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Discourse on metaphysics

In Aloysius Martinich, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 81-84 (2007)

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  1. Judgement in Leibniz’s Conception of the Mind: Predication, Affirmation, and Denial.Christian Barth - 2020 - Topoi (3).
    The aim of the paper is to illuminate some core aspects of Leibniz’s conception of judgement and its place in his conception of the mind. In particular, the paper argues for three claims: First, the act of judgement is at the centre of Leibniz’s conception of the mind in that minds strive at actualising innate knowledge concerning derivative truths, where the actualising involves an act of judgement. Second, Leibniz does not hold a judgement account of predication, but a two-component account (...)
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  • Am I Still Me? Personal Identity in Neuroethical Debates.Cordula Brand - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (4):393-406.
    Neurosurgery is a topic that evokes many hopes and fears at the same time. One of these fears is concerned with the worry about losing one's identity. Taking this concern seriously, the article deals with the question: Can the concept of ‘personal identity’ be used successfully in normative considerations concerning neurosurgery? This question will be answered in three steps. First, a short introduction to the philosophical debate about personal identity is given. Second, a new theory of personal identity is presented. (...)
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  • Intrinsic Value of Species.Frank Glen Avantaggio - 1993 - Dissertation, University of Hawai'i
    This is an essay about ethics and environmental responsibility. The thesis is that biologic species qua species--not only as collections of individuals or as elements of ecosystems--deserve moral regard. The argument establishes moral considerability on powers and freedoms of relative self-determination and autonomy. It is argued that species are living beings in their own right with their own projects and interests which deserve special regard. The essay draws from the arguments of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Boethius, Avicenna, Maimonides, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, (...)
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  • Descartes' Forgotten Hypotheses on Motion.Edward Slowik - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Research 27:433-448.
    This essay explores two of the more neglected hypotheses that comprise, or supplement, Descartes’ relationalist doctrine of bodily motion. These criteria are of great importance, for they would appear to challenge Descartes’ principal judgment that motion is a purely reciprocal change of a body’s contiguous neighborhood. After critiquing the work of the few commentators who have previously examined these forgotten hypotheses, mainly, D. Garber and M. Gueroult, the overall strengths and weaknesses of Descartes’ supplementary criteria will be assessed. Overall, despite (...)
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  • Leibniz and Newton on Space, Time and the Trinity.Paul Redding - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 7 (16):26-41.
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who was born in 1646 just before the end of the Thirty Years War and who died 1716, is surely one of the most bizarre and interesting of the early modern philosophers. He was an astonishing polymath, and responsible for some of the most advanced work in the sciences of his day—he was, for instance, the co-inventor along with Newton, of differential calculus, and is generally recognized as the greatest logician of the early modern period, responsible for (...)
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  • Physics Avoidance & Cooperative Semantics: Inferentialism and Mark Wilson’s Engagement with Naturalism Qua Applied Mathematics.Ekin Erkan - 2020 - Cosmos and History 16 (1):560-644.
    Mark Wilson argues that the standard categorizations of "Theory T thinking"— logic-centered conceptions of scientific organization (canonized via logical empiricists in the mid-twentieth century)—dampens the understanding and appreciation of those strategic subtleties working within science. By "Theory T thinking," we mean to describe the simplistic methodology in which mathematical science allegedly supplies ‘processes’ that parallel nature's own in a tidily isomorphic fashion, wherein "Theory T’s" feigned rigor and methodological dogmas advance inadequate discrimination that fails to distinguish between explanatory structures that (...)
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  • Climate Change: Aristotelian Virtue Theory, the Aidōs Response and Proper Primility.John W. Voelpel - 2018 - Dissertation, University of South Florida
    Climate change is the first anthropogenic alteration of a global Earth system. It is globally catastrophic in terms of food production, sea level rise, fresh water availability, temperature elevation, ocean acidification, species disturbance and destruction to name just a few crisis concerns. In addition, while those changes are occurring now, they are amplifying over decadal periods and will last for centuries and possibly millennia. While there are a number of pollutants involved, carbon dioxide which results from the combustion of any (...)
