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  1. Expressing experience: the promise and perils of the phenomenological interview.Elizabeth Pienkos, Borut Škodlar & Louis Sass - 2022 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 21 (1):53-71.
    This paper outlines several of the challenges that are inherent in any attempt to communicate subjective experience to others, particularly in the context of a clinical interview. It presents the phenomenological interview as a way of effectively responding to these challenges, which may be especially important when attempting to understand the profound experiential transformations that take place in schizophrenia. Features of language experience in schizophrenia—including changes in interpersonal orientation, a sense of the arbitrariness of language, and a desire for faithful (...)
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  • The Unbearable Lightness of Representing ‘Reality’ in Science Education: A Response to Schulz.Michalinos Zembylas - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (4):494-514.
    This article responds to Schulz's criticisms of an earlier paper published in Educational Philosophy and Theory. The purpose in this paper is to clarify and extend some of my earlier arguments, to indicate what is unfortunate from a non‐charitable, modernist reading of Lyotardian postmodernism, and to suggest what new directions are emerging in science education from efforts to move beyond an either/or dichotomy of foundationalism and relativism.
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  • Signing in the Flesh: Notes on Pragmatist Hermeneutics.Dmitri N. Shalin - 2007 - Sociological Theory 25 (3):193 - 224.
    This article offers an alternative to classical hermeneutics, which focuses on discursive products and grasps meaning as the play of difference between linguistic signs. Pragmatist hermeneutics reconstructs meaning through an indefinite triangulation, which brings symbols, icons, and indices to bear on each other and considers a meaningful occasion as an embodied semiotic process. To illuminate the word-body-action nexus, the discussion identifies three basic types of signifying media: (1) the symbolic-discursive, (2) the somatic-affective, and (3) the behavioral-performative, each one marked by (...)
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  • Linguistic Alterity and the Multiplicitous Self: Critical Phenomenologies in Latina Feminist Thought.Elena Flores Ruíz - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (2):421-436.
    Latina feminists like Gloria Anzaldúa and Mariana Ortega have developed anti-essentialist accounts of selfhood that are responsive to the problem of alterity and hermeneutic alienation experienced by multiplicitous subjects, understood as those who must navigate between multiple cultural norms and often conflicting interpretive traditions. These accounts can be fortified by examining the sense of inarticulacy that arises from having to name conditions of existence undergirded by social and historical contradictions and ambiguities—especially under the experiential stress of gendered social violence, cultural (...)
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  • Absurd Conversations: On the Educational Value of Interlocutionary Misbehaviour.Claudia W. Ruitenberg - 2009 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 41 (5):527-538.
    This essay argues that there are educational situations in which interlocutionary misbehaviour in the form of withholding ‘good will’ can have educational value. It describes an exchange between a teacher and a student in which the teacher withheld good will, and analyzes this exchange through conceptual frameworks of performative contradiction and differend, provided by Derrida and Lyotard, respectively. It further analyzes how context, power, and ethical considerations affect the evaluation of instances of interlocutionary misbehaviour. The essay ends with the ironic (...)
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  • Ricoeur's Metaphor and Narrative Theories as a Foundation for a Theory of Symbol: DOUGLAS R. McGAUGHEY.Douglas R. McGaughey - 1988 - Religious Studies 24 (4):415-437.
    The Issues at Issue: Heidegger declares metaphor to be a function of metaphysics. Ricoeur's tension theory of metaphor takes the understanding of metaphor beyond metaphysics. Ricoeur's theory of metaphor is a theory of metaphorical statement not of naming. The classical, lexical theory of metaphor focuses on a primary meaning of each metaphor. As such metaphor is merely ornamentation in language. What it names could more appropriately be accomplished in literal language. In contrast, metaphor is understood by Ricoeur to be a (...)
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  • Philosophical Writing: Prefacing as Professing.Rob McCormack - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (7):832-855.
