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  1. We Need to Talk About Deception in Social Robotics!Amanda Sharkey & Noel Sharkey - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):309-316.
    Although some authors claim that deception requires intention, we argue that there can be deception in social robotics, whether or not it is intended. By focusing on the deceived rather than the deceiver, we propose that false beliefs can be created in the absence of intention. Supporting evidence is found in both human and animal examples. Instead of assuming that deception is wrong only when carried out to benefit the deceiver, we propose that deception in social robotics is wrong when (...)
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  • Responsible Research for the Construction of Maximally Humanlike Automata: The Paradox of Unattainable Informed Consent.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):297-305.
    Since the Nuremberg Code and the first Declaration of Helsinki, globally there has been increasing adoption and adherence to procedures for ensuring that human subjects in research are as well informed as possible of the study’s reasons and risks and voluntarily consent to serving as subject. To do otherwise is essentially viewed as violation of the human research subject’s legal and moral rights. However, with the recent philosophical concerns about responsible robotics, the limits and ambiguities of research-subjects ethical codes become (...)
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  • Human Rights of Users of Humanlike Care Automata.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2020 - Human Rights Review 21 (2):181-205.
    Care is more than dispensing pills or cleaning beds. It is about responding to the entire patient. What is called “bedside manner” in medical personnel is a quality of treating the patient not as a mechanism but as a being—much like the caregiver—with desires, ideas, dreams, aspirations, and the gamut of mental and emotional character. As automata, answering an increasing functional need in care, are designed to enact care, the pressure is on their becoming more humanlike to carry out the (...)
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  • The Human Relationship in the Ethics of Robotics: A Call to Martin Buber’s I and Thou.Kathleen Richardson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (1):75-82.
    Artificially Intelligent robotic technologies increasingly reflect a language of interaction and relationship and this vocabulary is part and parcel of the meanings now attached to machines. No longer are they inert, but interconnected, responsive and engaging. As machines become more sophisticated, they are predicted to be a “direct object” of an interaction for a human, but what kinds of human would that give rise to? Before robots, animals played the role of the relational other, what can stories of feral children (...)
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  • Granny and the Robots: Ethical Issues in Robot Care for the Elderly.Amanda Sharkey & Noel Sharkey - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):27-40.
    The growing proportion of elderly people in society, together with recent advances in robotics, makes the use of robots in elder care increasingly likely. We outline developments in the areas of robot applications for assisting the elderly and their carers, for monitoring their health and safety, and for providing them with companionship. Despite the possible benefits, we raise and discuss six main ethical concerns associated with: (1) the potential reduction in the amount of human contact; (2) an increase in the (...)
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  • Can Communication with Social Robots Influence How Children Develop Empathy? Best-Evidence Synthesis.Ekaterina Pashevich - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Social robots are gradually entering children’s lives in a period when children learn about social relationships and exercise prosocial behaviors with parents, peers, and teachers. Designed for long-term emotional engagement and to take the roles of friends, teachers, and babysitters, such robots have the potential to influence how children develop empathy. This article presents a review of the literature in the fields of human–robot interaction, psychology, neuropsychology, and roboethics, discussing the potential impact of communication with social robots on children’s social (...)
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  • Service Robots for Affective Labor: A Sociology of Labor Perspective.Anna Dobrosovestnova, Glenda Hannibal & Tim Reinboth - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    Profit-oriented service sectors such as tourism, hospitality, and entertainment are increasingly looking at how professional service robots can be integrated into the workplace to perform socio-cognitive tasks that were previously reserved for humans. This is a work in which social and labor sciences recognize the principle role of emotions. However, the models and narratives of emotions that drive research, design, and deployment of service robots in human–robot interaction differ considerably from how emotions are framed in the sociology of labor and (...)
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  • Could you hate a robot? And does it matter if you could?Helen Ryland - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    This article defends two claims. First, humans could be in relationships characterised by hate with some robots. Second, it matters that humans could hate robots, as this hate could wrong the robots. In defending this second claim, I will thus be accepting that morally considerable robots either currently exist, or will exist in the near future, and so it can matter how we treat these robots. The arguments presented in this article make an important original contribution to the robo-philosophy literature, (...)
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  • Why Robots Should Not Be Treated Like Animals.Deborah G. Johnson & Mario Verdicchio - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (4):291-301.
    Responsible Robotics is about developing robots in ways that take their social implications into account, which includes conceptually framing robots and their role in the world accurately. We are now in the process of incorporating robots into our world and we are trying to figure out what to make of them and where to put them in our conceptual, physical, economic, legal, emotional and moral world. How humans think about robots, especially humanoid social robots, which elicit complex and sometimes disconcerting (...)
