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Animal Rights and Human Obligations

Cambridge University Press (1989)

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  1. Making kangaroos grievable; making grievability non-human.Yvette Kim Clarissa Wijnandts - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (2):1-16.
    When Australian economist Ross Garnaut proposed to increase the commercial kangaroo industry in 2008, it started a national debate on the supposed edibility of kangaroos. Campaigns against the commercial kangaroo industry and hesitance amongst many consumers to eat kangaroo reflect concerns about viewing kangaroos as food. This article explores the reactions and challenges that originate from the kangaroo’s changing role in society by using Judith Butler’s concept of grievable lives. Using this framework shows that what animals we eat goes beyond (...)
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  • On Different Types of Dignity in Nursing Care: A Critique of Nordenfelt: Original Article.Paul Wainwright & Ann Gallagher - 2008 - Nursing Philosophy 9 (1):46-54.
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  • Toward an Ecological Ethic of Care.Deane Curtin - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (1):60 - 74.
    This paper argues that the language of rights cannot express distinctively ecofeminist insights into the treatment of nonhuman animals and the environment. An alternative is proposed in the form of a politicized ecological ethic of care which can express ecofeminist insights. The paper concludes with consideration of an ecofeminist moral issue: how we choose to understand ourselves morally in relation to what we are willing to count as food. "Contextual moral vegetarianism" represents a response to a politicized ecological ethic of (...)
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  • Vivisection, Virtue Ethics, and the Law in 19th-Century Britain.A. W. H. Bates - 2014 - Journal of Animal Ethics 4 (2):30-44,.
    This historical study of early 19th-century opposition to vivisection suggests that the moral persona of the vivisector was an important theme. Vivisectors claimed they deliberately suppressed their feelings to perform scientifically necessary experiments: Where there was reason, there could be no cruelty. Their critics argued they were callous and indifferent to suffering, which was problematic for medical practitioners, who were expected to be merciful and compassionate. This anthropocentric debate can be located within the virtue ethics tradition: Compassion for animals signified (...)
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  • Coherentism and the Epistemic Justification of Moral Beliefs: A Case Study in How to Do Practical Ethics Without Appeal to a Moral Theory.Mylan Engel Jr - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (1):50-74.
    This paper defends a coherentist approach to moral epistemology. In “The Immorality of Eating Meat”, I offer a coherentist consistency argument to show that our own beliefs rationally commit us to the immorality of eating meat. Elsewhere, I use our own beliefs as premises to argue that we have positive duties to assist the poor and to argue that biomedical animal experimentation is wrong. The present paper explores whether this consistency-based coherentist approach of grounding particular moral judgments on beliefs we (...)
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  • Being Humans When We Are Animals.Pär Segerdahl - 2014 - Nordic Wittgenstein Review 3 (2):125-149.
    This paper investigates forms of metaphysical vertigo that can appear when contrasts between humans and animals are challenged. Distinguishing three forms of vertigo and four ways of differentiating humans and animals, the paper attempts to achieve a perspicuous representation of what could be termed “the difficulty of being humans when we are animals”; or alternatively, “the difficulty of being animals when we are humans”.
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  • Aspectos metafísicos na física de Newton: Deus.Bruno Camilo de Oliveira - 2011 - In Luiz Henrique de Araújo Dutra & Alexandre Meyer Luz (eds.), Coleção rumos da epistemologia. Florianópolis, SC, Brasil: NEL/UFSC. pp. 186-201.
    CAMILO, Bruno. Aspectos metafísicos na física de Newton: Deus. In: DUTRA, Luiz Henrique de Araújo; LUZ, Alexandre Meyer (org.). Temas de filosofia do conhecimento. Florianópolis: NEL/UFSC, 2011. p. 186-201. (Coleção rumos da epistemologia; 11). Através da análise do pensamento de Isaac Newton (1642-1727) encontramos os postulados metafísicos que fundamentam a sua mecânica natural. Ao deduzir causa de efeito, ele acreditava chegar a uma causa primeira de todas as coisas. A essa primeira causa de tudo, onde toda a ordem e leis (...)
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  • Cross-Species Chimeras: Exploring a Possible Christian Perspective.Neville Cobbe - 2007 - Zygon 42 (3):599-628.