    If you do not wish to construe philosophical discourse as simply a discourse of cognition, a theoretical discourse; if you think it is also a practical, ethical discourse: how should you write? How should you frame the ethos, the authority of your discourse? This article re‐presents an extended preface I wrote and rewrote obsessively over a period of nearly two years in an effort to forge a voice and mode of address adequate to my sense of philosophical discourse as a (...)
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  • Making Sense of Stories: The Use of Patient Narratives Within Mental Health Care Research: Dialogue.Geir F. Lorem - 2008 - Nursing Philosophy 9 (1):62-71.
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  • Philosophical and Socio‐Cognitive Foundations for Teaching in Higher Education Through Collaborative Approaches to Student Learning.Adrian Jones - 2011 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (9):997-1011.
    This paper considers the implications for higher education of recent work on narrative theory, distributed cognition and artificial intelligence. These perspectives are contrasted with the educational implications of Heidegger's ontological phenomenology [being‐there and being‐aware ] and with the classic and classical foundations of education which Heidegger and Gadamer once criticised. The aim is to prompt discussion of what teaching might become if psychological insights are associated with every realm of higher education.
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  • What We Owe the Romantics.Lewis P. Hinchman & Sandra K. Hinchman - 2007 - Environmental Values 16 (3):333-354.
    Romanticism is recognized as a wellspring of modern-day environmental thought and enthusiasm for nature-preservation, but the character of the affinities between the two is less well understood. Essentially, the Romantics realised that nature only becomes a matter for ethical concern, inspiration and love when the mind and sensibility of the human observer/agent are properly attuned and receptive to its meaning. That attunement involves several factors: a more appropriate scientific paradigm, a subtler appreciation of the impact that the setting of human (...)
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  • Encountering the Alien: Gadamer and Transformation in Pedagogy.Johann Graaff - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (6):758-769.
    For Gadamer, understanding moves between two different levels. One is the everyday ontological level in which there is a meeting between the familiar and the alien, between the known and the not‐quite‐expected. But understanding can also be a skill to be developed. This is the way in which we achieve good knowledge. In pedagogical terms, encountering the alien is the basis for self‐formation, or bildung, originating in Hegel. But there is an ambiguity at the heart of bildung. The notion of (...)
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  • Complexity and Education: Vital Simultaneities.Brent Davis - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (1):50-65.
    This article explores the place of complexity science within education and educational research. The discussion begins with the suggestion that educational research has a history of adopting interpretive frames from other domains with little adaptation. Complexity science is argued to compel a different sort of positioning, one that requires accommodation and participation rather than unproblematized assimilation and application. The argument is developed by considering the following simultaneities in education research: knower and knowledge; transphenomenality; transdisciplinarity; interdiscursivity; descriptive and pragmatic insights; representation (...)
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  • The Practical Discourse in Philosophy and Nursing: An Exploration of Linkages and Shifts in the Evol.Margaret J. Connor - 2004 - Nursing Philosophy 5 (1):54-66.
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  • The Experiential Paradoxes of Pain.Drew Leder - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):444-460.
    Pain is far more than an aversive sensation. Chronic pain, in particular, involves the sufferer in a complex experience filled with ambiguity and paradox. The tensions thereby established, the unknowns, pressures, and oscillations, form a significant part of the painfulness of pain. This paper uses a phenomenological method to examine nine such paradoxes. For example, pain can be both immediate sensation and mediated by complex interpretations. It is a certainty for the experiencer, yet highly uncertain in character. It pulls one (...)
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  • Towards Understanding the Unpresentable in Nursing: Some Nursing Philosophical Considerations.Brenda L. Cameron - 2006 - Nursing Philosophy 7 (1):23-35.
    While nursing practice embodies certain observable and sometimes habitual actions, much inheres in these actions that is not immediately discernible. Taking on Lyotard's exegesis of the unpresentable, I undertake an analysis of the unpresentable as it occurs in nursing practices. The unpresentable is a place of alterity often excluded from dominant discourses. Yet this very alterity is what practising nurses face day after day. Drawing from two nursing situations, one from a hermeneutic phenomenological study and the other from the literature, (...)
