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  1. Reason and Emotion: How Teachers Respond to Ethical Problems.Niclas Lindström & Lars Samuelsson - 2018 - ATINER'S Conference Paper Series.
    Teachers frequently face ethical problems in their everyday practice – ranging from pedagogical choices affecting their pupils to pressing conflicts that need to be solved – and they are expected to respond to such problems in a professional manner. Given the centrality of the ethical dimension to the teaching profession, an important question is how teachers tend to approach such problems. While some studies have been carried out regarding how teachers in particular approach ethical problems, there are interesting studies revealing (...)
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  • Questioning Intuition Through Reflective Engagement.Christopher D. Schmidt - 2014 - Journal of Moral Education 43 (4):429-446.
    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of intuition in this regard. The findings suggest that reflective engagement enables these participants to become more aware of and therefore access and govern intuitions so that they can be more (...)
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  • Affective Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Future.Tim Dalgleish, Barnaby D. Dunn & Dean Mobbs - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (4):355-368.
    The discipline of affective neuroscience is concerned with the underlying neural substrates of emotion and mood. This review presents an historical overview of the pioneering work in affective neuroscience of James and Lange, Cannon and Bard, and Hess, Papez, and MacLean before summarizing the current state of research on the brain regions identified by these seminal researchers. We also discuss the more recent strides made in the field of affective neuroscience. A final section considers different hypothetical organizations of affective neuroanatomy (...)
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  • Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and the Future of Morality.Elisa Ciaramelli & Giuseppe di Pellegrino - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):308-309.
    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is crucial for moral behavior, yet the mechanism through which the VMPFC promotes moral behavior remains unclear. In this article, we emphasize that moral choice is often intertemporal, requiring foregoing short-term gains in favor of future outcomes of larger value. We propose that the VMPFC may be necessary for mental time travel (MTT), a cognitive process enabling vivid preexperiencing of future outcomes. By providing anticipated outcomes that inform decisions, MTT may promote farsighted, moral behaviors.
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  • Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias.Carla L. Harenski & Kent A. Kiehl - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):299-301.
    Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.
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  • Is It Wrong to Criminalize and Punish Psychopaths?Andrea L. Glenn, Adrian Raine & William S. Laufer - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):302-304.
    Increasing evidence from psychology and neuroscience suggests that emotion plays an important and sometimes critical role in moral judgment and moral behavior. At the same time, there is increasing psychological and neuroscientific evidence that brain regions critical in emotional and moral capacity are impaired in psychopaths. We ask how the criminal law should accommodate these two streams of research, in light of a new normative and legal account of the criminal responsibility of psychopaths.
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  • Emotion, Neuroscience, and Law: A Comment on Darwin and Greene.John Mikhail - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):293-295.
    Darwin’s (1871/1981) observation that evolution has produced in us certain emotions responding to right and wrong conduct that lack any obvious basis in individual utility is a useful springboard from which to clarify the role of emotion in moral judgment. The problem is whether a certain class of moral judgment is “constituted” or “driven by” emotion (Greene, 2008, p. 108) or merely correlated with emotion while being generated by unconscious computations (e.g., Huebner, Dwyer, & Hauser, 2008). With one exception, all (...)
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  • Utilitarian Moral Judgment in Psychopathy.Michael Koenigs, Michael Kruepke, Joshua Zeier & Joseph P. Newman - 2011 - Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience:1-7.
    Psychopathic behavior is characteristically amoral, but to date research studies have largely failed to identify any systematic differences in moral judgment capability between psychopaths and non-psychopaths. In this study, we investigate whether significant differences in moral judgment emerge when taking into account the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder through a well-validated distinction between psychopathic subtypes. Three groups of incarcerated participants [low-anxious psychopaths (n 1⁄4 12), high-anxious psychopaths (n 1⁄4 12) and non-psychopaths (n 1⁄4 24)] completed a moral judgment test involving (...)
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  • Beyond Moral Dilemmas: The Role of Reasoning in Five Categories of Utilitarian Judgment.François Jaquet & Florian Cova - 2021 - Cognition 209:104572.
