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  1. Errors in Science and Their Treatment in Teaching Science.Nahum Kipnis - 2011 - Science & Education 20 (7-8):655-685.
    This paper analyses the real origin and nature of scientific errors against claims of science critics, by examining a number of examples from the history of electricity and optics. This analysis leads to a conclusion that errors are a natural and unavoidable part of scientific process. If made available to students, through their science teachers, such a knowledge, would give students a deeper insight into the scientific process and remove their fear of making errors in their own laboratory work.
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  • Golden Events and Statistics: What's Wrong with Galison's Image/Logic Distinction?Kent W. Staley - 1999 - Perspectives on Science 7 (2):196-230.
    : Peter Galison has recently claimed that twentieth-century microphysics has been pursued by two distinct experimental traditions--the image tradition and the logic tradition--that have only recently merged into a hybrid tradition. According to Galison, the two traditions employ fundamentally different forms of experimental argument, with the logic tradition using statistical arguments, while the image tradition strives for non-statistical demonstrations based on compelling ("golden") single events. I show that discoveries in both traditions have employed the same statistical form of argument, even (...)
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  • Error Types.Douglas Allchin - 2001 - Perspectives on Science 9 (1):38-58.
    : Errors in science range along a spectrum from those relatively local to the phenomenon (usually easily remedied in the laboratory) to those more conceptually derived (involving theory or cultural factors, sometimes quite long-term). One may classify error types broadly as material, observational, conceptual or discoursive. This framework bridges philosophical and sociological perspectives, offering a basis for interfield discourse. A repertoire of error types also supports error analytics, a program for deepening reliability through strategies for regulating and probing error.
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  • Reconstruction of Past Events From Memory: An Alternative to the Hypothetico-Deductive (H-D) Method.Sam S. Rakover - 2002 - Behavior and Philosophy 30:101 - 122.
    According to the demand of the Hypothetico-Deductive (H-D) method, a theory is confirmed when the prediction-observation (p-o) gap is small and disconfirmed when the gap is large. A major goal of this paper is to introduce a research domain for which this demand does not hold. In contrast to the H-D method's demand, this research, called the Catch model for reconstructing a face previously seen from memory, requires an increase, within limits, in the p-o gap. The Catch model research substantiates (...)
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  • A mistaken confidence in data.Edouard Machery - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (2):1-17.
    In this paper I explore an underdiscussed factor contributing to the replication crisis: Scientists, and following them policy makers, often neglect sources of errors in the production and interpretation of data and thus overestimate what can be learnt from them. This neglect leads scientists to conduct experiments that are insufficiently informative and science consumers, including other scientists, to put too much weight on experimental results. The former leads to fragile empirical literatures, the latter to surprise and disappointment when the fragility (...)
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  • Exploiting Errors.Giora Hon - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (3):465-480.
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  • Searching for Asses, Finding a Kingdom: The Story of the Invention of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM).Galina Granek & Giora Hon - 2008 - Annals of Science 65 (1):101-125.
    Summary We offer a novel historical-philosophical framework for discussing experimental practice which we call ?Generating Experimental Knowledge?. It combines three different perspectives: experimental systems, concept formation, and the pivotal role of error. We then present an historical account of the invention of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM), or Raster-Tunnelmikroskop, and interpret it within the proposed framework. We show that at the outset of the STM project, Binnig and Rohrer?the inventors of the machine?filed two patent disclosures; the first is dated 22 (...)
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  • The Multiple Dimensions of Multiple Determination.Klodian Coko - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (4):505-541.
    Multiple determination is the epistemic strategy of establishing the same result by means of multiple, independent procedures. It is an important strategy praised by both philosophers of science and practicing scientists. Despite the heavy appeal to multiple determination, little analysis has been provided regarding the specific grounds upon which its epistemic virtues rest. This article distinguishes between the various dimensions of multiple determination and shows how they can be used to evaluate the epistemic force of the strategy in particular cases. (...)
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  • Brownian Motion as a Limit to Physical Measuring Processes: A Chapter in the History of Noise From the Physicists’ Point of View.Martin Niss - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (1):29-44.
    In this paper, we examine the history of the idea among physicists that there is a fundamental limit to physical measuring processes and that this limit is set by noise. In contrast to previous studies, that have focused on the realization of the existence of such a limit, we focus on the noise aspect of this history. In his monograph entitled Noise from 1954, the Dutch-American physicist and pioneer of noise Alder van der Ziel described how noise came to be (...)
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  • La valeur de l'incertitude : l'évaluation de la précision des mesures physiques et les limites de la connaissance expérimentale.Fabien Grégis - 2016 - Dissertation, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité Université Paris.Diderot (Paris 7)
    Abstract : A measurement result is never absolutely accurate: it is affected by an unknown “measurement error” which characterizes the discrepancy between the obtained value and the “true value” of the quantity intended to be measured. As a consequence, to be acceptable a measurement result cannot take the form of a unique numerical value, but has to be accompanied by an indication of its “measurement uncertainty”, which enunciates a state of doubt. What, though, is the value of measurement uncertainty? What (...)
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  • Is There a Concept of Experimental Error in Greek Astronomy?Giora Hon - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (2):129-150.
    The attempt to narrow the general discourse of the problem of error and to focus it on the specific problem of experimental error may be approached from different directions. One possibility is to establish a focusing process from the standpoint of history; such an approach requires a careful scrutiny of the history of science with a view to identifying the juncture when the problem of experimental error was properly understood and accounted for. In a study of this kind one would (...)