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  • Human Understanding in Dialogue: Gadamer's Recovery of the Genuine: Original Article.Lindal Binding - 2008 - Nursing Philosophy 9 (2):121-130.
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  • The Descartes Lecture.David W. Jardine - 2012 - Journal of Applied Hermeneutics 2012 (1).
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  • Moving Circles: Mobile Media and Playful Identities.M. L. Langdee - unknown
    The mobile phone has become part of our everyday lives with astonishing speed. Over four billion people now have access to mobile phones, and this number keeps increasing. Mobile media technologies shape how we communicate with each other, and relate to the world. This raises questions about their influence on identity. Medium-specific properties and user-practices challenge the idea that we understand ourselves through stories. It is proposed that the notion of play sheds new light on how technologies shape identities. The (...)
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  • Self‐Awareness and Self‐Understanding.B. Scot Rousse - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):162-186.
    In this paper, I argue that self-awareness is intertwined with one's awareness of possibilities for action. I show this by critically examining Dan Zahavi's multidimensional account of the self. I argue that the distinction Zahavi makes among 'pre-reflective minimal', 'interpersonal', and 'normative' dimensions of selfhood needs to be refined in order to accommodate what I call 'pre-reflective self-understanding'. The latter is a normative dimension of selfhood manifest not in reflection and deliberation, but in the habits and style of a person’s (...)
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  • Re-Imagining Text — Re-Imagining Hermeneutics.Christopher Duncanson-Hales - 2011 - Postscripts: The Journal of Sacred Texts and Contemporary Worlds 7 (1):87-122.
    With the advent of the digital age and new mediums of communication, it is becoming increasingly important for those interested in the interpretation of religious text to look beyond traditional ideas of text and textuality to find the sacred in unlikely places. Paul Ricoeur’s phenomenological reorientation of classical hermeneutics from romanticized notions of authorial intent and psychological divinations to a serious engagement with the “science of the text” is a hermeneutical tool that opens up an important dialogue between the interpreter, (...)
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  • Nominalism and History.Cody Franchetti - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):401-412.
    The paper focuses on Nominalism in history, its application, and its historiographical implications. By engaging with recent scholarship as well as classic works, a survey of Nominalism’s role in the discipline of history is made; such examination is timely, since it has been done but scantily in a purely historical context. In the light of recent theoretical works, which often display aporias over the nature and method of historical enquiry, the paper offers new considerations on historical theory, which in the (...)
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  • Making Sense of Questions in Logic and Mathematics: Mill Vs. Carnap.Esther Ramharter - 2006 - Prolegomena 5 (2):209-218.
    Whether mathematical truths are syntactical (as Rudolf Carnap claimed) or empirical (as Mill actually never claimed, though Carnap claimed that he did) might seem merely an academic topic. However, it becomes a practical concern as soon as we consider the role of questions. For if we inquire as to the truth of a mathematical statement, this question must be (in a certain respect) meaningless for Carnap, as its truth or falsity is certain in advance due to its purely syntactical (or (...)
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  • Ricoeur’s Transcendental Concern: A Hermeneutics of Discourse.William D. Melaney - 2011 - In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.), Analecta Husserliana. Springer. pp. 495-513.
    This paper argues that Paul Ricoeur’s hermeneutical philosophy attempts to reopen the question of human transcendence in contemporary terms. While his conception of language as self-transcending is deeply Husserlian, Ricoeur also responds to the analytical challenge when he deploys a basic distinction in Fregean logic in order to clarify Heidegger’s phenomenology of world. Ricoeur’s commitment to a transcendental view is evident in his conception of narrative, which enables him to emphasize the role of the performative in literary reading. The meaning (...)
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  • Embedded Rationality and the Contextualisation of Critical Thinking.James McGuirk - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 55 (4-5):606-620.
    Journal of Philosophy of Education, EarlyView.
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  • Studying the Intentionality of Human Being.Casper Feilberg, Annelise Norlyk & Kurt Dauer Keller - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):214-246.