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  • Moral Standing of Animals and Some Problems in Veterinarian Ethics.Stefan Sencerz - 2020 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 33 (1):37-48.
    This paper discusses the Indirect Duties View implying that, when our actions have no negative effects on humans, we can treat animals any way we wish. I offer several criticisms of this view. Subsequently, I explore some implications of rejecting this view that rise in the contexts of animal research and veterinarian ethics.
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  • The Conception of Synthetic Entities From a Personalist Perspective.Lucía Gómez-Tatay, José Miguel Hernández-Andreu & Justo Aznar - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (1):97-111.
    Synthetic biology opens up the possibility of producing new entities not found in nature, whose classification as organisms or machines has been debated. In this paper we are focusing on the delimitation of the moral value of synthetic products, in order to establish the ethically right way to behave towards them. In order to do so, we use personalism as our ethical framework. First, we examine how we can distinguish between organisms and machines. Next, we discuss whether the products of (...)
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  • Transforming Animal Species: The Case of 'Oncomouse'.Maurizio Salvi - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (1):15-28.
    In this paper I deal with ethical implications arising from animal biotechnology. I analyse some general questions surrounding the production of transgenic animals through a specific case study: the oncomouse. In particular, I explore ethical factors involved in the production of oncomice. This is because biologists genetically modify animals’ germ cells and refuse to modify human germ cells. I will underline how the international community has thus far justified this ‘ethical difference’.
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  • A Vindication of the Rights of Machines.David J. Gunkel - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):113-132.
    This essay responds to the machine question in the affirmative, arguing that artifacts, like robots, AI, and other autonomous systems, can no longer be legitimately excluded from moral consideration. The demonstration of this thesis proceeds in four parts or movements. The first and second parts approach the subject by investigating the two constitutive components of the ethical relationship—moral agency and patiency. In the process, they each demonstrate failure. This occurs not because the machine is somehow unable to achieve what is (...)
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  • THE PLACE OF AFRICAN ANIMAL ETHICS WITHIN THE WELFARIST AND RIGHTIST DEBATE: AN INTERROGATION OF AKAN ONTOLOGICAL AND ETHICAL BELIEFS TOWARD ANIMALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT.Stephen Nkansah Morgan - 2020 - Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal
    Scholars in the field of environmental and animal ethics have propounded theories that outline what, in their view, ought to constitute an ethical relationship between humans and the environment and humans and nonhuman animals respectively. In the field of animal ethics, the contributions by Western scholars to theorize a body of animal ethics, either as an ethic in its own right or as a branch of the broader field of environmental ethics is clearly seen. Consequently, there are, notably, two main (...)
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  • If I Could Talk to the Animals: Measuring Subjective Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2019 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    Animal welfare is a concept that plays a role within both our moral deliberations and the relevant areas of science. The study of animal welfare has impacts on decisions made by legislators, producers and consumers with regards to housing and treatment of animals. Our ethical deliberations in these domains need to consider our impact on animals, and the study of animal welfare provides the information that allows us to make informed decisions. This thesis focusses on taking a philosophical perspective to (...)
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  • Was für ein Tier ist der Mensch?Ludger Schwarte - 2020 - Paragrana: Internationale Zeitschrift für Historische Anthropologie 29 (1):114-122.
    Mein Beitrag versucht, die für die Anthropologie grundlegende Frage nach der Tier/ Mensch-Unterscheidung anders zu wenden. Zu oft wurde der Begriff des Tieres fraglos vorausgesetzt, um das Rätsel des Menschseins im Abgleich dazu zu diskutieren. Was aber macht das Tiersein aus, wenn auch der Mensch zu den Tieren zählt? Wir verstehen, das ist meine These, die Tiere, ja die Natur besser, wenn wir uns selbst als Tiere, als Natur, begreifen und von dem, was uns aus Sicht der historischen Anthropologie auszeichnet, (...)
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  • Vegetarianism.Mylan Engel - 2016 - Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics.
    Ethical vegetarians maintain that vegetarianism is morally required. The principal reasons offered in support of ethical vegetarianism are: (i) concern for the welfare and well-being of the animals being eaten, (ii) concern for the environment, (iii) concern over global food scarcity and the just distribution of resources, and (iv) concern for future generations. Each of these reasons is explored in turn, starting with a historical look at ethical vegetarianism and the moral status of animals.