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  • Reassembling the Monad: The Intellectual Genealogy of an Actant Rhizome Ontology.Christopher John Cassells - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Glasgow
    The monad, of which we will speak here, is nothing else than a simple substance, which goes to make up compounds; by simple, we mean without parts. From its origins in antiquity the monad is a concept that has time and again beguiled and attracted philosophers. This thesis will argue that it is a concept that lives on in the work of Bruno Latour and that it continues to have a contemporary relevance, offering a way out of sterile debates rooted (...)
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  • John Cage, Gilles Deleuze, and the Idea of Sound.Iain Campbell - 2017 - Parallax 23 (3):361-378.
    In this essay we will take the American experimental composer John Cage’s understanding of sound as the starting point for an evaluation of that term in the field of sound studies. Drawing together two of the most influential figures in the field, Cage’s thought and work will serve as a lens through which to engage with recent debate concerning the uptake in sound studies of the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. In so doing we will attempt to develop a path between (...)
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  • G. W. Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften Und Briefe, Reihe I, Allgemeiner Politischer Und Historischer Briefwechsel, Band 23. [REVIEW]Patrick Riley - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:143-164.
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  • There Is No Conspiracy of Inertia.Ryan Samaroo - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (4):957-982.
    I examine two claims that arise in Brown’s account of inertial motion. Brown claims there is something objectionable about the way in which the motions of free particles in Newtonian theory and special relativity are coordinated. Brown also claims that since a geodesic principle can be derived in Einsteinian gravitation, the objectionable feature is explained away. I argue that there is nothing objectionable about inertia and that while the theorems that motivate Brown’s second claim can be said to figure in (...)
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  • Spatial Aspects of Moral Judgements in Lawyers’ Heaven, Peoples’ Earth and Malefactors’ Hell: Leibniz, the Austro-Marxists and Durkheim’s Alleged ‘Disintegration’ Thesis.Mate Pasky - 2017 - Otrosiglo 1 (2):67-89.
    Ever since antiquity, lawyers and philosophers have essentially been divided over whether they should keep law, morality and politics separate, or whether the need for their unity is more compelling. In the wake of countless bloody conflicts worldwide, the durability and resilience of this discourse on laws and morals is at once both impressive and sad. The aim of this paper is to show that individual moral deliberation is essentially local and cannot be dissociated from the spatial-communitarian context – neither (...)
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  • Some Metaphysical Implications of Hegel’s Theodicy.Paul Redding - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):129--150.
    This paper examines Hegel’s claim that philosophy “has no other object than God‘ as a claim about the essentiality of the idea of God to philosophy. On this idealist interpretation, even atheistic philosophies would presuppose rationally evaluable ideas of God, despite denials of the existence of anything corresponding to those ideas. This interpretation is then applied to Hegel’s version of idealism in relation to those of two predecessors, Leibniz and Kant. Hegel criticizes the idea of the Christian God present within (...)
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  • Belief-That and Belief-In: Which Reductive Analysis?Uriah Kriegel - 2018 - In Alex Gzrankowski & Michelle Montague (eds.), Non-Propositional Intentionality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 192-213.
    Let propositionalism be the thesis that all mental attitudes are propositional. Anti-propositionalists typically point at apparently non-propositional attitudes, such as fearing a dog and loving a spouse, and play defense against attempts at propositional analysis of such attitudes. Here I explore the anti-propositionalist’s prospects for going on the offensive, trying to show that some apparently propositional attitudes, notably belief and judgment, can be given non-propositional analysis. Although the notion that belief is a non-propositional attitude may seem ludicrous at first, it (...)
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  • Leibniz and Huayan Buddhism: Monads as Modified Li?Casey Rentmeester - 2014 - Lyceum 13 (1):36-57.