    Over the past two decades, the study of moral reasoning has been heavily influenced by Joshua Greene’s dual-process model of moral judgment, according to which deontological judgments are typically supported by intuitive, automatic processes while utilitarian judgments are typically supported by reflective, conscious processes. However, most of the evidence gathered in support of this model comes from the study of people’s judgments about sacrificial dilemmas, such as Trolley Problems. To which extent does this model generalize to other debates in which (...)
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology.Herman Cappelen, Tamar Szabó Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the most comprehensive book ever published on philosophical methodology. A team of thirty-eight of the world's leading philosophers present original essays on various aspects of how philosophy should be and is done. The first part is devoted to broad traditions and approaches to philosophical methodology. The entries in the second part address topics in philosophical methodology, such as intuitions, conceptual analysis, and transcendental arguments. The third part of the book is devoted to essays about the interconnections between philosophy (...)
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  • Expert Moral Intuition and Its Development: A Guide to the Debate.Michael Lacewing - 2015 - Topoi 34 (2):1-17.
    In this article, I provide a guide to some current thinking in empirical moral psychology on the nature of moral intuitions, focusing on the theories of Haidt and Narvaez. Their debate connects to philosophical discussions of virtue theory and the role of emotions in moral epistemology. After identifying difficulties attending the current debate around the relation between intuitions and reasoning, I focus on the question of the development of intuitions. I discuss how intuitions could be shaped into moral expertise, outlining (...)
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  • Memory And The True Self: When Moral Knowledge Can And Cannot Be Forgotten.André Bilbrough - 2018 - Essays in Philosophy 19 (2):274-302.
    Why is it that forgetting moral knowledge, unlike other paradigmatic examples of knowledge, seems so deeply absurd? Previous authors have given accounts whereby moral forgetting in itself either is uniformly absurd and impossible or is possible and only the speech act is absurd. Considering findings in moral psychology and the experimental philosophy of personal identity, I argue that the knowledge of some moral truths—especially those that are emotional, widely held, subjectively important, and contribute to social relationships—cannot be forgotten because they’re (...)
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  • Experimental Philosophy.Joshua Knobe, Wesley Buckwalter, Shaun Nichols, Philip Robbins, Hagop Sarkissian & Tamler Sommers - 2012 - Annual Review of Psychology 63 (1):81-99.
    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free (...)
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning.Michael R. Waldmann (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Without our ability to discover and empirically test causal theories, we would not have made progress in various empirical sciences. In the past decades, the important role of causal knowledge has been discovered in many areas of cognitive (...)
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  • The Moral Status of an Action Influences its Perceived Intentional Status in Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits.Elise Cardinale, Elizabeth Finger, Julia Schechter, Ilana Jurkowitz, R. J. R. Blair & Abigail Marsh - 2014 - In Tania Lombrozo, Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy: Volume 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 131-151.
    Moral judgments about an action are influenced by the action’s intentionality. The reverse is also true: judgments of intentionality can be influenced by an action’s moral valence. For example, respondents judge a harmful side-effect of an intended outcome to be more intentional than a helpful side-effect. Debate continues regarding the mechanisms underlying this “side-effect effect” and the conditions under which it will persist. The research behind this chapter tested whether the side-effect effect is intact in adolescents with psychopathic traits, who (...)
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  • Free Will and Decision Making in Aesthetic and Moral Judgments.Filippo Tempia - 2008 - Acta Philosophica: Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia 17 (2):273-290.
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  • The Nature of Intuition : What Theories of Intuition Ought to Be.Hung Nin Lam - unknown
    Immediate striking feelings without any conscious inference are viewed as one of the sources of truth by many philosophers. It is often claimed that there is a long tradition in philosophy of viewing intuitive propositions as true without need for further justification, since the intuitiveness, for traditional philosophy, suggests that the proposition is self-evident. In philosophical discussions, it was extremely common for philosophers to argue for the intuitiveness of their theories. Contemporary philosophers have put increasing attention and effort into the (...)