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  • La frontera animal-humano.Carmen Velayos Castelo - 2013 - Arbor 189 (763):a065.
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  • Moral Deliberation and Ad Hominem Fallacies.Uri D. Leibowitz - 2016 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5):507-529.
    Many of us read Peter Singer ’ s work on our obligations to those in desperate need with our students. Famously, Singer argues that we have a moral obligation to give a significant portion of our assets to famine relief. If my own experience is not atypical, it is quite common for students, upon grasping the implications of Singer ’ s argument, to ask whether Singer gives to famine relief. In response it might be tempting to remind students of the (...)
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  • Animal Rights and Environmental Wrongs: The Case of the Grey Squirrel in Northern Italy.Dan Perry - 2004 - Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):26.
    Alien species are considered by conservation biologists to be a major threat to biodiversity. To deal with alien invasions, they often recommend completely eradicating the invasive species. Animal rights groups have continually opposed eradication campaigns, sometimes successfully. One such case was the attempted eradication of the grey squirrel from northern Italy.It would be beneficial for both sides if they find some middle ground they could both agree on, but the differences between animal rights and conservation biologists’ views make cooperation seem (...)
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  • The Phenomenal Stance.Philip Robbins & Anthony I. Jack - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 127 (1):59-85.
    Cognitive science is shamelessly materialistic. It maintains that human beings are nothing more than complex physical systems, ultimately and completely explicable in mechanistic terms. But this conception of humanity does not ?t well with common sense. To think of the creatures we spend much of our day loving, hating, admiring, resenting, comparing ourselves to, trying to understand, blaming, and thanking -- to think of them as mere mechanisms seems at best counterintuitive and unhelpful. More often it may strike us as (...)
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  • Frankfurt on Second-Order Desires and the Concept of a Person.Christopher Norris - 2010 - Prolegomena 9 (2):199-242.
    In this article I look at some the issues, problems and self-imposed dilemmas that emerge from Harry Frankfurt’s well-known essay ‘Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person’. That essay has exerted a widespread influence on subsequent thinking in ethics and philosophy of mind, especially through its central idea of ‘second-order’ desires and volitions. Frankfurt’s approach promises a third-way solution to certain longstanding issues – chiefly those of free-will versus determinism and the mind/body problem – that have up (...)
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  • Metaphoric Relationships with Pets.Russell W. Belk - 1996 - Society and Animals 4 (2):121-145.
    Using depth interviews and participant observation, the predominant metaphors that emerge in pet owners' relationships with theiranimals are pets as pleasures, problems, parts of self, members of the family, and toys. These metaphors as well as patterns of interacting with and accounting for pets, suggest vacillation between viewing companion animals as human and civilized and viewing them as animalistic and chaotic. It is argued that these views comprise a mixed metaphor needed to more fully understand our fascination with pets.
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  • Disputes Over Moral Status: Philosophy and Science in the Future of Bioethics.Lisa Bortolotti - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (2):153-8.
    Various debates in bioethics have been focused on whether non-persons, such as marginal humans or non-human animals, deserve respectful treatment. It has been argued that, where we cannot agree on whether these individuals have moral status, we might agree that they have symbolic value and ascribe to them moral value in virtue of their symbolic significance. In the paper I resist the suggestion that symbolic value is relevant to ethical disputes in which the respect for individuals with no intrinsic moral (...)
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  • Perspectival Pluralism for Animal Welfare.Walter Veit & Heather Browning - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-14.
    Animal welfare has a long history of disregard. While in recent decades the study of animal welfare has become a scientific discipline of its own, the difficulty of measuring animal welfare can still be vastly underestimated. There are three primary theories, or perspectives, on animal welfare - biological functioning, natural living and affective state. These come with their own diverse methods of measurement, each providing a limited perspective on an aspect of welfare. This paper describes a perspectival pluralist account of (...)
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  • Harm in the Wild: Facing Non-Human Suffering in Nature. [REVIEW]Beril İdemen Sözmen - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (5):1075-1088.
    The paper is concerned with whether the reductio of the natural-harm-argument can be avoided by disvaluing non-human suffering and death. According to the natural-harm-argument, alleviating the suffering of non-human animals is not a moral obligation for human beings because such an obligation would also morally prescribe human intervention in nature for the protection of non-human animal interests which, it claims, is absurd. It is possible to avoid the reductio by formulating the moral obligation to alleviate non-human suffering and death with (...)
