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  1. The Unbearable Lightness of Representing ‘Reality’ in Science Education: A Response to Schulz.Michalinos Zembylas - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (4):494-514.
    This article responds to Schulz's criticisms of an earlier paper published in Educational Philosophy and Theory. The purpose in this paper is to clarify and extend some of my earlier arguments, to indicate what is unfortunate from a non‐charitable, modernist reading of Lyotardian postmodernism, and to suggest what new directions are emerging in science education from efforts to move beyond an either/or dichotomy of foundationalism and relativism.
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  • Science, Technology, and the Political: The Possibility of Democratic Rationalization.Gert Goeminne - 2013 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 17 (1):93-123.
    In this paper, I elaborate on the very political dimension of epistemology that is opened up by the radical change of focus initiated by constructivism: from science as knowledge to science as practice. In a first step, this brings me to claim that science is political in its own right, thereby drawing on Mouffe and Laclau’s framework of radical democracy and its central notion of antagonism to make explicit what is meant by ‘the political.’ Secondly, I begin to explore what (...)
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  • Physics Needs Philosophy. Philosophy Needs Physics.Carlo Rovelli - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (5):481-491.
    Contrary to claims about the irrelevance of philosophy for science, I argue that philosophy has had, and still has, far more influence on physics than is commonly assumed. I maintain that the current anti-philosophical ideology has had damaging effects on the fertility of science. I also suggest that recent important empirical results, such as the detection of the Higgs particle and gravitational waves, and the failure to detect supersymmetry where many expected to find it, question the validity of certain philosophical (...)
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  • The Practice of Naturalness: A Historical-Philosophical Perspective.Arianna Borrelli & Elena Castellani - 2019 - Foundations of Physics 49 (9):860-878.
    No evidence of “new physics” was found so far by LHC experiments, and this situation has led some voices in the physics community to call for the abandonment of the “naturalness” criterion, while other scientists have felt the need to break a lance in its defense by claiming that, at least in some sense, it has already led to successes and therefore should not be dismissed too quickly, but rather only reflected or reshaped to fit new needs. In our paper (...)
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  • Is Scientific Research Driven by Opportunity, Problems, or Observations?Tong Wu - 2008 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):424-437.
    With the recent rise of the philosophy of scientific practices, SSK (Sociology of Scientific Knowledge), and feminist approaches to the philosophy of science, a new perspective is gradually coming into being, holding that the starting point for scientific research is opportunity. Opportunistic features in solar neutrino experiments, Opportunistic features of complexity studies emerging from economics, and the measurement of insects’ flight can prove the above perspective from different angels. It is important and significant to determine whether the starting point for (...)
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  • Realism and Antirealism.Randall Harp & Kareem Khalifa - 2016 - In A. Rosenberg & L. McIntyre (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Social Science. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 254-269.
    Our best social scientific theories try to tell us something about the social world. But is talk of a “social world” a metaphor that we ought not take too seriously? In particular, do the denizens of the social world—cultural values like the Protestant work ethic, firms like ExxonMobil, norms like standards of dress and behavior, institutions like the legal system, teams like FC Barcelona, conventions like marriages—exist? The question is not merely academic. Social scientists use these different social entities to (...)
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  • On the Very Idea of Social Construction: Deconstructing Searle’s and Hacking’s Critical Reflections.Martin Endreß - 2016 - Human Studies 39 (1):127-146.
    The starting point of the following inquiry addresses John Searle’s and Ian Hacking’s most prominent critique of contemporary “constructionism” in the 1990s. It is stimulated by the astonishing fact that neither Hacking nor Searle take into account Peter Berger’s and Thomas Luckmann’s classical essay and sociological masterpiece The Social Construction of Reality in their contributions. Critically revisiting Searle’s and Hacking’s critique on the so-called constructivist approach, the article demonstrates that both authors have failed to put forth a sociologically valid understanding (...)
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  • Can Quantum Analogies Help Us to Understand the Process of Thought? [1st Ed].Paavo Pylkkänen - 2004 - In Gordon Globus, K. Pribram & G. Vitiello (eds.), Being and Brain. At the Boundary between Science, Philosophy, Language and Arts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 165-195.
    A number of researchers today make an appeal to quantum physics when trying to develop a satisfactory account of the mind, an appeal still felt to be controversial by many. Often these "quantum approaches" try to explain some well-known features of conscious experience (or mental processes more generally), thus using quantum physics to enrich the explanatory framework or explanans used in consciousness studies and cognitive science. This paper considers the less studied question of whether quantum physical intuitions could help us (...)
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  • String Theory, Non-Empirical Theory Assessment, and the Context of Pursuit.Frank Cabrera - 2018 - Synthese:1-29.
