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  1. The Bermuda Triangle: The Pragmatics, Policies, and Principles for Data Sharing in the History of the Human Genome Project.Robert Cook-Deegan, Rachel Ankeny & Kathryn Maxson Jones - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (4):693-805.
    The Bermuda Principles for DNA sequence data sharing are an enduring legacy of the Human Genome Project. They were adopted by the HGP at a strategy meeting in Bermuda in February of 1996 and implemented in formal policies by early 1998, mandating daily release of HGP-funded DNA sequences into the public domain. The idea of daily sharing, we argue, emanated directly from strategies for large, goal-directed molecular biology projects first tested within the “community” of C. elegans researchers, and were introduced (...)
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  • A Historical Taxonomy of Origin of Species Problems and Its Relevance to the Historiography of Evolutionary Thought.Koen B. Tanghe - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (4):927-987.
    Historians tend to speak of the problem of the origin of species or the species question, as if it were a monolithic problem. In reality, the phrase refers to a, historically, surprisingly fluid and pluriform scientific issue. It has, in the course of the past five centuries, been used in no less than ten different ways or contexts. A clear taxonomy of these separate problems is useful or relevant in two ways. It certainly helps to disentangle confusions that have inevitably (...)
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  • Bacteria Are Small but Not Stupid: Cognition, Natural Genetic Engineering and Socio-Bacteriology.J. Shapiro - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):807-819.
    Forty years’ experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Analysis of cellular processes such as metabolism, regulation of protein synthesis, and DNA repair established that bacteria continually monitor their external and internal environments and compute functional outputs based on information provided by their sensory apparatus. Studies of genetic recombination, lysogeny, antibiotic resistance and my own work on transposable elements revealed multiple (...)
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  • Genome Informatics: The Role of DNA in Cellular Computations.James A. Shapiro - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (3):288-301.
    Cells are cognitive entities possessing great computational power. DNA serves as a multivalent information storage medium for these computations at various time scales. Information is stored in sequences, epigenetic modifications, and rapidly changing nucleoprotein complexes. Because DNA must operate through complexes formed with other molecules in the cell, genome functions are inherently interactive and involve two-way communication with various cellular compartments. Both coding sequences and repetitive sequences contribute to the hierarchical systemic organization of the genome. By virtue of nucleoprotein complexes, (...)
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  • Modern Synthesis is the Light of Microbial Genomics.Austin Booth, Carlos Mariscal & W. Ford Doolittle - 2016 - Annual Reviews of Microbiology 70 (1):279-297.
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  • Thought Experiments in Biology.Guillaume Schlaepfer & Marcel Weber - 2018 - In Michael T. Stuart, Yiftach J. H. Fehige & James Robert Brown (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. London: Routledge. pp. 243-256.
    Unlike in physics, the category of thought experiment is not very common in biology. At least there are no classic examples that are as important and as well-known as the most famous thought experiments in physics, such as Galileo’s, Maxwell’s or Einstein’s. The reasons for this are far from obvious; maybe it has to do with the fact that modern biology for the most part sees itself as a thoroughly empirical discipline that engages either in real natural history or in (...)
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  • Die Architektur der Synthese. Entstehung und Philosophie der modernen Evolutionstheorie.Marcel Weber - 1996 - Dissertation, University of Konstanz
    This Ph.D. thesis provides a pilosophical account of the structure of the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 40s. The first, more historical part analyses how classical genetics came to be integrated into evolutionary thinking, highlighting in particular the importance of chromosomal mapping of Drosophila strains collected in the wild by Dobzansky, but also the work of Goldschmidt, Sumners, Timofeeff-Ressovsky and others. The second, more philosophical part attempts to answer the question wherein the unity of the synthesis consisted. I argue (...)
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  • Extended Phenotype – but Not Too Extended. A Reply to Laland, Turner and Jablonka.Richard Dawkins - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):377-396.
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  • Synthetic Versus Analytic Approaches to Protein and DNA Structure Determination.Agnes Bolinska - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):26.
    The structures of protein and DNA were discovered primarily by means of synthesizing component-level information about bond types, lengths, and angles, rather than analyzing X-ray diffraction photographs of these molecules. In this paper, I consider the synthetic and analytic approaches to exemplify alternative heuristics for approaching mid-twentieth-century macromolecular structure determination. I argue that the former was, all else being equal, likeliest to generate the correct structure in the shortest period of time. I begin by characterizing problem solving in these cases (...)
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  • Genes.Philip Kitcher - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (4):337-359.
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  • Schrödinger: A Philosopher in Planck's Chair. [REVIEW]Ludvik Bass - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (1):111-127.
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  • Model, Theory, and Evidence in the Discovery of the DNA Structure.Samuel Schindler - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):619-658.
