Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization.Nancy S. Hall - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295-325.
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice was not continued. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Risk and Values in Science: A Peircean View.Daniele Chiffi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2019 - Axiomathes 29 (4):329-346.
    Scientific evidence and scientific values under risk and uncertainty are strictly connected from the point of view of Peirce’s pragmaticism. In addition, economy and statistics play a key role in both choosing and testing hypotheses. Hence we may show also the connection between the methodology of the economy of research and statistical frequentism, both originating from pragmaticism. The connection is drawn by the regulative principles of synechism, tychism and uberty. These principles are values that have both epistemic and non-epistemic dimension. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • The Ethics of Gamification in a Marketing Context.Andrea Stevenson Thorpe & Stephen Roper - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (2):597-609.
    Gamification is an increasingly common marketing tool. Yet, to date, there has been little examination of its ethical implications. In light of the potential implications of this type of stealth marketing for consumer welfare, this paper discusses the ethical dilemmas raised by the use of gamified approaches to marketing. The paper draws on different schools of ethics to examine gamification as an overall system, as well as its constituent parts. This discussion leads to a rationale and suggestions for how gamification (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Do Unconscious Beliefs Yield Knowledge?Luis M. Augusto - 2009 - Revista Filosófica de Coimbra 18 (35):161-184.
    This paper defends the view that a correct analysis of knowledge must take empirical data into consideration. The data here provided is from experimental psychology, namely from phenomena involving unconscious cognition.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • The Fata Morgana of Unconscious Perception.Marjan Persuh - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Plastic Bodies: Rebuilding Sensation After Phenomenology.Tom Sparrow - 2015 - Open Humanities Press.
    Sensation is a concept with a conflicted philosophical history. It has found as many allies as enemies in nearly every camp from empiricism to poststructuralism. Polyvalent, with an uncertain referent, and often overshadowed by intuition, perception, or cognition, sensation invites as much metaphysical speculation as it does dismissive criticism. -/- The promise of sensation has certainly not been lost on the phenomenologists who have sought to ‘rehabilitate’ the concept. In Plastic Bodies, Tom Sparrow argues that the phenomenologists have not gone (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Decoupling, Sparsity, Randomization, and Objective Bayesian Inference.Julio Michael Stern - 2008 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 15 (2):49-68..
    Decoupling is a general principle that allows us to separate simple components in a complex system. In statistics, decoupling is often expressed as independence, no association, or zero covariance relations. These relations are sharp statistical hypotheses, that can be tested using the FBST - Full Bayesian Significance Test. Decoupling relations can also be introduced by some techniques of Design of Statistical Experiments, DSEs, like randomization. This article discusses the concepts of decoupling, randomization and sparsely connected statistical models in the epistemological (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Assessing Randomness in Case Assignment: The Case Study of the Brazilian Supreme Court.Julio Michael Stern, Diego Marcondes & Claudia Peixoto - 2019 - Law, Probability and Risk 18 (2/3):97-114.
    Sortition, i.e. random appointment for public duty, has been employed by societies throughout the years as a firewall designated to prevent illegitimate interference between parties in a legal case and agents of the legal system. In judicial systems of modern western countries, random procedures are mainly employed to select the jury, the court and/or the judge in charge of judging a legal case. Therefore, these random procedures play an important role in the course of a case, and should comply with (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Randomization and Rules for Causal Inferences in Biology: When the Biological Emperor (Significance Testing) Has No Clothes.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (2):154-161.
    Why do classic biostatistical studies, alleged to provide causal explanations of effects, often fail? This article argues that in statistics-relevant areas of biology—such as epidemiology, population biology, toxicology, and vector ecology—scientists often misunderstand epistemic constraints on use of the statistical-significance rule. As a result, biologists often make faulty causal inferences. The paper provides several examples of faulty causal inferences that rely on tests of statistical significance; uncovers the flawed theoretical assumptions, especially those related to randomization, that likely contribute to flawed (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Precision, Not Confidence, Describes the Uncertainty of Perceptual Experience: Comment on John Morrison's “Perceptual Confidence”.Rachel N. Denison - 2017 - Analytic Philosophy 58 (1):58-70.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Introspection and Subliminal Perception.Thomas Zoega Ramsøy & Morten Overgaard - 2004 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 3 (1):1-23.