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  • Introduction. Philosopher Sur L’Expérimentation Scientifique : Bilan Et perspectivesIntroduction. Philosophizing About Scientific Experimentation: A Summary Report and Future Prospects.Catherine Allamel-Raffin, Stéphanie Dupouy & Jean-Luc Gangloff - 2019 - Philosophia Scientae 23:5-18.
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  • After Fifty Years, Why Are Protein X-Ray Crystallographers Still in Business?Sandra D. Mitchell & Angela M. Gronenborn - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (3):703-723.
    ABSTRACT It has long been held that the structure of a protein is determined solely by the interactions of the atoms in the sequence of amino acids of which it is composed, and thus the stable, biologically functional conformation should be predictable by ab initio or de novo methods. However, except for small proteins, ab initio predictions have not been successful. We explain why this is the case and argue that the relationship among the different methods, models, and representations of (...)
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  • After Fifty Years, Why Are Protein X-Ray Crystallographers Still in Business?Sandra D. Mitchell & Angela M. Gronenborn - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv051.
    It has long been held that the structure of a protein is determined solely by the interactions of the atoms in the sequence of amino acids of which it is composed, and thus the stable, biologically functional conformation should be predictable by ab initio or de novo methods. However, except for small proteins, ab initio predictions have not been successful. We explain why this is the case and argue that the relationship among the different methods, models, and representations of protein (...)
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  • Can the Monster Errour Be Slain?Giora Hon - 1991 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (3):257 – 268.
    Abstract One cannot discount experimental errors and turn the attention to the logicomathematical structure of a physical theory without distorting the nature of the scientific method. The occurrence of errors in experiments constitutes an inherent feature of the attempt to test theories in the physical world. This feature deserves proper attention which has been neglected. An attempt is made to address this problem.
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  • ‘Through Thousands of Errors We Reach the Truth’—but How? On the Epistemic Roles of Error in Scientific Practice.Jutta Schickore - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (3):539-556.
    This essay is concerned with the epistemic roles of error in scientific practice. Usually, error is regarded as something negative, as an impediment or obstacle for the advancement of science. However, we also frequently say that we are learning from error. This common expression suggests that the role of error is not—at least not always—negative but that errors can make a fruitful contribution to the scientific enterprise. My paper explores the latter possibility. Can errors play an epistemically productive role in (...)
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  • A Visible Hand in the Marketplace of Ideas: Precision Measurement as Arbitage.Philip Mirowski - 1994 - Science in Context 7 (3):563-589.
    The ArgumentWhile there has been muchattention given to experiment in modern science studies, there has been astoundingly little concern spared over the practice ofquanitataivemeasurment.Thus myths about the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematice in science still abound. This paper presents: An explicit mathematical model of the stabilization of quantitative constants in a mathematical science to rival older Bayesian and classical accounts;a framework for writing a history of pracitces with regard to treatment of quantitative measurement erroe; resourece for the comparative sociology of differing (...)
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  • De las cualidades a las magnitudes: medición científica como integración cognitiva en el surgimiento de la astronomía moderna.Godfrey Guillaumin - 2012 - Signos Filosóficos 14 (28):57-89.
    El recurso cognitivo por el cual la ciencia ha obtenido información del mundo empírico ha sido, desde su origen, la medición. Ésta está sujeta a un proceso continuo de regeneración y transformación histórica. Los principales análisis metateóricos que se han realizado sobre la medición son en su mayoría sobre sus aspectos formales. En este artículo desarrollo un bosquejo de un enfoque histórico y cognitivo de la medición científica con el fin de mostrar sus diversos aspectos cognitivos, metodológicos y epistemológicos, mismos (...)
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  • Statistics is Not Enough: Revisiting Ronald A. Fisher's Critique (1936) of Mendel's Experimental Results (1866).Avital Pilpel - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (3):618-626.
    This paper is concerned with the role of rational belief change theory in the philosophical understanding of experimental error. Today, philosophers seek insight about error in the investigation of specific experiments, rather than in general theories. Nevertheless, rational belief change theory adds to our understanding of just such cases: R. A. Fisher’s criticism of Mendel’s experiments being a case in point. After an historical introduction, the main part of this paper investigates Fisher’s paper from the point of view of rational (...)
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  • Constructing Failure: Leonard Hayflick, Biomedicine, and the Problems with Tissue Culture.Hyung Wook Park - 2016 - Annals of Science 73 (3):303-327.
    SUMMARYBy examining the use of tissue culture in post-war American biomedicine, this paper investigates how scientists experience and manage failure. I study how Leonard Hayflick forged his new definition of failure and ways of managing it by refuting Alexis Carrel's definition of failure alongside his theory of the immortality of cultured cells. Unlike Carrel, Hayflick claimed that every vertebrate somatic cell should eventually die, unless it transformed into a tumour cell. This claim defined cell death, which had been a problem (...)
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  • Civilization and Its Discounts.Philip Mirowski - 1995 - Dialogue 34 (3):541-.
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  • Quirino Majorana's Research on Gravitational Absorption: A Case Study in the Misinterpreted Experiment Tradition.Giorgio Dragoni & Giulio Maltese - 1997 - Centaurus 39 (2):141-187.
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  • Statistics is Not Enough: Revisiting Ronald A. Fisher’s Critique of Mendel’s Experimental Results.Avital Pilpel - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (3):618-626.
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