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  • Switching Tracks? Towards a Multidimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology.Jim A. C. Everett & Guy Kahane - 2020 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
    Sacrificial moral dilemmas are widely used to investigate when, how, and why people make judgments that are consistent with utilitarianism. But to what extent can responses to sacrificial dilemmas shed light on utilitarian decision making? We consider two key questions: First, how meaningful is the relationship between responses to sacrificial dilemmas and what is distinctive of a utilitarian approach to morality? Second, to what extent do findings about sacrificial dilemmas generalise to other moral contexts where there is tension between utilitarianism (...)
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  • Neuroscientific Challenges to Deontological Theory: Implications to Moral Education.Jang-Ho Park - 2011 - Journal of Ethics: The Korean Association of Ethics 1 (82):73-125.
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  • Current Emotion Research in Social Neuroscience: How Does Emotion Influence Social Cognition?Jennifer S. Beer - 2017 - Emotion Review 9 (2):172-180.
    Neuroscience investigations of emotional influences on social cognition have been dominated by the somatic marker hypothesis and dual-process theories. Taken together, these lines of inquiry have not provided strong evidence that emotional influences on social cognition rely on neural systems which code for bodily signals of arousal nor distinguish emotional reasoning from other modes of reasoning. Recent findings raise the possibility that emotionally influenced social cognition relies on two stages of neural changes: once when emotion is elicited and a different (...)
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  • Challenges in Process Dissociation Measures for Moral Cognition.Anton Kunnari, Jukka R. I. Sundvall & Michael Laakasuo - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The process dissociation procedure for moral cognition was created to separately measure two dispositions of moral judgment based on the dual-process theory of moral reasoning: deontological and utilitarian inclinations. In this paper we raise some concerns from a psychometrics perspective regarding the structure, reliability, and validity of the moral PDP as a measure of individual differences. Using two simulation studies as well as a real sample of N = 1,010, we investigate the psychometric properties of the moral PDP. We present (...)
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  • The Somatic Marker Hypotheses, and What the Iowa Gambling Task Does and Does Not Show.Giovanna Colombetti - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (1):51-71.
    Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) is a prominent neuroscientific hypothesis about the mechanisms implementing decision-making. This paper argues that, since its inception, the SMH has not been clearly formulated. It is possible to identify at least two different hypotheses, which make different predictions: SMH-G, which claims that somatic states generally implement preferences and are needed to make a decision; and SMH-S, which specifically claims that somatic states assist decision-making by anticipating the long-term outcomes of available options. This paper also argues (...)
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  • Sumienie I Nauki o Sumieniu Z Perspektywy Neuronauk.Józef Bremer - 2014 - Scientia et Fides 2 (2):185-212.
    Neuroscientific perspectives on conscience and conscience-related research: Recent years have witnessed a growth in empirical research into the biological correlates of conscience and moral decision-making. The central questions posed and addressed in such neuroscientific investigations concern the role of the emotions in decisions of conscience, and the determining of the particular brain regions that correlate with these decisions. Responding to these, I shall first outline the basic terminology involved and present the neuroethical analyses of Churchland, together with the findings of (...)
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  • Emotions and Reasoning in Moral Decision Making.V. V. Nadurak - 2016 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 10:24-32.
    Purpose of the research is the study of relationship between emotional and rational factors in moral decisions making. Methodology. The work is primarily based on the analysis and synthesis of the main empirical studies of the problem, each of which uses the methods of those sciences in which they were conducted. Originality. In general, the process of moral decision making cannot be described by a single simple model that would see only emotional or rational factor in foundation of this process. (...)
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  • Moral Lessons From Psychology: Contemporary Themes in Psychological Research and Their Relevance for Ethical Theory.Henrik Ahlenius - 2020 - Stockholm: Stockholm University.