    Subliminal perception (SP) is today considered a well-supported theory stating that perception can occur without conscious awareness and have a significant impact on later behaviour and thought. In this article, we first present and discuss different approaches to the study of SP. In doing this, we claim that most approaches are based on a dichotomic measure of awareness. Drawing upon recent advances and discussions in the study of introspection and phenomenological psychology, we argue for both the possibility and necessity of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   84 citations  
  • Borel on the Heap.Paul Égré & Anouk Barberousse - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S5):1043-1079.
    In 1907 Borel published a remarkable essay on the paradox of the Heap (“Un paradoxe économique: le sophisme du tas de blé et les vérités statistiques”), in which Borel proposes what is likely the first statistical account of vagueness ever written, and where he discusses the practical implications of the sorites paradox, including in economics. Borel’s paper was integrated in his book Le Hasard, published 1914, but has gone mostly unnoticed since its publication. One of the originalities of Borel’s essay (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Metaphor Between Embodiment and Imaginative Processes.Tiziana Giudice - 2008 - Anthropology and Philosophy 9 (1-2):42-57.
    In this paper I will analyse the relationship between metaphor and imagination. This issue has been recently studied by cognitive linguists who appreciate its importance, while other semantic perspectives neglect it. I will analyse the thesis which affirms that metaphors are based on cognitive components which are not logical-propositional but imaginative: the “image schemata” are recurrent models of corporeal experiences, centres of knowledge organization which structure – in a non-propositional form – an amount of salient information. This information emerges from (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Entry of Randomized Assignment Into the Social Sciences.Julian C. Jamison - 2019 - Journal of Causal Inference 7 (1).
    Although the concept of randomized assignment in order to control for extraneous confounding factors reaches back hundreds of years, the first empirical use appears to have been in an 1835 trial of homeopathic medicine. Throughout the 19th century there was a growing awareness of the need for comparison groups, albeit often without the realization that randomization could be a clean method to achieve that goal. In the second and more crucial phase of this history, four separate but related disciplines introduced (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Consciousness, Introspection, and Subjective Measures.Maja Spener - forthcoming - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter discusses the main types of so-called ’subjective measures of consciousness’ used in current-day science of consciousness. After explaining the key worry about such measures, namely the problem of an ever-present response bias, I discuss the question of whether subjective measures of consciousness are introspective. I show that there is no clear answer to this question, as proponents of subjective measures do not employ a worked-out notion of subjective access. In turn, this makes the problem of response bias less (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • The Evaluation of Discovery: Models, Simulation and Search Through “Big Data”.Kun Zhang, Joseph D. Ramsey & Clark Glymour - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):39-48.
    A central theme in western philosophy was to find formal methods that can reliably discover empirical relationships and their explanations from data assembled from experience. As a philosophical project, that ambition was abandoned in the 20th century and generally dismissed as impossible. It was replaced in philosophy by neo-Kantian efforts at reconstruction and justification, and in professional statistics by the more limited ambition to estimate a small number of parameters in pre-specified hypotheses. The influx of “big data” from climate science, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Curious Rise and Fall of Experimental Psychology in Mind.Christopher D. Green - 2009 - History of the Human Sciences 22 (1):37-57.
    The journal Mind is now a wholly philosophical journal. At the time of its founding, in 1876, however, its mission was rather different in character. Its aim was to discover whether scientific psychology was a truly viable enterprise and, if so, what its boundaries with philosophy, with other scientific disciplines, and with the earlier generation of discredited attempts at `scientific' studies of the mind (e.g. phrenology, mesmerism) might be. Although at first Mind published mostly philosophical pieces and literature reviews, by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Unconscious Neural Processing Differs with Method Used to Render Stimuli Invisible.Sergey V. Fogelson, Peter J. Kohler, Kevin J. Miller, Richard Granger & Peter U. Tse - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  • The Effect of Confidence Rating on a Primary Visual Task.Taly Bonder & Daniel Gopher - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • A Bilingual Disadvantage in Metacognitive Processing.Tomas Folke, Julia Ouzia, Peter Bright, Benedetto De Martino & Roberto Filippi - 2016 - Cognition 150:119-132.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Decision Making and Confidence Given Uncertain Advice.Michael D. Lee & Matthew J. Dry - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (6):1081-1095.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned?Zoltan Dienes & Christopher Longuet-Higgins - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):531-558.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  • Review of C. Koopman, Pragmatism as Transition. Historicity and Hope in James, Dewey, and Rorty. [REVIEW]Roberto Frega - 2009 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 1 (1).