    Based upon a brief outline of existential-phenomenological ontology we present a theoretical and practical understanding of human being, which is suited for a methodologically reflected approach to qualitative research. We present the phenomenological distinction between three dimensions of corporeal intentionality that form elementary events and structures of meaning. Various aspects of human being are better scrutinized with these concepts of intentionality, such as the association of individual being or collective being with the less differentiated anonymity of human being. The aim (...)
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  • Can Philosophic Methods Without Metaphysical Foundations Contribute to the Teaching of Mathematics?John Roemischer - 2013 - Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 34 (1):25-36.
    In the complex teaching paradigm constructed and celebrated in classical Greek philosophy, geometry was the gateway to knowledge. Historically, mathematics provided the generational basis of education in Western civilization. Its impact as a disciplining subject was philosophically served by Plato’s most influential metaphysical involvement with the dialectical interplay of form and content, ideas and images, and the formal, hierarchic divisions of reality. Mathematics became a key--perhaps the key--for the establishment of natural, social and intellectual hierarchies in Plato’s work, and mathematical (...)
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  • Deep Disagreement, Hinge Commitments, and Intellectual Humility.Drew Johnson - forthcoming - Episteme:1-20.
    Why is it that some instances of disagreement appear to be so intractable? And what is the appropriate way to handle such disagreements, especially concerning matters about which there are important practical and political needs for us to come to a consensus? In this paper, I consider an explanation of the apparent intractability of deep disagreement offered by hinge epistemology. According to this explanation, at least some deep disagreements are rationally unresolvable because they concern ‘hinge’ commitments that are unresponsive to (...)
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  • Prejudice in Testimonial Justification: A Hinge Account.Anna Boncompagni - 2021 - Episteme 1 (Early view).
    Although research on epistemic injustice has focused on the effects of prejudice in epistemic exchanges, the account of prejudice that emerges in Fricker’s (2007) view is not completely clear. In particular, I claim that the epistemic role of prejudice in the structure of testimonial justification is still in need of a satisfactory explanation. What special epistemic power does prejudice exercise that prevents the speaker’s words from constituting evidence for the hearer’s belief? By clarifying this point, it will be possible to (...)
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  • Functional Realism: A Defense of Narrative Medicine.S. Vannatta & J. Vannatta - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (1):32-49.
    In this paper we (1) define and describe the practice of narrative medicine, (2) reveal the need for narrative medicine by exposing the presuppositions that give rise to its discounting, including a reductive empiricism and a strict dichotomy between scientific fact and narrative value, (3) show evidence of the effects of education in narrative competence in the medical clinic, and (4) present Peircean realism as the proper conceptual model for our argument that the medical school curriculum committees should give space (...)
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  • Digital hermeneutics: from interpreting with machines to interpretational machines.Alberto Romele, Marta Severo & Paolo Furia - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):73-86.
    Today, there is an emerging interest for the potential role of hermeneutics in reflecting on the practices related to digital technologies and their consequences. Nonetheless, such an interest has neither given rise to a unitary approach nor to a shared debate. The primary goal of this paper is to map and synthetize the different existing perspectives to pave the way for an open discussion on the topic. The article is developed in two steps. In the first section, the authors analyze (...)
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  • Patrick Heelan’s Phenomenology and Hermeneutics of Observation in Quantum Mechanics.Val Dusek - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    Patrick Heelan, with background in quantum theory and in hermeneutic phenomenology, investigated not only the hermeneutical philosophy of science but also the parallels between quantum mechanics and human experience in general and the logic of changes of worldview. Heelan’s closeness to Aristotle and Lonergan, often neglected, is discussed, and issues concerning Heelan’s treatment of the social context of science are raised.
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  • Moral Epistemology and Totalitarianism: Reflections on Arendt, Bauman, Bernstein, and Rorty.Salura Merily - manuscript
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  • Embedding Ethics: Dialogic Partnerships and Communitarian Business Ethics.Karin Mathison & Rob Macklin - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (1):133-145.
