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Hub Zwart [91]Hub A. E. Zwart [1]
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Hub Zwart
Erasmus University Rotterdam
  1.  66
    Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Frank O. Anthun, Sharon Bailey, Giles Birchley, Henriette Bout, Carlo Casonato, Gloria González Fuster, Bert Heinrichs, Serge Horbach, Ingrid Skjæggestad Jacobsen, Jacques Janssen, Matthias Kaiser, Inge Lerouge, Barend van der Meulen, Sarah de Rijcke, Thomas Saretzki, Margit Sutrop, Marta Tazewell, Krista Varantola, Knut Jørgen Vie, Hub Zwart & Mira Zöller - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on (...)
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  2.  27
    Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Mira Zöller, Hub Zwart, Knut Vie, Krista Varantola, Marta Tazewell, Margit Sutrop, Thomas Saretzki, Sarah Rijcke, Barend Meulen, Inge Lerouge, Matthias Kaiser, Jacques Janssen, Ingrid Jacobsen, Serge Horbach, Bert Heinrichs, Gloria Fuster, Carlo Casonato, Henriette Bout, Giles Birchley, Sharon Bailey, Frank Anthun & Ellen-Marie Forsberg - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on (...)
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  3.  35
    Adapt or Perish? Assessing the Recent Shift in the European Research Funding Arena From ‘ELSA’ to ‘RRI’.Laurens Landeweerd & Hub Zwart - 2014 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10 (1):1-19.
    Two decades ago, in 1994, in the context of the 4th EU Framework Programme, ELSA was introduced as a label for developing and funding research into the ethical, legal and social aspects of emerging sciences and technologies. Currently, particularly in the context of EU funding initiatives such as Horizon2020, a new label has been forged, namely Responsible Research and Innovation. What is implied in this metonymy, this semantic shift? What is so new about RRI in comparison to ELSA? First of (...)
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  4.  22
    Addressing Research Integrity Challenges: From Penalising Individual Perpetrators to Fostering Research Ecosystem Quality Care.Hub Zwart & Ruud ter Meulen - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (1):1-5.
    Concern for and interest in research integrity has increased significantly during recent decades, both in academic and in policy discourse. Both in terms of diagnostics and in terms of therapy, the tendency in integrity discourse has been to focus on strategies of individualisation. Other contributions to the integrity debate, however, focus more explicitly on environmental factors, e.g. on the quality and resilience of research ecosystems, on institutional rather than individual responsibilities, and on the quality of the research culture. One example (...)
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  5.  23
    Addressing Research Integrity Challenges: From Penalising Individual Perpetrators to Fostering Research Ecosystem Quality Care.Ruud Meulen & Hub Zwart - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (1):1-5.
    Concern for and interest in research integrity has increased significantly during recent decades, both in academic and in policy discourse. Both in terms of diagnostics and in terms of therapy, the tendency in integrity discourse has been to focus on strategies of individualisation. Other contributions to the integrity debate, however, focus more explicitly on environmental factors, e.g. on the quality and resilience of research ecosystems, on institutional rather than individual responsibilities, and on the quality of the research culture. One example (...)
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  6.  26
    Iconoclasm and Imagination: Gaston Bachelard’s Philosophy of Technoscience.Hub Zwart - 2020 - Human Studies 43 (1):61-87.
    Gaston Bachelard occupies a unique position in the history of European thinking. As a philosopher of science, he developed a profound interest in genres of the imagination, notably poetry and novels. While emphatically acknowledging the strength, precision and reliability of scientific knowledge compared to every-day experience, he saw literary phantasies as important supplementary sources of insight. Although he significantly influenced authors such as Lacan, Althusser, Foucault and others, while some of his key concepts are still widely used, his oeuvre tends (...)
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  7.  34
    From the Nadir of Negativity Towards the Cusp of Reconciliation.Hub Zwart - 2017 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 21 (2/3):175-198.
    This contribution addresses the anthropocenic challenge from a dialectical perspective, combining a diagnostics of the present with a prognostic of the emerging future. It builds on the oeuvres of two prominent dialectical thinkers, namely Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Hegel himself was a pre-anthropocenic thinker who did not yet thematise the anthropocenic challenge as such, but whose work allows us to emphasise the unprecedented newness of the current crisis. I will especially focus on his views on (...)
