. While there is a strong culture of medical ethics in healthcare applications, AI-based Healthcare Applications are challenging the existing ethics and regulatory frameworks. This scoping review explores how ethics frameworks have been implemented in AIHA, how these implementations have been evaluated and whether they have been successful. AI specific (...)
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  • Achieving a ‘Good AI Society’: Comparing the Aims and Progress of the EU and the US.Huw Roberts, Josh Cowls, Emmie Hine, Francesca Mazzi, Andreas Tsamados, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-25.
    Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of artificial intelligence strategies, released by governments around the world, that seek to maximise the benefits of AI and minimise potential harms. This article provides a comparative analysis of the European Union and the United States’ AI strategies and considers the visions of a ‘Good AI Society’ that are forwarded in key policy documents and their opportunity costs, the extent to which the implementation of each vision is living up to (...)
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  • Fairness as Equal Concession: Critical Remarks on Fair AI.Christopher Yeomans & Ryan van Nood - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-14.
    Although existing work draws attention to a range of obstacles in realizing fair AI, the field lacks an account that emphasizes how these worries hang together in a systematic way. Furthermore, a review of the fair AI and philosophical literature demonstrates the unsuitability of ‘treat like cases alike’ and other intuitive notions as conceptions of fairness. That review then generates three desiderata for a replacement conception of fairness valuable to AI research: It must provide a meta-theory for understanding tradeoffs, entailing (...)
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  • An Empathy Imitation Game: Empathy Turing Test for Care- and Chat-Bots.Jeremy Howick, Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (3):1–⁠5.
    AI, in the form of artificial carers, provides a possible solution to the problem of a growing elderly population Yet, concerns remain that artificial carers ( such as care-or chat-bots) could not emphathize with patients to the extent that humans can. Utilising the concept of empathy perception,we propose a Turing-type test that could check whether artificial carers could do many of the menial tasks human carers currently undertake, and in the process, free up more time for doctors to offer empathy. (...)
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  • The Ethical Use of Artificial Intelligence in Human Resource Management: A Decision-Making Framework.Sarah Bankins - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):841-854.
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  • From Human Resources to Human Rights: Impact Assessments for Hiring Algorithms.Josephine Yam & Joshua August Skorburg - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):611-623.
    Over the years, companies have adopted hiring algorithms because they promise wider job candidate pools, lower recruitment costs and less human bias. Despite these promises, they also bring perils. Using them can inflict unintentional harms on individual human rights. These include the five human rights to work, equality and nondiscrimination, privacy, free expression and free association. Despite the human rights harms of hiring algorithms, the AI ethics literature has predominantly focused on abstract ethical principles. This is problematic for two reasons. (...)
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  • Robot Autonomy vs. Human Autonomy: Social Robots, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and the Nature of Autonomy.Paul Formosa - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-22.
    Social robots are robots that can interact socially with humans. As social robots and the artificial intelligence that powers them becomes more advanced, they will likely take on more social and work roles. This has many important ethical implications. In this paper, we focus on one of the most central of these, the impacts that social robots can have on human autonomy. We argue that, due to their physical presence and social capacities, there is a strong potential for social robots (...)
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  • Cultivating Moral Attention: a Virtue-Oriented Approach to Responsible Data Science in Healthcare.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-28.
    In the past few years, the ethical ramifications of AI technologies have been at the center of intense debates. Considerable attention has been devoted to understanding how a morally responsible practice of data science can be promoted and which values have to shape it. In this context, ethics and moral responsibility have been mainly conceptualized as compliance to widely shared principles. However, several scholars have highlighted the limitations of such a principled approach. Drawing from microethics and the virtue theory tradition, (...)
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  • What does it mean to embed ethics in data science? An integrative approach based on the microethics and virtues.Louise Bezuidenhout & Emanuele Ratti - 2021 - AI and Society 36:939–953.
    In the past few years, scholars have been questioning whether the current approach in data ethics based on the higher level case studies and general principles is effective. In particular, some have been complaining that such an approach to ethics is difficult to be applied and to be taught in the context of data science. In response to these concerns, there have been discussions about how ethics should be “embedded” in the practice of data science, in the sense of showing (...)
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  • Ethics as a service: a pragmatic operationalisation of AI ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (2):239–256.
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence, in particular machine learning, has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the theory of (...)
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  • Ethics-Based Auditing to Develop Trustworthy AI.Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines.
    A series of recent developments points towards auditing as a promising mechanism to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. Building on ongoing discussions concerning ethics-based auditing, we offer three contributions. First, we argue that ethics-based auditing can improve the quality of decision making, increase user satisfaction, unlock growth potential, enable law-making, and relieve human suffering. Second, we highlight current best practices to support the design and implementation of ethics-based auditing: To be feasible and effective, ethics-based auditing (...)