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  • The Development of Leibniz’s Substance Ontology From 1666-1688.Justin Sean Davis - unknown
    Leibniz’s early conception of individual substance ontology is one of the most puzzling, and fascinating, within the history of philosophy. It is the purpose of this paper to show that: 1) Leibniz did develop a coherent scheme that embodied his substance ontology, 2) the exposition of his early substance ontology is in A Specimen of the Discoveries of the Admirable Secrets of Nature in General, written in 1688 and, 3) the scheme is not sufficiently represented in the Discourse on Metaphysics. (...)
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  • Experimental Practices of Music and Philosophy in John Cage and Gilles Deleuze.Iain Campbell - 2015 - Dissertation,
    In this thesis we construct a critical encounter between the composer John Cage and the philosopher Gilles Deleuze. This encounter circulates through a constellation of problems found across and between mid-twentieth century musical, artistic, and philosophical practices, the central focus for our line of enquiry being the concept of experimentation. We emphasize the production of a method of experimentation through a practice historically situated with regards to the traditions of the respective fields of music and philosophy. However, we argue that (...)
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  • Die Phantasie Gottes: An Analysis of the Divine Ideas in Deity Theories and Brian Leftow, with A Proposed Synthesis.Nathaniel Dowell - unknown
    This thesis was on how God is related to the truth-values of propositions on possible worlds - specifically, those propositions that do not seem to be about Him and constitute His ideas for what to create. It opened with a survey of some historical positions with special emphasis on Aquinas, Leibniz, Spinoza and Kant. Next, some criticisms were given for these so-called deity theories with the most space given to Brian Leftow’s critiques. The second chapter detailed Brian Leftow’s theological modality. (...)
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  • Truth and Fundamentality: On Merricks's Truth and Ontology.Jonathan Schaffer - 2008 - Philosophical Books 49 (4):302-316.
    Truth and Ontology is a lively book, brimming with arguments, and drawing the reader towards the radical conclusion that what is true does not depend on what there is. If there is a central line of argument, it is that the best account of truthmaking requires truths to be about their truthmakers, but negative existentials, modals, and claims about the past and future are not about what is, but rather about what is not, what might be, and what was and (...)
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  • Truthmaker Commitments.Jonathan Schaffer - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 141 (1):7-19.
    On the truthmaker view of ontological commitment [Heil (From an ontological point of view, 2003); Armstrong (Truth and truthmakers, 2004); Cameron (Philosophical Studies, 2008)], a theory is committed to the entities needed in the world for the theory to be made true. I argue that this view puts truthmaking to the wrong task. None of the leading accounts of truthmaking—via necessitation, supervenience, or grounding—can provide a viable measure of ontological commitment. But the grounding account does provide a needed constraint on (...)
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  • A Note on Design: What's Fine-Tuning Got to Do With It?Jonathan Weisberg - 2010 - Analysis 70 (3):431-438.
    We have known for a long time that there is complex, intelligent life. More recently we have discovered that the physics of our universe is fine-tuned so as to allow for the existence of such life. Call these two observations the Old Datum and the New Datum, respectively. Our question here is: once we know the Old Datum, does the New Datum provide additional evidence for the design hypothesis? I argue that it does not. Thus, there is an important sense (...)
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  • Rationalism, Sentimentalism, and Ralph Cudworth.Michael B. Gill - 2004 - Hume Studies 30 (1):149-181.
    Moral rationalism is the view that morality originates in reason alone. It is often contrasted with moral sentimentalism, which is the view that the origin of morality lies at least partly in sentiment. The eighteenth century saw pitched philosophical battles between rationalists and sentimentalists, and the issue continues to fuel disputes among moral philosophers today.
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  • Maimon's Post-Kantian Skepticism.Emily Fitton - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Essex
    There is little doubt that Salomon Maimon was both highly respected by, and highly influential upon, his contemporaries; indeed, Kant himself referred to Maimon as the best of his critics. The appraisal and reformulation of the Kantian project detailed in Maimon’s Essay on Transcendental Philosophy played a significant role in determining the criteria of success for post-Kantian philosophy, and was thus crucial to the early development of German Idealism. Key aspects of Maimon’s transcendental philosophy remain, however, relatively obscure. In particular, (...)