    In this paper, I discuss the discovery of the DNA structure by Francis Crick and James Watson, which has provoked a large historical literature but has yet not found entry into philosophical debates. I want to redress this imbalance. In contrast to the available historical literature, a strong emphasis will be placed upon analysing the roles played by theory, model, and evidence and the relationship between them. In particular, I am going to discuss not only Crick and Watson's well-known model (...)
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  • Intervention as Both Test and Exploration: Reexamining the PaJaMo Experiment Based on Aims and Modes of Interventions.Hsiao-Fan Yeh & Ruey-Lin Chen - unknown
    This paper explores multiple experimental interventions in molecular biology. By “multiple,” we mean that molecular biologists often use different modes of experimental interventions in a series of experiments for one and the same subject. In performing such a series of experiment, scientists may use different modes of interventions to realize plural goals such as testing given hypotheses and exploring novel phenomena. In order to illustrate this claim, we develop a framework of multiple modes of experimental interventions to analyze a series (...)
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  • Bacteria Are Small but Not Stupid: Cognition, Natural Genetic Engineering and Socio-Bacteriology.J. A. Shapiro - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):807-819.
    Forty years’ experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Analysis of cellular processes such as metabolism, regulation of protein synthesis, and DNA repair established that bacteria continually monitor their external and internal environments and compute functional outputs based on information provided by their sensory apparatus. Studies of genetic recombination, lysogeny, antibiotic resistance and my own work on transposable elements revealed multiple (...)
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  • The Chemical Characterization of the Gene: Vicissitudes of Evidential Assessment.Jacob Stegenga - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (1):105-127.
    The chemical characterization of the substance responsible for the phenomenon of “transformation” of pneumococci was presented in the now famous 1944 paper by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty. Reception of this work was mixed. Although interpreting their results as evidence that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule responsible for genetic changes was, at the time, controversial, this paper has been retrospectively celebrated as providing such evidence. The mixed and changing assessment of the evidence presented in the paper was due to the (...)
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  • A New Insight Into Sanger’s Development of Sequencing: From Proteins to DNA, 1943–1977.Miguel García-Sancho - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):265-323.
    Fred Sanger, the inventor of the first protein, RNA and DNA sequencing methods, has traditionally been seen as a technical scientist, engaged in laboratory bench work and not interested at all in intellectual debates in biology. In his autobiography and commentaries by fellow researchers, he is portrayed as having a trajectory exclusively dependent on technological progress. The scarce historical scholarship on Sanger partially challenges these accounts by highlighting the importance of professional contacts, institutional and disciplinary moves in his career, spanning (...)
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  • History in the Gene: Negotiations Between Molecular and Organismal Anthropology.Marianne Sommer - 2008 - Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):473-528.
    In the advertising discourse of human genetic database projects, of genetic ancestry tracing companies, and in popular books on anthropological genetics, what I refer to as the anthropological gene and genome appear as documents of human history, by far surpassing the written record and oral history in scope and accuracy as archives of our past. How did macromolecules become "documents of human evolutionary history"? Historically, molecular anthropology, a term introduced by Emile Zuckerkandl in 1962 to characterize the study of primate (...)
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  • Thinking Theologically About Reproductive and Genetic Enhancements: The Challenge.G. Khushf - 1999 - Christian Bioethics 5 (2):154-182.
    Current philosophical and legal bioethical reflection on reprogenetics provides little more than a rationalization of the interests of science. There are two reasons for this. First, bioethicists attempt to address ethical issues in a “language of precision” that characterizes science, and this works against analogical and narratological modes of discourse that have traditionally provided guidance for understanding human nature and purpose. Second, the current ethical and legal debate is framed by a public/private distinction that banishes robust norms to the private (...)
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  • Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: Radioisotopes as Historical Tracers of Molecular Biology.Angela N. H. Creager - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):29-42.
    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled phage with phosphorus-32 (...)
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  • Flow of Information in Molecular Biological Mechanisms.Lindley Darden - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (3):280-287.
    In 1958, Francis Crick distinguished the flow of information from the flow of matter and the flow of energy in the mechanism of protein synthesis. Crick’s claims about information flow and coding in molecular biology are viewed from the perspective of a new characterization of mechanisms and from the perspective of information as holding a key to distinguishing work in molecular biology from that of biochemistry in the 1950s–1970s . Flow of matter from beginning to end does not occur in (...)
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  • The Third Man: Comparative Analysis of a Science Autobiography and a Cinema Classic as Windows Into Post-War Life Sciences Research.Hub Zwart - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (4):382-412.
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  • Strategies in the Interfield Discovery of the Mechanism of Protein Synthesis.Lindley Darden & Carl Craver - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (1):1-28.