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  • AI and Affordances for Mental Action.McClelland Tom - unknown
    To perceive an affordance is to perceive an object or situation as presenting an opportunity for action. The concept of affordances has been taken up across wide range of disciplines, including AI. I explore an interesting extension of the concept of affordances in robotics. Among the affordances that artificial systems have been engineered to detect are affordances to deliberate. In psychology, affordances are typically limited to bodily action, so the it is noteworthy that AI researchers have found it helpful to (...)
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  • Patiency is Not a Virtue: The Design of Intelligent Systems and Systems of Ethics.Joanna J. Bryson - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (1):15-26.
    The question of whether AI systems such as robots can or should be afforded moral agency or patiency is not one amenable either to discovery or simple reasoning, because we as societies constantly reconstruct our artefacts, including our ethical systems. Consequently, the place of AI systems in society is a matter of normative, not descriptive ethics. Here I start from a functionalist assumption, that ethics is the set of behaviour that maintains a society. This assumption allows me to exploit the (...)
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  • Can We Program or Train Robots to Be Good?Amanda Sharkey - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):283-295.
    As robots are deployed in a widening range of situations, it is necessary to develop a clearer position about whether or not they can be trusted to make good moral decisions. In this paper, we take a realistic look at recent attempts to program and to train robots to develop some form of moral competence. Examples of implemented robot behaviours that have been described as 'ethical', or 'minimally ethical' are considered, although they are found to only operate in quite constrained (...)
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  • How to Describe and Evaluate “Deception” Phenomena: Recasting the Metaphysics, Ethics, and Politics of ICTs in Terms of Magic and Performance and Taking a Relational and Narrative Turn.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (2):71-85.
    Contemporary ICTs such as speaking machines and computer games tend to create illusions. Is this ethically problematic? Is it deception? And what kind of “reality” do we presuppose when we talk about illusion in this context? Inspired by work on similarities between ICT design and the art of magic and illusion, responding to literature on deception in robot ethics and related fields, and briefly considering the issue in the context of the history of machines, this paper discusses these questions through (...)
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  • Should We Welcome Robot Teachers?Amanda J. C. Sharkey - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (4):283-297.
    Current uses of robots in classrooms are reviewed and used to characterise four scenarios: Robot as Classroom Teacher; Robot as Companion and Peer; Robot as Care-eliciting Companion; and Telepresence Robot Teacher. The main ethical concerns associated with robot teachers are identified as: privacy; attachment, deception, and loss of human contact; and control and accountability. These are discussed in terms of the four identified scenarios. It is argued that classroom robots are likely to impact children’s’ privacy, especially when they masquerade as (...)
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  • Anthropomorphism in Human–Robot Co-Evolution.Luisa Damiano & Paul Dumouchel - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:468.
    Social robotics entertains a particular relationship with anthropomorphism, which it neither sees as a cognitive error, nor as a sign of immaturity. Rather it considers that this common human tendency, which is hypothesized to have evolved because it favored cooperation among early humans, can be used today to facilitate social interactions between humans and a new type of cooperative and interactive agents - social robots. This approach leads social robotics to focus research on the engineering of robots that activate anthropomorphic (...)
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  • Moral Difference Between Humans and Robots: Paternalism and Human-Relative Reason.Tsung-Hsing Ho - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    According to some philosophers, if moral agency is understood in behaviourist terms, robots could become moral agents that are as good as or even better than humans. Given the behaviourist conception, it is natural to think that there is no interesting moral difference between robots and humans in terms of moral agency. However, such moral differences exist: based on Strawson’s account of participant reactive attitude and Scanlon’s relational account of blame, I argue that a distinct kind of reason available to (...)
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  • Sexual Robots: The Social-Relational Approach and the Concept of Subjective Reference.Piercosma Bisconti & Susanna Piermattei - 2020 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
    In this paper we propose the notion of “subjective reference” as a conceptual tool that explains how and why human-robot sexual interactions could reframe users approach to human-human sexual interactions. First, we introduce the current debate about Sexual Robotics, situated in the wider discussion about Social Robots, stating the urgency of a regulative framework. We underline the importance of a social-relational approach, mostly concerned about Social Robots impact in human social structures. Then, we point out the absence of a precise (...)
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  • Young Children’s Indiscriminate Helping Behavior Toward a Humanoid Robot.Dorothea U. Martin, Madeline I. MacIntyre, Conrad Perry, Georgia Clift, Sonja Pedell & Jordy Kaufman - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • The Trouble With Thinking Like Arena: Learning to Use Simulation Software.Reinaldo J. Moraga & Diane M. Rodgers - 2011 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 31 (2):144-152.
    Simulation software used for modeling has become as ubiquitous as computers themselves. Despite growing reliance on simulation in educational and workplace settings, users encounter frustration in using simulation software programs. The authors conducted a study with 26 engineering students and interviewed them about their experience learning the simulation software Arena for optimization modeling. These students experienced frustration with the process of learning to “think” like the simulation software. Students explained their difficulty with learning the software in a way that implied (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Nursing: Ethics of Caring as a Guide to Dividing Tasks Between AI and Humans.Felicia Stokes & Amitabha Palmer - 2020 - Nursing Philosophy 21 (4).