    The existence of a plurality of communities, a diversity of norms, and the ultimate contingency of all decisions in modern societies complicates the task of academics and practitioners who wish to be ethical. In this paper, we envisage and articulate a dialogical, communitarian approach to embedding business ethics that requires business ethicists to more reflexively engage with practitioners in working on and representing the normative criteria that people in organisations use to deal with moral dilemmas in business. We promote the (...)
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  • Expanding hermeneutics to the world of technology.Jure Zovko - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    In this essay, I first analyze the extension of hermeneutical interpretation in the Heideggerian sense to products of contemporary technology which are components of our “lifeworld”. Products of technology, such as airplanes, laptops, cellular phones, washing machines, or vacuum cleaners might be compared with what Heidegger calls the “Ready-to-hand” with regard to utilitarian objects such as a hammer, planer, needle and door handle in Being and Time. Our life with our equipment, which represents the “Ready-to-hand” in Heidegger's sense of the (...)
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  • How Can Attending Physicians Be More Attentive? On Being Attentive Versus Producing Attentiveness.Klaartje Klaver & Andries Baart - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (3):351-359.
    This article is about caregivers being attentive to patients in healthcare. From earlier work on the understanding of the other, we know that it is impossible to completely understand the experiences of others. By the sharing of subjectivity—intersubjectivity—we may try to ‘grasp’ the other’s point of view. However, we can never assume that the same experience produces the same experience. Now, if it is principally impossible to understand the experience of one another, and if paying attention always implies an understanding (...)
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  • Understanding Games as Played:Sketch for a First-Person Perspective for Computer Game Analysis.Olli Tapio Leino - 2009 - Philosophy of Computer Games 2009 Proceedings.
    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer game play (...)
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  • Normative Violence in Domestic Service: A Study of Exploitation, Status, and Grievability.Rohit Varman, Per Skålén, Russell W. Belk & Himadri Roy Chaudhuri - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (4):645-665.
    This paper contributes to business ethics by focusing on consumption that is characterized by normative violence. By drawing on the work of Judith Butler this study of kajer lok—a female subaltern group of Indian domestic service providers—and their higher status clients shows how codes of status-based consumption shaped by markets, class, caste, and patriarchy create a social order that reduces kajer lok to “ungreivable” lives. Our study contributes to business ethics by focusing on exploitation and coercion in consumption rather than (...)
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  • Dynamics in Action: Intentional Behavior as a Complex System.Alicia Juarrero - 1999 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 2 (2):24-57.
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  • Toward a General Theory of Understanding. Schutzian Theory as Proto-Hermeneutics.Dániel Havrancsik - 2018 - Human Studies 41 (3):333-369.
    This paper aims to explore the relations between Schutzian theory and hermeneutics. After presenting the connections between hermeneutic thought and Schutz’s work from a historical point of view, it will argue that despite its significant differences from hermeneutic theory, Schutzian theory can be utilized as a kind of proto-hermeneutics. By now, the heterogeneous movement of the interpretive social sciences has reached an established position, but with their growing reliance on the impulses coming from philosophical hermeneutics, the latent problem comes to (...)
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  • Towards Teaching Chemistry as a Language.Pierre Laszlo - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (7):1669-1706.
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  • Heidegger, Communication, and Healthcare.Casey Rentmeester - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (3):01-07.
    Communication between medical professionals and patients is an important aspect of therapy and patient satisfaction. Common barriers that get in the way of effective communication in this sphere include: (1) gender, age, and cultural differences; (2) physical or psychological discomfort or pain; (3) medical literacy; and (4) distraction due to technological factors or simply being overworked. The author examines these communicative barriers from a philosophical lens and then utilizes Martin Heidegger’s phenomenology and hermeneutics to provide guidance for medical professional–patient interactions. (...)
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  • Psychopathy: Morally Incapacitated Persons.Heidi Maibom - 2017 - In Thomas Schramme & Steven Edwards (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 1109-1129.