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  • A Sex Police for Adults with "Mental Retardation"? Comment on Spiecker and Steutel.Stephen Greenspan - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (2):171-179.
    This article is a rebuttal of the claim by Spiecker and Steutel that sex between people with mild and moderate "mental retardation" is morally permissable only with the substitutive consent of caregivers. After a review of historical, empirical and practical considerations, an ethical analysis is undertaken which concludes that Spiecker and Steutel's arguments are deeply flawed and their proposed policy morally objectionable.
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  • Citizens' Views on Farm Animal Welfare and Related Information Provision: Exploratory Insights From Flanders, Belgium. [REVIEW]Filiep Vanhonacker, Els Van Poucke, Frank Tuyttens & Wim Verbeke - 2010 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (6):551-569.
    The results of two independent empirical studies with Flemish citizens were combined to address the problem of a short fall of information provision about higher welfare products. The research objectives were (1) to improve our understanding of how citizens conceptualize farm animal welfare, (2) to analyze the variety in the claimed personal relevance of animal welfare in the food purchasing decision process, and (3) to find out people’s needs in relation to product information about animal welfare and the extent to (...)
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  • The Two Sources of Moral Standing.Justin Sytsma & Edouard Machery - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):303-324.
    There are two primary traditions in philosophical theorizing about moral standing—one emphasizing Experience (the capacity to feel pain and pleasure) and one emphasizing Agency (complexity of cognition and lifestyle). In this article we offer an explanation for this divide: Lay judgments about moral standing depend importantly on two independent cues (Experience and Agency), and the two philosophical traditions reflect this aspect of folk moral cognition. In support of this two-source hypothesis, we present the results of a series of new experiments (...)
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  • United States V Stevens: Gnawing Away at Freedom of Speech or Paving the Way for Animal Rights? [REVIEW]Irina Knopp - 2011 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 24 (3):331-349.
    This article examines United States v. Stevens, a case recently decided by the Supreme Court, and its relation to animal law and freedom of speech issues, specifically the contention between the two, caused by the statute in question at the heart of the case. While animal rights advocates wish to frame the case through an anti-animal cruelty perspective, those seeking to protect freedom of speech have made the statute an issue of First Amendment rights. Is 18 USC § 48 an (...)
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  • Should Trees Have Managerial Standing? Toward Stakeholder Status for Non-Human Nature.Mark Starik - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (3):207 - 217.
    Most definitions of the concept of stakeholder include only human entities. This paper advances the argument that the non-human natural environment can be integrated into the stakeholder management concept. This argument includes the observations that the natural environment is finally becoming recognized as a vital component of the business environment, that the stakeholder concept is more than a human political/economic one, and that non-human nature currently is not adequately represented by other stakeholder groups. In addition, this paper asserts that any (...)
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  • Bioethical Considerations in Translational Research: Primate Stroke.Michael E. Sughrue, J. Mocco, Willam J. Mack, Andrew F. Ducruet, Ricardo J. Komotar, Ruth L. Fischbach, Thomas E. Martin & E. Sander Connolly - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5):3-12.
    Controversy and activism have long been linked to the subject of primate research. Even in the midst of raging ethical debates surrounding fertility treatments, genetically modified foods and stem-cell research, there has been no reduction in the campaigns of activists worldwide. Plying their trade of intimidation aimed at ending biomedical experimentation in all animals, they have succeeded in creating an environment where research institutions, often painted as guilty until proven innocent, have avoided addressing the issue for fear of becoming targets. (...)
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  • In Defense of Eating Meat.Timothy Hsiao - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):277-291.
    Some arguments for moral vegetarianism proceed by appealing to widely held beliefs about the immorality of causing unjustified pain. Combined with the claim that meat is not needed for our nourishment and that killing animals for this reason causes them unjustified pain, they yield the conclusion that eating meat is immoral. However, what counts as a good enough reason for causing pain will depend largely on what we think about the moral status of animals. Implicit in these arguments is the (...)
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  • Ethics and Farm Animal Welfare.J. F. Hurnik & Hugh Lehman - 1988 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 1 (4):305-318.