    In this paper, I offer an analysis of the radical disagreement over the adequacy of string theory. The prominence of string theory despite its notorious lack of empirical support is sometimes explained as a troubling case of science gone awry, driven largely by sociological mechanisms such as groupthink (e.g. Smolin 2006). Others, such as Dawid (2013), explain the controversy by positing a methodological revolution of sorts, according to which string theorists have quietly turned to nonempirical methods of theory assessment given (...)
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  • The Construction of Colorimetry by Committee.Sean F. Johnston - 1996 - Science in Context 9 (4).
    This paper explores the confrontation of physical and contextual factors involved in the emergence of the subject of color measurement, which stabilized in essentially its present form during the interwar period. The contentions surrounding the specialty had both a national and a disciplinary dimension. German dominance was curtailed by American and British contributions after World War I. Particularly in America, communities of physicists and psychologists had different commitments to divergent views of nature and human perception. They therefore had to negotiate (...)
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  • False Vacuum: Early Universe Cosmology and the Development of Inflation.Chris Smeenk - 2005 - In Jean Eisenstaedt & A. J. Knox (eds.), The Universe of General Relativity. Boston: Birkhauser. pp. 223-257.
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  • Virtual Criminology: Insights From Genetic-Social Science and Heidegger.Timothy Owen & Julie Owen - unknown
    It is the intention here to ‘apply’ certain meta-concepts from Owen’s [2014] Genetic-Social framework together with some ‘new’ constructs, to the study of virtual and hybrid cyber-criminologies associated with Sheila Brown [2006, 2013]. It is strongly suggested that far from playing down or ignoring ‘the merging of the human and the technical through sociotechnical environments such as the dissolution of the body into information, disembodied entities, digitalizing the human, simulated consciousness and cybernetics’ [Brown, 2013:488], critics are correct to view this (...)
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  • Relativism, Incoherence, and the Strong Programme.Harvey Siegel - 2011 - In Richard Schantz & Markus Seidel (eds.), The Problem of Relativism in the Sociology of (Scientific) Knowledge. ontos. pp. 41-64.
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  • Lessons From the Large Hadron Collider for Model-Based Experimentation: The Concept of a Model of Data Acquisition and the Scope of the Hierarchy of Models.Koray Karaca - 2017 - Synthese 195 (12):1-22.
    According to the hierarchy of models account of scientific experimentation developed by Patrick Suppes and elaborated by Deborah Mayo, theoretical considerations about the phenomena of interest are involved in an experiment through theoretical models that in turn relate to experimental data through data models, via the linkage of experimental models. In this paper, I dispute the HoM account in the context of present-day high-energy physics experiments. I argue that even though the HoM account aims to characterize experimentation as a model-based (...)
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  • The Transverse Science and Technology Culture: Dynamics and Roles of Research-Technology.Terry Shinn & Bernward Joerges - 2002 - Social Science Information 41 (2):207-251.
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  • How Did Kettlewell’s Experiment End?David Rudge - unknown
    The past quarter century has seen an enormous growth of interest among scholars of science and technology in both particular experimental episodes and the process of experimentation. Among the most influential accounts have been those developed by Allan Franklin (1986, 1990), Deborah Mayo (1996) and Peter Galison (1987), each of which was developed primarily with reference to examples drawn from the history of physics. One useful way to access the generality of an account of experiment is to see how it (...)
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  • Has the Philosophy of Technology Arrived? A State‐of‐the‐Art Review.Don Ihde - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (1):117-131.
    Using the occasion of the publication of a Blackwell anthology in the philosophy of technology, Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition (2003), as a key to the contemporary role of this subdiscipline, this article reviews the current state-of-this-art. Both philosophy of science and philosophy of technology are twentieth century inventions, but each has followed a somewhat different set of philosophical traditions and pursued sometimes divergent questions. Here the primary developments of recent philosophy of technology are examined with emphasis upon issues (...)
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  • Instituting Science: Discovery or Construction of Scientific Knowledge?James A. Marcum - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (2):185 – 210.
    Is knowledge in the natural sciences discovered or constructed? For objectivists, scientific knowledge is discovered through investigations into a mind-independent, natural world. For constructivists, such knowledge is produced through negotiations among members of a professional guild. I examine the clash between the two positions and propose that scientific knowledge is the concurrent outcome from investigations into a natural world and from consensus reached through negotiations of a professional guild. Specifically, I introduce the general methodological notion, instituting science, which incorporates both (...)
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  • De-Idealizing Disagreement, Rethinking Relativism.Katherina Kinzel & Martin Kusch - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (1):40-71.