    The thesis investigates the implications for moral philosophy of research in psychology. In addition to an introduction and concluding remarks, the thesis consists of four chapters, each exploring various more specific challenges or inputs to moral philosophy from cognitive, social, personality, developmental, and evolutionary psychology. Chapter 1 explores and clarifies the issue of whether or not morality is innate. The chapter’s general conclusion is that evolution has equipped us with a basic suite of emotions that shape our moral judgments in (...)
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  • Why Intuition?Jennifer Ellen Nado - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (1):15-41.
    In this paper I will argue that this entire dialectic is somewhat misguided. The mental states which are generally assumed to fall under the category of ‘intuition’ likely comprise a highly heterogeneous group; from the point of view of psychology or of neuroscience, in fact, ‘intuitions’ appear to be generated by several fundamentally different sorts of mental processes. If this is correct, then the term ‘intuition’ may simply carve things too broadly. I will argue that it is a mistake to (...)
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  • Sentimentalist Pluralism: Moral Psychology and Philosophical Ethics.Michael B. Gill & Shaun Nichols - 2008 - Philosophical Issues 18 (1):143-163.
    When making moral judgments, people are typically guided by a plurality of moral rules. These rules owe their existence to human emotions but are not simply equivalent to those emotions. And people’s moral judgments ought to be guided by a plurality of emotion-based rules. The view just stated combines three positions on moral judgment: [1] moral sentimentalism, which holds that sentiments play an essential role in moral judgment,1 [2] descriptive moral pluralism, which holds that commonsense moral judgment is guided by (...)
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  • Critiquing Empirical Moral Psychology.Bryce Huebner - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (1):50-83.
    Thought experimental methods play a central role in empirical moral psychology. Against the increasingly common interpretation of recent experimental data, I argue that such methods cannot demonstrate that moral intuitions are produced by reflexive computations that are implicit, fast, and largely automatic. I demonstrate, in contrast, that evaluating thought experiments occurs at a near-glacial pace relative to the speed at which reflexive information processing occurs in a human brain. So, these methods allow for more reflective and deliberative processing than has (...)
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  • Moralizing Biology: The Appeal and Limits of the New Compassionate View of Nature.Maurizio Meloni - 2013 - History of the Human Sciences 26 (3):82-106.
    In recent years, a proliferation of books about empathy, cooperation and pro-social behaviours (Brooks, 2011a) has significantly influenced the discourse of the life-sciences and reversed consolidated views of nature as a place only for competition and aggression. In this article I describe the recent contribution of three disciplines – moral psychology (Jonathan Haidt), primatology (Frans de Waal) and the neuroscience of morality – to the present transformation of biology and evolution into direct sources of moral phenomena, a process here named (...)
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  • An fMRI Investigation of Moral Cognition in Healthcare Decision Making.Timothy L. Hodgson, Lisa J. Smith, Paul Anand & Abdelmalek Benattayallah - 2015 - Journal of Neuroscience Psychology and Economics 8 (2):116-133.
    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural substrates of moral cognition in health resource allocation decision problems. In particular, it investigated the cognitive and emotional processes that underpin utilitarian approaches to health care rationing such as Quality Adjusted Life Years. Participants viewed hypothetical medical and nonmedical resource allocation scenarios which described equal or unequal allocation of resources to different groups. In addition, participants were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in which they either did or did not receive advanced (...)
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  • The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis: Drivers of Prediction Accuracy in World Politics.Barbara Mellers, Eric Stone, Pavel Atanasov, Nick Rohrbaugh, S. Emlen Metz, Lyle Ungar, Michael M. Bishop, Michael Horowitz, Ed Merkle & Philip Tetlock - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 21 (1):1-14.