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  • The Metaphysics of Grounding.Michael John Clark - unknown
    The phrase ‘in virtue of’ is a mainstay of metaphysical discourse. In recent years, many philosophers have argued that we should understand this phrase, as metaphysicians use it, in terms of a concept of metaphysical dependence called ‘grounding’.This dissertation explores a range of central issues in the theory of grounding. Chapter 1 introduces the intuitive concept of grounding and discusses some compulsory questions in the theory of grounding. Chapter 2 focusses on scepticism on grounding, according to which the recent philosophical (...)
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  • Identity in Homotopy Type Theory: Part II, The Conceptual and Philosophical Status of Identity in HoTT.James Ladyman & Stuart Presnell - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica 25 (2):210-245.
    Among the most interesting features of Homotopy Type Theory is the way it treats identity, which has various unusual characteristics. We examine the formal features of “identity types” in HoTT, and how they relate to its other features including intensionality, constructive logic, the interpretation of types as concepts, and the Univalence Axiom. The unusual behaviour of identity types might suggest that they be reinterpreted as representing indiscernibility. We explore this by defining indiscernibility in HoTT and examine its relationship with identity. (...)
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  • Essential Properties - Analysis and Extension.Nathan Wildman - 2011 - Dissertation, Cambridge
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  • Thomas Reid's Only Primary-Secondary Quality Distinction.Christopher A. Shrock - 2011 - Journal of Scottish Thought 4:141-150.
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  • Kant on Free Will and Theoretical Rationality.Daniel Wolt - 2018 - Ideas Y Valores 67 (166):181-198.
    The focus of this essay is Kant’s argument in the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals III that regarding oneself as rational implies regarding oneself as free. After setting out an interpretation of how the argument is meant to go, I argue that Kant fails to show that regarding oneself as free is incompatible with accepting universal causal determinism. However, I argue that the argument succeeds in showing that regarding oneself as rational is inconsistent with accepting universal causal determinism if (...)
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  • Taking Reincarnation Seriously: Critical Discussion of Some Central Ideas From John Hick.Mikel Burley - unknown
    Reincarnation has not been entirely neglected in the philosophy of religion but it has not always been taken seriously or carefully discussed in relation to its role in believers’ lives. John Hick is exceptional insofar as he gave sustained attention to the belief, at least as it features in the philosophies of Vedānta and Buddhism. While acknowledging the value of Hick’s recognition of the variety of reincarnation beliefs, this article critically engages with certain aspects of his approach. It argues that (...)
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  • Freedom has No Intrinsic Value: Liberalism and Voluntarism.Jeffrey Friedman - 2013 - Critical Review 25 (1):38-85.
    Deontological (as opposed to consequentialist) liberals treat freedom of action as an end in itself, not a means to other ends. Yet logically, when one makes a deliberate choice, one treats freedom of action as if it were not an end in itself, for one uses this freedom as a means to the ends one hopes to achieve through one's action. The tension between deontology and the logic of choice is reflected in the paradoxical nature of the ?right to do (...)
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  • On the Number of Gods.Eric Steinhart - 2012 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (2):75-83.
    A god is a cosmic designer-creator. Atheism says the number of gods is 0. But it is hard to defeat the minimal thesis that some possible universe is actualized by some possible god. Monotheists say the number of gods is 1. Yet no degree of perfection can be coherently assigned to any unique god. Lewis says the number of gods is at least the second beth number. Yet polytheists cannot defend an arbitrary plural number of gods. An alternative is that, (...)
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  • Mutlak Uzay-Iliskisel Uzay Tartismalari Baglaminda Kant'in Uzay Kavrayisi.Umut Morkoç - 2014 - Ethos: Dialogues in Philosophy and Social Sciences 7 (1).