    Relativism is often motivated in terms of certain types of disagreement. In this paper, we survey the philosophical debates over two such types: faultless disagreement in the case of gustatory conflict, and fundamental disagreement in the case of epistemic conflict. Each of the two discussions makes use of a implicit conception of judgement: brute judgement in the case of faultless disagreement, and rule-governed judgement in the case of fundamental disagreement. We show that the prevalent accounts work with unreasonably high levels (...)
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  • What’s in It for the Historian of Science? Reflections on the Value of Philosophy of Science for History of Science.Theodore Arabatzis - 2017 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 31 (1):69-82.
    In this article, I explore the value of philosophy of science for history of science. I start by introducing a distinction between two ways of integrating history and philosophy of science: historical philosophy of science and philosophical history of science. I then offer a critical discussion of Imre Lakatos’s project to bring philosophy of science to bear on historical interpretation. I point out certain flaws in Lakatos’s project, which I consider indicative of what went wrong with PHS in the past. (...)
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  • Empirical Equivalence and Underdetermination.Husain Sarkar - 2000 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (2):187 – 197.
    Jarrett Leplin in A Novel Defense of Scientific Realism (1997) argues that if the thesis of empirical equivalence is cogent, then the thesis of underdetermination cannot even get off the ground. Part of Leplin's argument rests on the claim that auxiliary hypotheses can be independently confirmed, thus enabling us to determine the epistemic worth of a theory. This, in turn, helps in determining about what we should be realists. Leplin's claims are demonstrated to be problematic. Leplin wants, inconsistently, to use (...)
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  • Deflationary Methodology and Rationality of Science.Thomas Nickles - 1996 - Philosophica 58.
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  • Astronomers Mark Time: Discipline and the Personal Equation.Simon Schaffer - 1988 - Science in Context 2 (1):115-145.
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  • Mediating Machines.M. Norton Wise - 1988 - Science in Context 2 (1):77-113.
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  • Practice, Reason, Context: The Dialogue Between Theory and Experiment.Timothy Lenoir - 1988 - Science in Context 2 (1):3-22.
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  • Forms of Life: Science, Contingency and Harry Collins.Andy Pickering - 1987 - British Journal for the History of Science 20 (2):213-221.
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  • The Other Merton Thesis.Harriet Zuckerman - 1989 - Science in Context 3 (1):239-267.
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  • Don't Throw the Baby Out with the Bath School! A Reply to Collins and Yearley.Michel Callon & Bruno Latour - 1992 - In Andrew Pickering (ed.), Science as Practice and Culture. University of Chicago Press. pp. 343--368.
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  • The Factory as Laboratory.Peter Miller & Ted O'Leary - 1994 - Science in Context 7 (3):469-496.
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  • Is Scientific Research Driven by Opportunity, Problems, or Observations?Wu Tong & Tian Xiaofei - 2008 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):424 - 437.
    With the recent rise of the philosophy of scientific practices, SSK (Sociology of Scientific Knowledge), and feminist approaches to the philosophy of science, a new perspective is gradually coming into being, holding that the starting point for scientific research is opportunity. Opportunistic features in solar neutrino experiments, Opportunistic features of complexity studies emerging from economics, and the measurement of insects' flight can prove the above perspective from different angels. It is important and significant to determine whether the starting point for (...)
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  • Multiplex and Unfolding: Computer Simulation in Particle Physics.Martina Merz - 1999 - Science in Context 12 (2):293-316.
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  • Experiment in Cartesian Courses: The Case of Professor Burchard de Volder.Tammy Nyden - 2010 - The Circulation of Science and Technology.
    In 1675, Burchard de Volder became the first university physics professor to introduce the demonstration of experiments into his lectures and to create a special university classroom, The Leiden Physics Theatre, for this specific purpose. This is surprising for two reasons: first, early pre-Newtonian experiment is commonly associated with Italy and England, and second, de Volder is committed to Cartesian philosophy, including the view that knowledge gathered through the senses is subject to doubt, while that deducted from first principles is (...)
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  • Intelligent Inference and the Web of Belief: In Defense of a Post-Foundationalist Epistemology.Ronald C. Pine - 1996 - Dissertation, University of Hawai'i
    This thesis aims at casting the Copernican Revolution in a new light. By examining and articulating in much more detail the role of auxiliary hypotheses in debates related to the Duhem-Quine thesis, and by displaying the underlying rationality of the favorable appraisal scientists often give theories that rigorously determine parameters, this thesis attempts to walk the difficult path between what Popper called the myth of the framework and what Kitcher calls the myth of Legend . Unlike Legend, this thesis does (...)
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  • A Model for the Division of Semiotic Labor in Scientific Argument: The Interaction of Words and Images.Alan G. Gross - 2011 - Science in Context 24 (4):517-544.
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  • Harvey Sacks's Primitive Natural Science.Michael Lynch & David Bogen - 1994 - Theory, Culture and Society 11 (4):65-104.