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  8. A Short History of Food Ethics.Hub Zwart - 2000 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):113-126.
    Moral concern with food intake is as old asmorality itself. In the course of history, however,several ways of critically examining practices of foodproduction and food intake have been developed.Whereas ancient Greek food ethics concentrated on theproblem of temperance, and ancient Jewish ethics onthe distinction between legitimate and illicit foodproducts, early Christian morality simply refused toattach any moral significance to food intake. Yet,during the middle ages food became one of theprinciple objects of monastic programs for moralexercise (askesis). During the seventeenth andeighteenth (...)
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  9.  40
    Revolutionary Poetry and Liquid Crystal Chemistry: Herman Gorter, Ada Prins and the Interface Between Literature and Science.Hub Zwart - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 23 (1):1-18.
    In the Netherlands, the poet Herman Gorter is mostly known as the author of the neo-romantic poem May and the “sensitivistic” Poems, but internationally he became famous as a propagandist of radical Marxism: the author of influential brochures and of an “open letter” to comrade W.I. Lenin in 1920. During the 1890s, Gorter became increasingly dissatisfied with his poetry, considering it as ego-centric, disinterested and “bourgeois”, unconnected with what was happening in the real world. He wanted to put his poetry (...)
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  10.  60
    Limitless as a Neuro-Pharmaceutical Experiment and as a Daseinsanalyse: On the Use of Fiction in Preparatory Debates on Cognitive Enhancement. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):29-38.
    Limitless is a movie (released in 2011) as well as a novel (published in 2001) about a tormented author who (plagued by a writer’s block) becomes an early user of an experimental designer drug. The wonder drug makes him highly productive overnight and even allows him to make a fortune on the stock market. At the height of his career, however, the detrimental side-effects become increasingly noticeable. In this article, Limitless is analysed from two perspectives. First of all, building on (...)
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  11.  27
    Fabricated Truths and the Pathos of Proximity: What Would Be a Nietzschean Philosophy of Contemporary Technoscience?Hub Zwart - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):457-482.
    In recent years, Nietzsche’s views on science attracted a considerable amount of scholarly attention. Overall, his attitude towards science tends to be one of suspicion, or ambivalence at least. My article addresses the “Nietzsche and science” theme from a slightly different perspective, raising a somewhat different type of question, more pragmatic if you like, namely: how to be a Nietzschean philosopher of science today? What would the methodological contours of a Nietzschean approach to present-day research areas amount to? In other (...)
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  12.  46
    Reflection as a Deliberative and Distributed Practice: Assessing Neuro-Enhancement Technologies Via Mutual Learning Exercises.Hub Zwart, Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Peter Eduard, Lotte Krabbenborg, Sheena Laursen, Gema Revuelta & Winnie Toonders - 2017 - NanoEthics 11 (2):127-138.
    In 1968, Jürgen Habermas claimed that, in an advanced technological society, the emancipatory force of knowledge can only be regained by actively recovering the ‘forgotten experience of reflection’. In this article, we argue that, in the contemporary situation, critical reflection requires a deliberative ambiance, a process of mutual learning, a consciously organised process of deliberative and distributed reflection. And this especially applies, we argue, to critical reflection concerning a specific subset of technologies which are actually oriented towards optimising human cognition. (...)
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  13.  51
    Enter CRISPR: Jennifer Doudna's Autobiographical Assessment of the Science and Ethics of CRISPR/Cas9.Hub Zwart - 2018 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 9 (1):59-76.
    In 2012, Jennifer Doudna et al. published their landmark article on CRISPR/ Cas9. Five years later, Doudna published an autobiographical retrospective to come to terms with the “tsunami” of events that followed. The subtitle suggests that humans had acquired “unthinkable power” to refurbish life and deflect the course of evolution. Yet the subtitle of the prologue suggests a different view of human agency, seeing CRISPR as a technological pandemic, stressing our powerlessness to develop ethical and governance tools to contain the (...)
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  14.  16
    Performing the Future.Winnie Toonders, Roald P. Verhoeff & Hub Zwart - 2016 - Science & Education 25 (7-8):869-895.
    Drama is a relatively unexplored tool in academic science education. This paper addresses in what way the use of drama may allow science students to deepen their understanding of recent developments in the emerging and controversial field of neuro-enhancement, by means of a case study approach. First, we emphasise the congruency between drama and science, notably the dramatic dimension of experimental research. Subsequently, we draw on educational literature to elaborate the potential of using drama as a teaching modality, specifically focusing (...)
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  15.  37
    On Decoding and Rewriting Genomes: A Psychoanalytical Reading of a Scientific Revolution.Hub Zwart - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):337-346.
    In various documents the view emerges that contemporary biotechnosciences are currently experiencing a scientific revolution: a massive increase of pace, scale and scope. A significant part of the research endeavours involved in this scientific upheaval is devoted to understanding and, if possible, ameliorating humankind: from our genomes up to our bodies and brains. New developments in contemporary technosciences, such as synthetic biology and other genomics and “post-genomics” fields, tend to blur the distinctions between prevention, therapy and enhancement. An important dimension (...)
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  16. What is an Animal? A Philosophical Reflection on the Possibility of a Moral Relationship with Animals.Hub Zwart - 1997 - Environmental Values 6 (4):377-392.
    Contemporary ethical discourse on animals is influenced partly by a scientific and partly by an anthropomorphic understanding of them. Apparently, we have deprived ourselves of the possibility of a more profound acquaintance with them. In this contribution it is claimed that all ethical theories or statements regarding the moral significance of animals are grounded in an ontological assessment of the animal's way of being. In the course of history, several answers have been put forward to the question of what animals (...)
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  17.  38
    What is Mimicked by Biomimicry? Synthetic Cells as Exemplifications of the Threefold Biomimicry Paradox.Hub Zwart - 2019 - Environmental Values 28 (5):527-549.
    This article addresses three paradoxes of biomimicry. First of all: how can biomimicry be as old as technology as such and at the same time decidedly innovative and new? Secondly: how can biomimicry both entail a 'naturalisation' of technology and a 'technification' of nature? And finally: how can biomimicry be perceived as nature-friendly but at the same time as a pervasive biotechnological assault on nature? Contemporary biomimicry, I will argue, aims to mimic nature at the level of biomolecular processes and (...)
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  18.  60
    Biotechnology and Naturalness in the Genomics Era: Plotting a Timetable for the Biotechnology Debate. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (6):505-529.
    Debates on the role of biotechnology in food production are beset with notorious ambiguities. This already applies to the term “biotechnology” itself. Does it refer to the use and modification of living organisms in general, or rather to a specific set of technologies developed quite recently in the form of bioengineering and genetic modification? No less ambiguous are discussions concerning the question to what extent biotechnology must be regarded as “unnatural.” In this article it will be argued that, in order (...)
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  19.  17
    The Genome as the Biological Unconscious – and the Unconscious as the Psychic 'Genome': A Psychoanalytical Rereading of Molecular Genetics.Hub Zwart - 2013 - Cosmos and History 9 (2):198-222.
    1900 was a remarkable year for science. Several ground-breaking events took place, in physics, biology and psychology. Planck introduced the quantum concept, the work of Mendel was rediscovered, and Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams . These events heralded the emergence of completely new areas of inquiry, all of which greatly affected the intellectual landscape of the 20 th century, namely quantum physics, genetics and psychoanalysis. What do these developments have in common? Can we discern a family likeness, a (...)
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  20.  27
    Psychoanalysis and Bioethics: A Lacanian Approach to Bioethical Discourse.Hub Zwart - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (4):605-621.
    This article aims to develop a Lacanian approach to bioethics. Point of departure is the fact that both psychoanalysis and bioethics are practices of language, combining diagnostics with therapy. Subsequently, I will point out how Lacanian linguistics may help us to elucidate the dynamics of both psychoanalytical and bioethical discourse, using the movie One flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest and Sophocles’ tragedy Antigone as key examples. Next, I will explain the ‘topology’ of the bioethical landscape with the help of Lacan’s (...)
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  21.  39
    From ‘Hard’ Neuro-Tools to ‘Soft’ Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.Jonna Brenninkmeijer & Hub Zwart - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):337-348.
    Since the 1990’s, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of ‘neuro-enhancement’ has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on (...)
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  22.  37
    From Utopia to Science: Challenges of Personalised Genomics Information for Health Management and Health Enhancement. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (2):155-166.
    From 1900 onwards, scientists and novelists have explored the contours of a future society based on the use of “anthropotechnologies” (techniques applicable to human beings for the purpose of performance enhancement ranging from training and education to genome-based biotechnologies). Gradually but steadily, the technologies involved migrated from (science) fiction into scholarly publications, and from “utopia” (or “dystopia”) into science. Building on seminal ideas borrowed from Nietzsche, Peter Sloterdijk has outlined the challenges inherent in this development. Since time immemorial, and at (...)
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  23.  25
    Bottom Up Ethics - Neuroenhancement in Education and Employment.Hub Zwart, Márton Varju, Vincent Torre, Helge Torgersen, Winnie Toonders, Han Somsen, Ilina Singh, Simone Seyringer, Júlio Santos, Judit Sándor, Núria Saladié, Gema Revuelta, Alexandre Quintanilha, Salvör Nordal, Anna Meijknecht, Sheena Laursen, Nicole Kronberger, Christian Hofmaier, Elisabeth Hildt, Juergen Hampel, Peter Eduard, Rui Cunha, Agnes Allansdottir, George Gaskell & Imre Bard - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (3):309-322.
    Neuroenhancement involves the use of neurotechnologies to improve cognitive, affective or behavioural functioning, where these are not judged to be clinically impaired. Questions about enhancement have become one of the key topics of neuroethics over the past decade. The current study draws on in-depth public engagement activities in ten European countries giving a bottom-up perspective on the ethics and desirability of enhancement. This informed the design of an online contrastive vignette experiment that was administered to representative samples of 1000 respondents (...)
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  24.  51
    Bottom Up Ethics - Neuroenhancement in Education and Employment.Imre Bard, George Gaskell, Agnes Allansdottir, Rui Vieira da Cunha, Peter Eduard, Juergen Hampel, Elisabeth Hildt, Christian Hofmaier, Nicole Kronberger, Sheena Laursen, Anna Meijknecht, Salvör Nordal, Alexandre Quintanilha, Gema Revuelta, Núria Saladié, Judit Sándor, Júlio Borlido Santos, Simone Seyringer, Ilina Singh, Han Somsen, Winnie Toonders, Helge Torgersen, Vincent Torre, Márton Varju & Hub Zwart - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (3):309-322.
    Neuroenhancement involves the use of neurotechnologies to improve cognitive, affective or behavioural functioning, where these are not judged to be clinically impaired. Questions about enhancement have become one of the key topics of neuroethics over the past decade. The current study draws on in-depth public engagement activities in ten European countries giving a bottom-up perspective on the ethics and desirability of enhancement. This informed the design of an online contrastive vignette experiment that was administered to representative samples of 1000 respondents (...)
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  25.  19
    Genomics and Identity: The Bioinformatisation of Human Life. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (2):125-136.
    The genomics “revolution” is spreading. Originating in the molecular life sciences, it initially affected a number of biomedical research fields such as cancer genomics and clinical genetics. Now, however, a new “wave” of genomic bioinformation is transforming a widening array of disciplines, including those that address the social, historical and cultural dimensions of human life. Increasingly, bioinformation is affecting “human sciences” such as psychiatry, psychology, brain research, behavioural research (“behavioural genomics”), but also anthropology and archaeology (“bioarchaeology”). Thus, bioinformatics is having (...)
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  26.  37
    Challenges of Macro-Ethics: Bioethics and the Transformation of Knowledge Production. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2008 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (4):283-293.
    One interesting aspect of the Hwang-case has been the way in which this affair was assessed by academic journals such as Nature. Initially, Hwang’s success was regarded as evidence for the detrimental effects of research ethics, slowing down the pace of research in Western countries. Eventually, however, Hwang’s debacle was seen as evidence for the importance of ethics in the life sciences. Ironically, it was concluded that the West maintains its prominence in science (as a global endeavour) precisely because it (...)
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  27. The Oblique Perspective: Philosophical Diagnostics of Contemporary Life Sciences Research.Hub Zwart - 2017 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 13 (1):1-20.
    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a “diagnostics of the present”. First, I describe various options for an oblique reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic “philosophemes” of science. Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, (...)
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  28.  30
    Is Dandelion Rubber More Natural? Naturalness, Biotechnology and the Transition Towards a Bio-Based Society.Hub Zwart, Lotte Krabbenborg & Jochem Zwier - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):313-334.
    In the unfolding debate on the prospects, challenges and viability of the imminent transition towards a ‘Bio-Based Society’ or ‘Bio-based Economy’—i.e. the replacement of fossil fuels by biomass as a basic resource for the production of energy, materials and food, ‘big’ concepts tend to play an important role, such as, for instance, ‘sustainability’, ‘global justice’ and ‘naturalness’. The latter concept is, perhaps, the most challenging and intriguing one. In public debates concerning biotechnological interactions with the natural environment, the use of (...)
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  29.  28
    Skiing and its Discontents: Assessing the Turist Experience From a Psychoanalytical, a Neuroscientific and a Sport Philosophical Perspective.Hub Zwart - 2017 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 11 (3):323-338.
    This article addresses the question whether skiing as a nature sport enables practitioners to develop a rapport with nature, or rather estranges and insulates them from their mountainous ambiance. To address this question, I analyse a recent skiing movie from a psychoanalytical perspective and from a neuro-scientific perspective. I conclude that Jean-Paul Sartre’s classical but egocentric account of his skiing experiences disavows the technicity involved in contemporary skiing as a sportive practice for the affluent masses, which actually represents an urbanisation (...)
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  30.  74
    Bioethics: An Export Product? Reflections on Hands-on Involvement in Exploring the “External” Validity of International Bioethical Declarations. [REVIEW]Mairi Levitt & Hub Zwart - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):367-377.
    As the technosciences, including genomics, develop into a global phenomenon, the question inevitably emerges whether and to what extent bioethics can and should become a globalised phenomenon as well. Could we somehow articulate a set of core principles or values that ought to be respected worldwide and that could serve as a universal guide or blueprint for bioethical regulations for embedding biotechnologies in various countries? This article considers one universal declaration, the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights ( 2005a (...)
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  31. What Is Nature?: On the Use of Poetry in Philosophy Courses for Science Students.Hub Zwart - 2014 - Teaching Philosophy 37 (3):379-398.
    “Nature” is one of the most challenging concepts in philosophy, and notoriously difficult to define. In ancient Greece, two strategies for coming to terms with nature were developed. On the one hand, nature was seen as a perfect geometrical order, analysable with the help of geometry and deductive reasoning. On the other hand, a more Dionysian view emerged, stressing nature’s unpredictability, capriciousness and fluidity. This view was exemplified by De Rerum Natura, a philosophical masterpiece in verse. In a philosophy course (...)
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  32.  31
    From ELSA to Responsible Research and Promisomics.Hub Zwart & Ruth Chadwick - 2013 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 9 (1):1-3.
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  33.  23
    The Art of Living with NZT and ICT: Dialectics of an Artistic Case Study.Hub Zwart - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (2):353-356.
    I wholeheartedly sympathize conceptually with Coeckelbergh’s paper. The dialectical relationship between vulnerability and technology constitutes the core of Hegel’s Master and Slave. Yet, the empirical dimension is underdeveloped and Coeckelbergh’s ideas could profit from exposure to case studies. Building on a movie/novel devoted to vulnerability coping and living with ICT, I challenge the claim that modern heroism entails overcoming vulnerability with the help of enhancement and computers.
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  34.  87
    Environmental Pollution and Professional Responsibility: Ibsen's A Public Enemy as a Seminar on Science Communication and Ethics.Hub Zwart - 2004 - Environmental Values 13 (3):349-372.
    Dr Stockmann, the principal character in Henrik Ibsen's A Public Enemy, is a classic example of a whistle-blower who, upon detecting and disclosing a serious case of environmental pollution, quickly finds himself transformed from a public benefactor into a political outcast by those in power. If we submit the play to a 'second reading', however, it becomes clear that the ethical intricacies of whistle-blowing are interwoven with epistemological issues. Basically, the play is about the complex task of communicating scientific data (...)
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  35.  28
    From Primal Scenes to Synthetic Cells.Hub Zwart - 2019 - eLife 8.
    Synthetic cells spark intriguing questions about the nature of life. Projects such as BaSyC (‘Building a Synthetic Cell’) aim to build an entity that mimics how living cells work from basic components. But what kind of entity would a synthetic cell really be? I assess this question from a philosophical perspective, and show how early fictional narratives of artificial life – such as the laboratory scene in Goethe’s Faust – can help us to understand the challenges faced by synthetic biology (...)
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  36. Tales of Research Misconduct.Hub Zwart - 2017 - Springer.
    This monograph contributes to the scientific misconduct debate from an oblique perspective, by analysing seven novels devoted to this issue, namely: Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis (1925), The affair by C.P. Snow (1960), Cantor’s Dilemma by Carl Djerassi (1989), Perlmann’s Silence by Pascal Mercier (1995), Intuition by Allegra Goodman (2006), Solar by Ian McEwan (2010) and Derailment by Diederik Stapel (2012). Scientific misconduct, i.e. fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, but also other questionable research practices, have become a focus of concern for academic communities (...)
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  37.  23
    Metaphors in Invasion Biology: Implications for Risk Assessment and Management of Non-Native Species.Laura N. H. Verbrugge, Rob S. E. W. Leuven & Hub Zwart - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (3):273-284.
    Metaphors for describing the introduction, impacts, and management of non-native species are numerous and often quite outspoken. Policy-makers have adopted increasingly disputed metaphorical terms from scientific discourse. We performed a critical analysis of the use of strong metaphors in reporting scientific findings to policy-makers. Our analysis shows that perceptions of harm, invasiveness or nativeness are dynamic and inevitably display multiple narratives in science, policy or management. Improving our awareness of multiple expert and stakeholder narratives that exist in the context of (...)
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  38. Aquaphobia, Tulipmania, Biophilia: A Moral Geography of the Dutch Landscape.Hub Zwart - 2003 - Environmental Values 12 (1):107-128.
    In Genesis we are told that God gathered the waters into one place, in order to let the dry land appear, which He called earth, while the waters were called seas. In the Netherlands, this process took more than a single day, and it was the work of man. Gradually, a cultivated landscape emerged out of diffuse nature. In the course of centuries, the Dutch determined the conditions that allowed different aspects of nature to present themselves. This process is described (...)
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  39. The Third Man: Comparative Analysis of a Science Autobiography and a Cinema Classic as Windows Into Post-War Life Sciences Research.Hub Zwart - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (4):382-412.
    In 2003, biophysicist and Nobel Laureate Maurice Wilkins published his autobiography entitled The Third Man. In the preface, he diffidently points out that the title was chosen by his publisher, as a reference to the famous 1949 movie no doubt, featuring Orson Welles in his classical role as penicillin racketeer Harry Lime. In this paper I intend to show that there is much more to this title than merely its familiar ring. If subjected to a comparative analysis, multiple correspondences between (...)
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  40.  31
    Towards an Eco-Centric View of Human Existence: Implications of Genomics for the Environmental Zone.Hub Zwart - 2010 - Genomics, Society and Policy 6 (2):40-55.
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  41. Ethical Consensus and the Truth of Laughter: The Structure of Moral Transformations.Hub Zwart - 1996 - Kok Pharos Pub. House.
    There are several strategies for exposing the defects of established moral discourse, one of which is critical argumentation. However, under certain specific historical circumstances, the apparent self-evidence of established moral discourse has gained such dominance, such a capacity of resistance or incorporation, such an ability to conceal its basic vulnerability that its validity simply seems beyond contestation. Notwithstanding the moral subject’s basic discontent, he or she remains unable to challenge the dominant discourse effectively by means of critical argument. Or, to (...)
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  42.  38
    The Moral Significance of Our Biological Nature.Hub Zwart - 1994 - Ethical Perspectives 1 (2):71-78.
    In the previous article the hermeneutical approach to ethics was outlined. In my presentation, I would like to illustrate further the methodological consequences of this approach by using two points in contemporary applied ethics. The question is: to what extent is the hermeneutical approach casuistically applicable. We start with the presupposition that the hermeneutical approach does not offer answers to the question of current applied ethics — namely, to the question of what is or is not acceptable in a particular (...)
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  43.  59
    The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (3):299-312.
    The Human Genome Project is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one to receive it, as (...)
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  44.  88
    Psychoanalysis of Technoscience: Symbolisation and Imagination.Hub Zwart - 2019 - Berlin / Münster / Zürich: LIT.
    This volume aims to develop a philosophical diagnostic of the present, focussing on contemporary technoscience. psychoanalysis submits contemporary technoscientific discourse to a symptomatic reading, analysing it with evenly-poised attention and from an oblique perspective. Psychoanalysis is not primarily interested in protons, genes or galaxies, but rather in the ways in which they are disclosed and discussed, focussing on the symptomatic terms, the metaphors and paradoxes at work in technoscientific discourse. This monograph presents a psychoanalytical assessment of technoscience. The first four (...)
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  45.  76
    Medicine, Symbolization and the 'Real' Body: Lacan's Understanding of Medical Science.Hub Zwart - 1998 - Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (2):107-117.
    Throughout the 20th century, philosophers have criticized the scientific understanding of the human body. Instead of presenting the body as a meaningful unity or Gestalt, it is regarded as a complex mechanism and described in quasi-mechanistic terms. In a phenomenological approach, a more intimate experience of the body is presented. This approach, however, is questioned by Jacques Lacan. According to Lacan, three basic possibilities of experiencing the body are to be distinguished: the symbolical (or scientific) body, the imaginary (or ideal) (...)
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  46.  25
    Tainted Food and the Icarus Complex: Psychoanalysing Consumer Discontent From Oyster Middens to Oryx and Crake.Hub Zwart - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):255-275.
    In hyper-modern society, food has become a source of endemic discontent. Many food products are seen as ‘tainted’; literally, figuratively or both. A psychoanalytic approach, I will argue, may help us to come to terms with our alimentary predicaments. What I envision is a ‘depth ethics’ focusing on some of the latent tensions, conflicts and ambiguities at work in the current food debate. First, I will outline some promising leads provided by two prominent psychoanalytic authors, namely Sigmund Freud and Jacques (...)
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  47.  27
    The Donor Organ as an ‘Object A’: A Lacanian Perspective on Organ Donation and Transplantation Medicine.Hub Zwart - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):559-571.
    Bioethical discourse on organ donation covers a wide range of topics, from informed consent procedures and scarcity issues up to ‘transplant tourism’ and ‘organ trade’. This paper presents a ‘depth ethics’ approach, notably focussing on the tensions, conflicts and ambiguities concerning the status of the human body. These will be addressed from a psychoanalytical angle. First, I will outline Lacan’s view on embodiment as such. Subsequently, I will argue that, for organ recipients, the donor organ becomes what Lacan refers to (...)
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  48.  38
    What Is Nature?Hub Zwart - 2014 - Teaching Philosophy 37 (3):379-398.
    There are basically two ways of teaching philosophy to science stu- dents. One option is to start from philosophy (from Plato and Aristotle up to, say, Popper and Kuhn) and present student audiences with the ideas and conjectures of these “great thinkers,” these “authoritative voices,” concerning scientific inquiry: the top-down approach. Another option is to trawl the archives of science (of present and past) search- ing for philosophical quandaries, moral collisions and paradigm shifts, for intriguing case studies that contain important (...)
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  49. Public Views on Gene Editing and its Uses.Hub Zwart, George Gaskell & Imre Bard - 2017 - Nature Biotechnology 35 (11):121-123.
    Rapid advances in genome editing and its potential application in medicine and enhancement have been hotly debated by scientists and ethicists. Although it has been proposed that germline gene editing be discouraged for the time being1, the use of gene editing in somatic human cells in the clinical context remains controversial, particularly for interventions aimed at enhancement2. In a report on human genome editing, the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS; Washington, DC) notes that “important questions raised (...)
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  50.  59
    The Resurgence of Nature-Speak.Hub Zwart - 1994 - Health Care Analysis 2 (3):221-226.
    In contemporary bioethics, two vocabularies can be distinguished:person-speak andnature-speak. The first is built around the claim that a person's moral decisions are to be respected, while the other stands on the claim that moral decisions should comply with standards for human behaviour conveyed by nature. While most bioethicists have obtained a thorough mastery ofperson-speak, they are considerably less well-versed innature-speak. Apparently, the latter has lost much of its former ability to capture important aspects of moral existence. In this paper I (...)
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