    After describing the disorder of psychopathy, I examine the theories and the evidence concerning the psychopaths’ deficient moral capacities. I first examine whether or not psychopaths can pass tests of moral knowledge. Most of the evidence suggests that they can. If there is a lack of moral understanding, then it has to be due to an incapacity that affects not their declarative knowledge of moral norms, but their deeper understanding of them. I then examine two suggestions: it is their deficient (...)
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  • Philosophical Anti-Authoritarianism.Dylan Futter - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (4):1333-1349.
    Unlike certain commentary traditions of philosophy in which deference to an authoritative author was a central feature, there are within the analytical tradition no recognised authorities to whom the reader is required to defer. This paper takes up the question of whether this anti-authoritarian position in philosophy can be sustained. Three lines of argument are considered. According to the first, there are no credible authorities in philosophy, or, even if there were, these authorities could not be identified by the non-expert (...)
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  • Anarchism, Schooling, and Democratic Sensibility.David Kennedy - 2017 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 36 (5):551-568.
    This paper seeks to address the question of schooling for democracy by, first, identifying at least one form of social character, dependent, after Marcuse, on the historical emergence of a “new sensibility.” It then explores one pedagogical thread related to the emergence of this form of subjectivity over the course of the last two centuries in the west, and traces its influence in the educational counter-tradition associated with philosophical anarchism, which is based on principles of dialogue and social reconstruction as (...)
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  • The Problem of Critique: Triangulating Habermas, Derrida, and Gadamer Within Metamodernism.Stephen M. Feldman - 2005 - Contemporary Political Theory 4 (3):296-320.
    This essay argues that Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, Jürgen Habermas's communication theory, and Jacques Derrida's deconstruction all fit together within one philosophical paradigm: metamodernism. Metamodernism, as defined, is opposed to both modernism and radical forms of postmodernism. Within metamodernism, a political conundrum provides the key clue for understanding the relations among Gadamer, Habermas, and Derrida as well as for elaborating the contours of the paradigm. Specifically, the political implications of the three philosophies are intransitive: they seem to shift around rather (...)
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  • Notes on the Cultural Significance of the Sciences.Wallis A. Suchting - 1994 - Science & Education 3 (1):1-56.
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  • Drei Interpretationskomponenten.Hans Åkerberg - 1982 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 15 (1):58-92.
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  • Horizons of hermeneutics: Intercultural hermeneutics in a globalizing world. [REVIEW]Jos de Mul - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (4):628-655.
    Starting from the often-used metaphor of the “horizon of experience” this article discusses three different types of intercultural hermeneutics, which respectively conceive hermeneutic interpretation as a widening of horizons, a fusion of horizons, and a dissemination of horizons. It is argued that these subsequent stages in the history of hermeneutics have their origin in—but are not fully restricted to—respectively premodern, modern and postmodern stages of globalization. Taking some striking moments of the encounter between Western and Chinese language and philosophy as (...)
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  • “Conversation of Mankind” or “Idle Talk”?: A Pragmatist Approach to Social Networking Sites. [REVIEW]Yoni Van Den Eede - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (2):195-206.
    What do Social Networking Sites (SNS) ‘do to us’: are they a damning threat or an emancipating force? Recent publications on the impact of “Web 2.0” proclaim very opposite evaluative positions. With the aim of finding a middle ground, this paper develops a pragmatist approach to SNS based on the work of Richard Rorty. The argument proceeds in three steps. First, we analyze SNS as conversational practices. Second, we outline, in the form of an imaginary conversation between Rorty and Heidegger, (...)
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  • Philosophical Hermeneutics and Contemporary Muslim Scholars’ Approaches to Interpreting Scripture.Ali Akbar - 2020 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 47 (5):587-614.
    Although the German philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer was not a religious thinker or theologian, his work and approach have influenced thinkers in the field of theology. This article explores some ‘overlaps’ between Gadamerian hermeneutics and the ideas of some contemporary Muslim scholars such as Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, Abdolkarim Soroush, Muhammad Mujtahed Shabestari and Hassan Hanafi regarding issues of textual interpretation and understanding. In particular, the article seeks to understand how such ideas have appeared in these Muslim scholars’ approaches to interpreting (...)
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