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  • The Strong and Weak Senses of Theory-Ladenness of Experimentation: Theory-Driven Versus Exploratory Experiments in the History of High-Energy Particle Physics.Koray Karaca - 2013 - Science in Context 26 (1):93-136.
    In the theory-dominated view of scientific experimentation, all relations of theory and experiment are taken on a par; namely, that experiments are performed solely to ascertain the conclusions of scientific theories. As a result, different aspects of experimentation and of the relation of theory to experiment remain undifferentiated. This in turn fosters a notion of theory-ladenness of experimentation that is too coarse-grained to accurately describe the relations of theory and experiment in scientific practice. By contrast, in this article, I suggest (...)
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  • A Physicist’s Belief. John Polkinghorne’s Consonance of Theology and Science.Andreas Losch - 2018 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum 24 (1):97-116.
    This contribution is a translated, edited and much abbreviated version of chapter 2 in Andreas Losch, Jenseits der Konflikte. I thank the publisher Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht for the permission to make use of the material.
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  • Science Made Up: Constructivist Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.D. Stump - unknown
    Part of the work for this paper was done during the tenure of a fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. I am grateful for financial support provided by the National Science Foundation, Grant #BNS-8011494, and for the assistance of the staff of the Center. I also want to thank David Bloor, Stephen Downes, David Hull and Andy Pickering for offering good advice and criticism, some of which I have heeded.
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  • Racionalidade, consistência, reticulação e coerência: o caso da renormalização na teoria quântica do campo.Valter Alnis Bezerra - 2003 - Scientiae Studia 1 (2):151-181.
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  • Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences.Matt L. Drabek - 2010 - Poroi 6 (2):62-80.
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  • Generating Ontology: From Quantum Mechanics to Quantum Field Theory.Edward MacKinnon - manuscript
    Philosophical interpretations of theories generally presuppose that a theory can be presented as a consistent mathematical formulation that is interpreted through models. Algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) can fit this interpretative model. However, standard Lagrangian quantum field theory (LQFT), as well as quantum electrodynamics and nuclear physics, resists recasting along such formal lines. The difference has a distinct bearing on ontological issues. AQFT does not treat particle interactions or the standard model. This paper develops a framework and methodology for interpreting (...)
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  • Quantum Mechanics and the Social Sciences: After Hermeneutics.Patrick A. Heelan - 1995 - Science & Education 4 (2):127-136.
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  • Philosophical Skepticism Not Relativism is the Problem with the Strong Programme in Science Studies and with Educational Constructivism.Dimitris P. Papayannakos - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (6):573-611.
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  • Scientific Discovery as a Topic for Philosophy of Science: Some Personal Reflections.Tom Nickles - forthcoming - Topoi:1-5.
    This is a brief, personal retrospective on developments in the treatment of scientific discovery by philosophers, since about 1970.
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  • Hermeneutics, Underdetermination and Quantum Mechanics.James T. Cushing - 1995 - Science & Education 4 (2):137-146.
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  • Sociologie de la Science Et Relativisme.Benjamin Matalon - 1986 - Revue de Synthèse 107 (3):267-290.
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  • The Objects of Sociology: A Response to Breslau's “Sociology After Humanism”.Andrew Pickering - 2000 - Sociological Theory 18 (2):308-316.
    Daniel Breslau's essay opens up a valuable space in seeking to align the sociologically impure objects explored in science studies with the practice of a pure sociology. I challenge Breslau's conclusion that the latter can swallow the former and proceed with business as usual. Contrary to Breslau, I argue that confronting head-on the impure objects of science studies can indeed represent a new beginning in sociology as a discipline. I also correct Breslau's misreading of my work as "symmetrical humanism.".
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  • Social Constructivism and the Aims of Science.Kareem Khalifa - 2010 - Social Epistemology 24 (1):45 – 61.
    In this essay, I provide normative guidelines for developing a philosophically interesting and plausible version of social constructivism as a philosophy of science, wherein science aims for social-epistemic values rather than for truth or empirical adequacy. This view is more plausible than the more radical constructivist claim that scientific facts are constructed. It is also more interesting than the modest constructivist claim that representations of such facts emerge in social contexts, as it provides a genuine rival to the scientific axiologies (...)
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  • Is Pickering's ”Pragmatic Realism” Viable?Dan Mcarthur - 2003 - Dialectica 57 (1):71-88.
    In his book The Mangle of Practice and in other writings, Andrew Pickering purports to resolve the question of scientific realism by recasting the debate in terms of his own view “pragmatic” or “performative” realism. This view is informed by a constructivist view of scientific practice. Therefore it is characterised by Pickering as a species of anti‐realism that claims to take due account of the both the objective and pragmatic aspects of certain versions of scientific realism. This paper analyses Pickering's (...)
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