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  • Cognitive-Emotional and Inhibitory Deficits as a Window to Moral Decision-Making Difficulties Related to Exposure to Violence.Micaela Maria Zucchelli & Giuseppe Ugazio - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Empathic Brain of Psychopaths: From Social Science to Neuroscience in Empathy.Josanne D. M. van Dongen - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Discrepancies Between Judgment and Choice of Action in Moral Dilemmas.Sébastien Tassy, Olivier Oullier, Julien Mancini & Bruno Wicker - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Reduced Empathic Concern Leads to Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Trait Alexithymia.Indrajeet Patil & Giorgia Silani - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: A Perspective View on the Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.Rosalba Morese & Claudio Longobardi - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • The Multifaceted Effects of Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on Anxiety, Implicit Moral Attitudes, and Harmful Behaviors.Róger Marcelo Martínez, Chin-Yau Chen, Tsai-Tsen Liao, Yawei Cheng, Yang-Teng Fan, Shih-Han Chou & Chenyi Chen - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Effects of Instrumentality and Personal Force on Deontological and Utilitarian Inclinations in Harm-Related Moral Dilemmas.Jonas Ludwig, Rainer Reisenzein & Anette Hiemisch - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Moral Judgment as Information Processing: An Integrative Review.Steve Guglielmo - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Temporal Dynamics of the Integration of Intention and Outcome in Harmful and Helpful Moral Judgment.Tian Gan, Xiaping Lu, Wanqing Li, Danyang Gui, Honghong Tang, Xiaoqin Mai, Chao Liu & Yue-Jia Luo - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Gender and Hemispheric Asymmetries in Acquired Sociopathy.Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Thiago Paranhos, Jorge Moll & Jordan Grafman - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Cold Side-Effect Effect: Affect Does Not Mediate the Influence of Moral Considerations in Intentionality Judgments.Rodrigo Díaz - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8:295.
    Research has consistently shown that people consider harmful side effects of an action more intentional than helpful side effects. This phenomenon is known as the side- effect effect (SEE), which refers to the influence of moral considerations in judgments of intentionality and other non-moral concepts. There is an ongoing debate about how to explain this asymmetric pattern of judgment and the psychological factors involved in it. It has been posited that affective reactions to agents that bring about harmful side- effects (...)
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  • Beyond Value in Moral Phenomenology: The Role of Epistemic and Control Experiences.James F. M. Cornwell & E. Tory Higgins - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma Validation Study.Julia F. Christensen, Albert Flexas, Margareta Calabrese, Nadine K. Gut & Antoni Gomila - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Moral Dilemmas in Females: Children Are More Utilitarian Than Adults.Monica Bucciarelli - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Sociocultural Influences on Moral Judgments: East–West, Male–Female, and Young–Old.Karina R. Arutyunova, Yuri I. Alexandrov & Marc D. Hauser - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Modeling Morality in 3‐D: Decision‐Making, Judgment, and Inference.Hongbo Yu, Jenifer Z. Siegel & Molly J. Crockett - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (2):409-432.
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  • Toward an Integrated Neuroscience of Morality: The Contribution of Neuroeconomics to Moral Cognition.Trevor Kvaran & Alan G. Sanfey - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):579-595.
    Interest in the neural processes underlying decision making has led to a flurry of recent research in the fields of both moral psychology and neuroeconomics. In this paper, we first review some important findings from both disciplines, and then argue that the two fields can mutually benefit each other. A more explicit recognition of the role of values and norms will likely lead to more accurate models of decision making for neuroeconomists, whereas the tasks, insights into neural mechanisms, and mathematical (...)
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  • The Linguistic Analogy: Motivations, Results, and Speculations.Susan Dwyer, Bryce Huebner & Marc D. Hauser - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):486-510.
    Inspired by the success of generative linguistics and transformational grammar, proponents of the linguistic analogy (LA) in moral psychology hypothesize that careful attention to folk-moral judgments is likely to reveal a small set of implicit rules and structures responsible for the ubiquitous and apparently unbounded capacity for making moral judgments. As a theoretical hypothesis, LA thus requires a rich description of the computational structures that underlie mature moral judgments, an account of the acquisition and development of these structures, and an (...)
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  • Moral Reasoning: Hints and Allegations.Joseph M. Paxton & Joshua D. Greene - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):511-527.
    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both deontological and utilitarian moral principles, and counteracting automatic (...)
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