    Kant’ın uzay anlayışı, eleştirel felsefesinin temel dinamik ve kavramlarının anlaşılabilmesi açısından kritik bir öneme sahiptir. Felsefi gelişimi içerisinde Kant, uzay kavramını, Leibnizci ilişkisel uzay ve Newtoncu mutlak uzay anlayışları arasındaki gerilim üzerine tesis eder. Kant’ın mevcut gerilimi aşmak için izlediği yöntem, kritik felsefenin üzerine inşa edildiği temel gerilimleri aşmak için izlediği yollarla paralel okunabilir. Bu çalışmada, mevcut gerilimin Kant’ın uzay kavrayışı üzerindeki etkisi, uzay kavramının Kant felsefesi içerisindeki tarihsel gelişiminden hareket edilerek aydınlatılmaya çalışılacaktır. Bu amaçla öncelikle Newton’un ve Leibniz’in uzay (...)
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  • Leibniz on Natural Teleology and the Laws of Optics.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (3):505-544.
    This essay examines one of the cornerstones of Leibniz's defense of teleology within the order of nature. The first section explores Leibniz's contributions to the study of geometrical optics, and argues that his "Most Determined Path Principle" or "MDPP" allows him to bring to the fore philosophical issues concerning the legitimacy of teleological explanations by addressing two technical objections raised by Cartesians to non-mechanistic derivations of the laws of optics. The second section argues that, by drawing on laws such as (...)
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  • The Principle of Continuity and the Evaluation of Theories.William Seager - 1981 - Dialogue 20 (3):485-495.
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  • States of Change: Explaining Dynamics by Anticipatory State Properties.Jan Treur - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (4):441-471.
    In cognitive science, the dynamical systems theory (DST) has recently been advocated as an approach to cognitive modeling that is better suited to the dynamics of cognitive processes than the symbolic/computational approaches are. Often, the differences between DST and the symbolic/computational approach are emphasized. However, alternatively their commonalities can be analyzed and a unifying framework can be sought. In this paper, the possibility of such a unifying perspective on dynamics is analyzed. The analysis covers dynamics in cognitive disciplines, as well (...)
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  • Leibniz's Two Realms Revisited.Jeffrey K. McDonough - 2008 - Noûs 42 (4):673-696.
    Leibniz speaks, in a variety of contexts, of there being two realms—a "kingdom of power or efficient causes" and "a kingdom of wisdom or final causes." This essay explores an often overlooked application of Leibniz's famous "two realms doctrine." The first part turns to Leibniz's work in optics for the roots of his view that nature can be seen as being governed by two complete sets of equipotent laws, with one set corresponding to the efficient causal order of the world, (...)
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  • Why Uploading Will Not Work, or, the Ghosts Haunting Transhumanism.Patrick D. Hopkins - 2012 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):229-243.
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  • Newton’s “Satis Est”: A New Explanatory Role for Laws.Lina Jansson - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):553-562.
    In this paper I argue that Newton’s stance on explanation in physics was enabled by his overall methodology and that it neither committed him to embrace action at a distance nor to set aside philosophical and metaphysical questions. Rather his methodology allowed him to embrace a non-causal, yet non-inferior, kind of explanation. I suggest that Newton holds that the theory developed in the Principia provides a genuine explanation, namely a law-based one, but that we also lack something explanatory, namely a (...)
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  • Creation, Actualization and God's Choice Among Possible Worlds.Klaas J. Kraay - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (4):854-872.
    God is traditionally understood to be a perfect being who is the creator and sustainer of all that is. God's creative and sustaining activity is often thought to involve choosing a possible world for actualization. It is generally said that either there is (a) exactly one best of all possible worlds, or there are (b) infinitely many increasingly better worlds, or else there are (c) infinitely many unsurpassable worlds within God's power to actualize. On each view, critics have offered arguments (...)
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  • Robert Boyle.J. J. MacIntosh - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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