    In this paper the authors argue that ethical considerations are relevant for evaluating animal production systems and that in consequence agrologists should seriously consider the arguments of animal welfare supporters. Furthermore, the authors point out the ethical basis for some (though not all) of the conclusions proposed by supporters of animal welfare. In consequence it is necessary to determine the nature of animal welfare and methods of evaluating the welfare of animals and to recognize when production systems fail to satisfy (...)
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  • Assessing Animal Welfare: Design Versus Performance Criteria.Jeffrey Rushen - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):758-758.
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  • The Pervasiveness of Species Bias.Peter Singer - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):759-761.
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  • Toward Positive Animal Welfare.Clive Hollands - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):757-758.
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  • Humans' Use of Animals: On the Horns of a Moral Dilemma.Brian Everill - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):756-756.
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  • On Strangerism and Speciesism.J. A. Gray - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):756-757.
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  • The Animal's Point of View, Animal Welfare and Some Other Related Matters.Marc Bekoff - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):753-755.
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  • Global Citizenship: A Typology for Distinguishing its Multiple Conceptions.Laura Oxley & Paul Morris - 2013 - British Journal of Educational Studies 61 (3):301-325.
    The promotion of ?Global Citizenship? (GC) has emerged as a goal of schooling in many countries, symbolising a shift away from national towards more global conceptions of citizenship. It currently incorporates a proliferation of approaches and terminologies, mirroring both the diverse conceptions of its nature and the socio-politico contexts within which it is appropriated. This paper seeks to clarify this ambiguity by constructing a typology to identify and distinguish the diverse conceptions of GC. The typology is based on two general (...)
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  • Non-Human Rights: An Idealist Perspective.T. L. S. Sprigge - 1984 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 27 (1-4):439 – 461.
    The question whether an entity has rights is identified with that as to whether an intrinsic value resides in it which imposes obligations to foster it on those who can appreciate this value. There should be no difficulty in granting that animals have rights in this sense, but what of other natural objects and artifacts? It seems that various inanimate things, such as fine buildings and forests, often possess such intrinsic value, yet since they can only be fully actual in (...)
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  • Moderation, Morals, and Meat.Frederick Ferré - 1986 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 29 (1-4):391-406.
    Meat?eating as a human practice has been under ethical attack from philosophers such as Peter Singer and Tom Regan on both utilitarian and deontological grounds. An organicist ethic, on the other hand, recognizes that all life other than the primary producers, the plants, must feed on life. This essay affirms, with many environmental ethicists, the moralconsiderability of biota other than the human, but denies that this enlargement of the moral community beyond Homo sapiens necessarily precludes our eating of meat. First, (...)
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  • Environmental Ethics.Andrew Brennan - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its nonhuman contents. This entry covers: (1) the challenge of environmental ethics to the anthropocentrism (i.e., humancenteredness) embedded in traditional western ethical thinking; (2) the early development of the discipline in the 1960s and 1970s; (3) the connection of deep ecology, feminist environmental ethics, and social ecology to politics; (4) the attempt to apply (...)
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  • I. The Liberation of Nature?John Rodman - 1977 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 20 (1-4):83 – 131.
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  • Ethics and Farm Animal Welfare.J. F. Hurnik & Hugh Lehman - 1988 - Journal of Agricultural Ethics 1 (4):305-318.
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  • Killing Humans and Killing Animals.Peter Singer - 1979 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 22 (1-4):145 – 156.
    It is one thing to say that the suffering of non-human animals ought to be considered equally with the like suffering of humans; quite another to decide how the wrongness of killing non-human animals compares with the wrongness of killing human beings. It is argued that while species makes no difference to the wrongness of killing, the possession of certain capacities, in particular the capacity to see oneself as a distinct entity with a future, does. It is claimed, however, that (...)
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  • An Examination and Defense of One Argument Concerning Animal Rights.Tom Regan - 1979 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 22 (1-4):189 – 219.
    An argument is examined and defended for extending basic moral rights to animals which assumes that humans, including infants and the severely mentally enfeebled, have such rights. It is claimed that this argument proceeds on two fronts, one critical, where proposed criteria of right-possession are rejected, the other constructive, where proposed criteria are examined with a view to determining the most reasonable one. This form of argument is defended against the charge that it is self-defeating, various candidates for the title, (...)
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