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  • AI and its New Winter: From Myths to Realities.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):1-3.
    An AI winter may be defined as the stage when technology, business, and the media come to terms with what AI can or cannot really do as a technology without exaggeration. Through discussion of previous AI winters, this paper examines the hype cycle (which by turn characterises AI as a social panacea or a nightmare of apocalyptic proportions) and argues that AI should be treated as a normal technology, neither as a miracle nor as a plague, but rather as of (...)
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  • The Explanation Game: A Formal Framework for Interpretable Machine Learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Synthese 198 (10):9211-9242.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  • The Explanation Game: A Formal Framework for Interpretable Machine Learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):1–⁠32.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence as a Public Service: Learning From Amsterdam and Helsinki.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):541–⁠546.
    In September 2020, Helsinki and Amsterdam announced the launch of their open AI registers—the first cities in the world to offer such a service. The AI registers describe what, where, and how AI applications are being used in the two municipalities; how algorithms were assessed for potential bias or risks; and how humans use the AI services. Examining issues of security and transparency, this paper discusses the potential for implementing AI in an urban public service setting and how this might (...)
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  • How to design AI for social good: seven essential factors.Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, Thomas C. King & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1771–1796.
    The idea of artificial intelligence for social good is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to tackle social problems through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies. This article addresses this gap by identifying seven ethical factors that are (...)
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  • Ethics in the Software Development Process: From Codes of Conduct to Ethical Deliberation.Jan Gogoll, Niina Zuber, Severin Kacianka, Timo Greger, Alexander Pretschner & Julian Nida-Rümelin - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-24.
    Software systems play an ever more important role in our lives and software engineers and their companies find themselves in a position where they are held responsible for ethical issues that may arise. In this paper, we try to disentangle ethical considerations that can be performed at the level of the software engineer from those that belong in the wider domain of business ethics. The handling of ethical problems that fall into the responsibility of the engineer has traditionally been addressed (...)
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  • An Emerging AI Mainstream: Deepening Our Comparisons of AI Frameworks Through Rhetorical Analysis.Epifanio Torres & Will Penman - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    Comparing frameworks for AI development allows us to see trends and reflect on how we are conceptualizing, interacting with, and imagining futures for AI. Recent scholarship comparing a range of AI frameworks has often focused methodologically on consensus, which has led to problems in evaluating potentially ambiguous values. We contribute to this scholarship using a rhetorical perspective attuned to how frameworks shape people’s actions. This perspective allows us to develop the concept of an “AI mainstream” through an analysis of five (...)
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  • Getting into the engine room: a blueprint to investigate the shadowy steps of AI ethics.Johan Rochel & Florian Evéquoz - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Enacting an AI system typically requires three iterative phases where AI engineers are in command: selection and preparation of the data, selection and configuration of algorithmic tools, and fine-tuning of the different parameters on the basis of intermediate results. Our main hypothesis is that these phases involve practices with ethical questions. This paper maps these ethical questions and proposes a way to address them in light of a neo-republican understanding of freedom, defined as absence of domination. We thereby identify different (...)
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  • Harmonizing Artificial Intelligence for Social Good.Nicolas Berberich, Toyoaki Nishida & Shoko Suzuki - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):613-638.
    To become more broadly applicable, positions on AI ethics require perspectives from non-Western regions and cultures such as China and Japan. In this paper, we propose that the addition of the concept of harmony to the discussion on ethical AI would be highly beneficial due to its centrality in East Asian cultures and its applicability to the challenge of designing AI for social good. We first present a synopsis of different definitions of harmony in multiple contexts, such as music and (...)
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  • An Ethical Framework for the Design, Development, Implementation, and Assessment of Drones Used in Public Healthcare.Dylan Cawthorne & Aimee Robbins-van Wynsberghe - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2867-2891.
    The use of drones in public healthcare is suggested as a means to improve efficiency under constrained resources and personnel. This paper begins by framing drones in healthcare as a social experiment where ethical guidelines are needed to protect those impacted while fully realizing the benefits the technology offers. Then we propose an ethical framework to facilitate the design, development, implementation, and assessment of drones used in public healthcare. Given the healthcare context, we structure the framework according to the four (...)
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  • From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2141-2168.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on principles—the (...)
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  • Ethical Value-Centric Cybersecurity: A Methodology Based on a Value Graph.Josep Domingo-Ferrer & Alberto Blanco-Justicia - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1267-1285.
    Our society is being shaped in a non-negligible way by the technological advances of recent years, especially in information and communications technologies. The pervasiveness and democratization of ICTs have allowed people from all backgrounds to access and use them, which has resulted in new information-based assets. At the same time, this phenomenon has brought a new class of problems, in the form of activists, criminals and state actors that target the new assets to achieve their goals, legitimate or not. Cybersecurity (...)
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