    In the 1950s and 1960s, an interfield interaction between molecular biologists and biochemists integrated important discoveries about the mechanism of protein synthesis. This extended discovery episode reveals two general reasoning strategies for eliminating gaps in descriptions of the productive continuity of mechanisms: schema instantiation and forward chaining/backtracking. Schema instantiation involves filling roles in an overall framework for the mechanism. Forward chaining and backtracking eliminate gaps using knowledge about types of entities and their activities. Attention to mechanisms highlights salient features of (...)
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  • The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis.David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.
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  • The Prion Challenge to the `Central Dogma' of Molecular Biology, 1965–1991.Martha E. Keyes - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 30 (2):181-218.
    Since the 1930s, scientists studying the neurological disease scrapie had assumed that the infectious agent was a virus. By the mid 1960s, however, several unconventional properties had arisen that were difficult to reconcile with the standard viral model. Evidence for nucleic acid within the pathogen was lacking, and some researchers considered the possibility that the infectious agent consisted solely of protein. In 1982, Stanley Prusiner coined the term `prion' to emphasize the agent's proteinaceous nature. This infectious protein hypothesis was denounced (...)
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  • An Experiment-Based Methodology for Classical Genetics and Molecular Biology.Hsiao-fan Yeh & Ruey-lin Chen - 2017 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 26:39-60.
    This paper proposes an experiment-based methodology for both classical genetics and molecular biology by integrating Lindley Darden’s mechanism-centered approach and C. Kenneth Waters’s phenomenon-centered approach. We argue that the methodology basing on experiments offers a satisfactory account of the development of the two biological disciplines. The methodology considers discovery of new mechanisms, investigation of new phenomena, and construction of new theories together, in which experiments play a central role. Experimentation connects the three type of conduct, which work as both ends (...)
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  • Social and Gendered Readings of Illness Narratives.Muriel Lederman - 2016 - Journal of Medical Humanities 37 (3):275-288.
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  • The Absent Professor: Why We Don't Teach Research Ethics and What to Do About It.Arri Eisen & Roberta M. Berry - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (4):38 – 49.
    Research ethics education in the biosciences has not historically been a priority for research universities despite the fact that funding agencies, government regulators, and the parties involved in the research enterprise agree that it ought to be. The confluence of a number of factors, including scrutiny and regulation due to increased public awareness of the impact of basic research on society, increased public and private funding, increased diversity and collaboration among researchers, the impressive success and speed of research advances, and (...)
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  • Correcting the Bias Against Mental Testing: A Preponderance of Peer Agreement.Arthur R. Jensen - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):359-371.
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  • Race, the Heritability of IQ, and the Intellectual Scale of Nature.Douglas Wahlsten - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):358-359.
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  • Genetic Influences on IQ.F. Vogel - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):358-358.
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  • Correlation, Regression and Biased Science.Atam Vetta - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):357-358.
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  • Antitest Views Are Refuted.P. E. Vernon - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):356-357.
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  • An Existence Proof for Intelligence?Steven G. Vandenberg - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):355-356.
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  • Tests Are Not to Blame.Leona E. Tyler - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):354-355.
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  • Intelligence and Test Bias: Art and Science.Robert J. Sternberg - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):353-354.
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  • Error and Bias in the Selection of Data.Robert Rosenthal - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):352-353.
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  • In Support of Bias in Mental Testing and Scientific Inquiry.Cecil R. Reynolds - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):352-352.
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  • The Spearman-Jensen Hypothesis.R. Travis Osborne - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):351-352.
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  • The Definitive Work on Mental Test Bias.Langdon E. Longstreth - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):350-351.
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  • Test Bias and Problems in Cross-Cultural Testing.Paul Kline - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):349-350.
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  • Controversies Surrounding Mental Testing.Oscar Kempthorne & Leroy Wolins - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):348-349.
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  • Intelligence Testing: The Importance of a Difference Should Be Evaluated Independently of its Causes.Lloyd G. Humphreys - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):347-348.
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  • Compensatory Education has Succeeded.Jerry Hirsch, Mark Beeman & Timothy P. Tully - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):346-347.
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  • Individual Versus Collective Social Justice.William R. Havender - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):345-346.
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  • Criteria of Test Bias: Do the Statistical Models Fit Reality?Gordon M. Harrington - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):345-345.
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  • Achievement Test Bias.Donald Ross Green - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):344-344.
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  • Implications of Valid IQ Differences: An Unstatesmanlike View.Robert A. Gordon - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):343-344.
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  • Bias Cuts Deeper Than Scores.Judith Economos - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):342-343.
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  • Competent Teachers and Competent Students.Bruce K. Eckland - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):341-342.
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  • The Problem of Hierarchial Thought in the Work of Arthur Jensen.Douglas Lee Eckberg - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):340-341.
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