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Freud, Jung, Lacan: Sobre o inconsciente.Luis M. Augusto - 2013 - Universidade do Porto.
    Introduction - From the Illiad to the Studies on Hysteria: A chronology of the discovery of the unconscious mind - Freud's theories of the unconscious mind - Jung's collective unconscious - Lacan's linguistic paradigm.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Self-Evaluation of Decision-Making: A General Bayesian Framework for Metacognitive Computation.Stephen M. Fleming & Nathaniel D. Daw - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (1):91-114.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  • Confidence and Accuracy of Near-Threshold Discrimination Responses.Craig Kunimoto, Jeff Miller & Harold Pashler - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):294-340.
    This article reports four subliminal perception experiments using the relationship between confidence and accuracy to assess awareness. Subjects discriminated among stimuli and indicated their confidence in each discrimination response. Subjects were classified as being aware of the stimuli if their confidence judgments predicted accuracy and as being unaware if they did not. In the first experiment, confidence predicted accuracy even at stimulus durations so brief that subjects claimed to be performing at chance. This finding indicates that subjects's claims that they (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   48 citations  
  • Lost in Dissociation: The Main Paradigms in Unconscious Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:293-310.
    Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • How to Measure Metacognition.Stephen M. Fleming & Hakwan C. Lau - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   44 citations  
  • C.S. Peirce: A Short Biographical Sketch.Mats Bergman - 2014 - The Commens Encyclopedia: The Digital Encyclopedia of Peirce Studies.
    This overview of the life and career of Charles S. Peirce identifies the central factors that shaped this seminal American intellect, and describes the dramatic events that turned the final decades of his professional existence into a tragedy. The purpose of this short article is to serve as a first biographical introduction to Peirce.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • "Consciousness". Selected Bibliography 1970 - 2004.Thomas Metzinger - unknown
    This is a bibliography of books and articles on consciousness in philosophy, cognitive science, and neuroscience over the last 30 years. There are three main sections, devoted to monographs, edited collections of papers, and articles. The first two of these sections are each divided into three subsections containing books in each of the main areas of research. The third section is divided into 12 subsections, with 10 subject headings for philosophical articles along with two additional subsections for articles in cognitive (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Affective and Cognitive Reactions to Subliminal Flicker From Fluorescent Lighting.Igor Knez - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 26:97-104.
    This study renews the classical concept of subliminal perception by investigating the impact of subliminal flicker from fluorescent lighting on affect and cognitive performance. It was predicted that low compared to high frequency lighting would evoke larger changes in affective states and also impair cognitive performance. Subjects reported high rather than low frequency lighting to be more pleasant, which, in turn, enhanced their problem solving performance. This suggests that sensory processing can take place outside of conscious awareness resulting in conscious (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Metacognitive Sensitivity of Subjective Reports of Decisional Confidence and Visual Experience.Manuel Rausch, Hermann J. Müller & Michael Zehetleitner - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 35:192-205.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Unconscious Biases in Task Choices Depend on Conscious Expectations.Carlos González-García, Pío Tudela & María Ruz - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 37:44-56.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Perceptual Learning Effect on Decision and Confidence Thresholds.Guillermo Solovey, Diego Shalom, Verónica Pérez-Schuster & Mariano Sigman - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 45:24-36.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Parallels Between Perception Without Attention and Perception Without Awareness.Philip M. Merikle & Steve Joordens - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):219-36.
    Do studies of perception without awareness and studies of perception without attention address a similar underlying concept of awareness? To answer this question, we compared qualitative differences in performance across variations in stimulus quality with qualitative differences in performance across variations in the direction of attention . The qualitative differences were based on three different phenomena: Stroop priming, false recognition, and exclusion failure. In all cases, variations in stimulus quality and variations in the direction of attention led to parallel findings. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   49 citations  
  • The Perceptual and Social Components of Metacognition.Niccolo Pescetelli, Geraint Rees & Bahador Bahrami - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (8):949-965.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • A Task-Independent Neural Representation of Subjective Certainty in Visual Perception.Johannes Heereman, Henrik Walter & Hauke R. Heekeren - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Availability, Accessibility, and Subliminal Perception.John F. Kihlstrom - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):92-100.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • A Comparison Between a Visual Analogue Scale and a Four Point Scale as Measures of Conscious Experience of Motion.Manuel Rausch & Michael Zehetleitner - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 28:126-140.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations