Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism

Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306 (2014)
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Abstract
Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed.
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Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Outcomes: The Role of Country Context.McNamara, Tay K.; Carapinha, Rene; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Valcour, Monique & Lobel, Sharon

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