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  • Ethorobotics: A New Approach to Human-Robot Relationship.Ádám Miklósi, Péter Korondi, Vicente Matellán & Márta Gácsi - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Socially Perceptive Robots: Challenges and Concerns.Ginevra Castellano & Christopher Peters - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (2):201-207.
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  • Can You Kill a Robot Nanny?: Ethological Approach to the Effect of Robot Caregivers on Child Development and Human Evolution.Enikő Kubinyi, P. Pongrácz & Ádám Miklósi - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (2):214-219.
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  • It Takes a Village to Construct a Robot: A Socially Situated Perspective on the Ethics of Robot Design.Selma Šabanović - 2010 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 11 (2):257-262.
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  • The Intervention of Robot Caregivers and the Cultivation of Children’s Capability to Play.Yvette Pearson & Jason Borenstein - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):123-137.
    In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types of (...)
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  • Incorporating Ethics Into Artificial Intelligence.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2017 - The Journal of Ethics 21 (4):403-418.
    This article reviews the reasons scholars hold that driverless cars and many other AI equipped machines must be able to make ethical decisions, and the difficulties this approach faces. It then shows that cars have no moral agency, and that the term ‘autonomous’, commonly applied to these machines, is misleading, and leads to invalid conclusions about the ways these machines can be kept ethical. The article’s most important claim is that a significant part of the challenge posed by AI-equipped machines (...)
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  • Concerning the Apperception of Robot-Assisted Childcare.Raya Jones - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):445-456.
    This essay looks askance at how robot-assisted childcare is constructed in the public domain of the Internet. Complex interactions of rhetorical manoeuvres, narratives and postnarrativity, and semiotic slippages may channel the apperception of this application of robotics. The prospect of robots in childcare roles is exceptionally contentious, for it connotes interference with the child-caregiver attachment bond. The industry’s response to psychology-informed concerns is to ‘rebrand’ the product as a robot companion for a child or as a home robot for the (...)
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  • The Ethics of Robotic Caregivers.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2017 - Interaction Studies 18 (2):174-190.
    As Artificial Intelligence technology seems poised for a major take-off and changing societal dynamics are creating a high demand for caregivers for elders, children and those infirmed-robotic caregivers, may well be used much more often. This article examines the ethical concerns raised by the use of AI caregivers and concludes that many of these concerns are avoided when AI caregivers operate as partners rather than substitutes. Furthermore, most of the remaining concerns are minor and are faced by human caregivers as (...)
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  • Dry Your Eyes: Examining the Roles of Robots for Childcare Applications.David Feil-Seifer & Maja J. Matarić - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (2):208-213.
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  • A Paradigm Shift for Robot Ethics: From HRI to Human–Robot–System Interaction.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Shuhong Li - 2019 - Medicolegal and Bioethics:11-21.
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  • Changing Perspective: From Avoiding Harm to Child's Best Interests.Carsten Zoll & Caroline Spielhagen - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (2):295-301.
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  • Robot Nannies: Future or Fiction?Egon L. van denBroek - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (2):274-282.
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  • A Survey of Expectations About the Role of Robots in Robot-Assisted Therapy for Children with ASD: Ethical Acceptability, Trust, Sociability, Appearance, and Attachment.Mark Coeckelbergh, Cristina Pop, Ramona Simut, Andreea Peca, Sebastian Pintea, Daniel David & Bram Vanderborght - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (1):47-65.
    The use of robots in therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder raises issues concerning the ethical and social acceptability of this technology and, more generally, about human–robot interaction. However, usually philosophical papers on the ethics of human–robot-interaction do not take into account stakeholders’ views; yet it is important to involve stakeholders in order to render the research responsive to concerns within the autism and autism therapy community. To support responsible research and innovation in this field, this paper identifies a (...)
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  • On the Ethical Framing of Research Programs in Robotics.Guglielmo Tamburrini - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (4):463-471.
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  • What is It Like to Encounter an Autonomous Artificial Agent?Karsten Weber - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (4):483-489.
    Following up on Thomas Nagel’s paper “What is it like to be a bat?” and Alan Turing’s essay “Computing machinery and intelligence,” it shall be claimed that a successful interaction of human beings and autonomous artificial agents depends more on which characteristics human beings ascribe to the agent than on whether the agent really has those characteristics. It will be argued that Masahiro Mori’s concept of the “uncanny valley” as well as evidence from several empirical studies supports that assertion. Finally, (...)
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  • Creating “Companions” for Children: The Ethics of Designing Esthetic Features for Robots.Yvette Pearson & Jason Borenstein - 2014 - AI and Society 29 (1):23-31.
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