Results for 'Arif Butt'

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  1. Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu, María Teresa Garza Carranza, Ping Ping Fu, Vojko V. Potocan, Andre Pekerti, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Erna Szabo, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Prem Ramburuth, David M. Brock, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Ilya Grison, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Malika Richards, Philip Hallinger, Francisco B. Castro, Jaime Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Laurie Milton, Mahfooz Ansari, Arunas Starkus, Audra Mockaitis, Tevfik Dalgic, Fidel León-Darder, Hung Vu Thanh, Yong-lin Moon, Mario Molteni, Yongqing Fang, Jose Pla-Barber, Ruth Alas, Isabelle Maignan, Jorge C. Jesuino, Chay-Hoon Lee, Joel D. Nicholson, Ho-Beng Chia, Wade Danis, Ajantha S. Dharmasiri & Mark Weber - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...)
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  2. Colonialism and Postcolonialism.Daniel Butt - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell. pp. 892-898.
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  3.  89
    Sufi Epistemology: Ibn 'Arabi on Knowledge.Syamsuddin Arif - 2002 - AFKAR - Journal of Aqidah and Islamic Thought 3 (1):81-94.
    This paper discusses the definition and sources of knowledge according to Ibn 'Arabi, the leading Sufi master of Andalusia (Muslim Spain).
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  4.  84
    Filsafat Islam - Tradisi dan Kontroversi.Syamsuddin Arif - 2014 - TSAQAFAH - Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 10 (1):221-247.
    Is there such a thing called “Islamic philosophy”? If there is one, what is it? What does it mean for philosophy to be Islamic? How does Islamic philosophy differ from non-Islamic one? Why do some Muslim scholars reject philosophy, ban its instruction, and even scorn its proponents? The present article will address all these questions and seeks to offer a balanced perspective on controversial issues pertaining to philosophy in Islamic intellectual context, drawing upon authoritative, primary sources. The first section deals (...)
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  5. Nations, Overlapping Generations and Historic Injustice.Daniel Butt - 2006 - American Philosophical Quarterly 43 (4):357-367.
    This article considers the question of the responsibility that present day generations bear as a result of the actions of their ancestors. Is it morally significant that we share a national identity with those responsible for the perpetration of historic injustice? The article argues that we can be guilty of wrongdoing stemming from past wrongdoing if we are members of nations that are responsible for an ongoing failure to fulfil rectificatory duties. This rests upon three claims: that the failure to (...)
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  6. On Benefiting From Injustice.Daniel Butt - 2007 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):129-152.
    How do we acquire moral obligations to others? The most straightforward cases are those where we acquire obligations as the result of particular actions which we voluntarily perform. If I promise you that I will trim your hedge, I face a moral Obligation to uphold my promise, and in the absence of some morally significant countervailing reason, I should indeed cut your hedge. Moral obligations which arise as a result of wrongdoing, as a function of corrective justice, are typically thought (...)
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  7.  54
    Preserving the Semantic Structure of Islamic Key Terms and Concepts: Izutsu, Al-Attas, and Al-Raghib Al-Isfahani.Syamsuddin Arif - 2007 - Islam & Science 5 (2):107 (10).
    This article compares the elucidation of the semantic structure and fixity of a number of key terms and concepts of the Qur'an by two contemporary scholars, Toshihiko Izutsu (1914-1993) and Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas (1931--), with that of al-Raghib al-Isfahani (d. ca 443/1060), the author of the celebrated Kitab al-mufradat fi gharib al-Qur'an. By 'key terms and concepts' are meant those words used by the Qur'an which play a decisive role in making up the basic conceptual structure of the Qur'anic (...)
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  8. ‘A Doctrine Quite New and Altogether Untenable’: Defending the Beneficiary Pays Principle.Daniel Butt - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (4):336-348.
    This article explores the ethical architecture of the ‘beneficiary pays’ principle, which holds that agents can come to possess remedial obligations of corrective justice to others through the involuntary receipt of benefits stemming from injustice. Advocates of the principle face challenges of both persuasion and limitation in seeking to convince those unmoved of its normative force, and to explain in which cases of benefiting from injustice it does and does not give rise to rectificatory obligations. The article considers ways in (...)
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  9.  48
    The Universe as a System: Ibn Sīnā’s Cosmology Revisited.Syamsuddin Arif - 2012 - In Muzaffar Iqbal (ed.), New Perspectives on the History of Islamic Science - Volume 3. Surrey, UK: Ashgate. pp. 54-71.
    This article explores Ibn Sīnā’s cosmological views and analyzes the underlying assumptions and arguments in support of the theories to which he subscribes. These include the notions of the central and stationary position of the earth in a finite, spherical cosmos, the impossibility of the existence of many universes, and the metaphysical forces that drive, guide, and maintain the perpetual movement of cosmic bodies.
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  10.  42
    Al-Qur'an, Orientalisme dan Luxenberg.Syamsuddin Arif - 2005 - AFKAR - Journal of 'Aqidah and Islamic Thought 6:55-76.
    The article focuses on issues related to the Qur'an, Orientalism and the controversial writer Christoph Luxenberg. A brief survey on studies by the Orientalist on the Qur'an is presented. It explains some critical confusions and misunderstandings by the Orientalist concerning the Qur'an especially that related to the authenticity of the Qur'an, as well as its writing and recitation tradition. The application of the philological methods used in the Biblical studies on the Qur'an is discussed. The article ends with a critical (...)
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  11.  42
    Causality in Islamic Philosophy: The Arguments of Ibn Sīnā.Syamsuddin Arif - 2012 - In Muzaffar Iqbal (ed.), New Perspectives on the History of Islamic Science - Volume 3. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. pp. 299-316.
    This article is intended to provide insight into aspects of Ibn Sīnā’s natural philosophy. It will summarize his interpretation of the Aristotelian four causes, explicate his theory of efficient and necessary causal linkage, and analyze his arguments for causal efficacy. Finally, it will discuss Ibn Sīnā’s views on chance happenings in nature.
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  12.  35
    Intuitive Knowledge in Ibn Sīnā: Its Distinctive Features and Prerequisites.Syamsuddin Arif - 2002 - Al-Shajarah 7 (2):213-251.
    Intuition (hads) as a function of 'aql, fitrah and khirad, according to Ibn Sina, not only constitutes the basis of all learning, and hence a way for arriving independently at new knowledge, but serves as means for verifying what has been studied and learned from others, representing direct insight into the true nature of reality as a coherent whole. Some questions remain, however, as to what distinguishes intuition from other kinds of cognition and what is so special about intuitive knowledge (...)
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  13.  37
    Ibn Sina's Idea of Nature and Change.Syamsuddin Arif - 2007 - AFKAR - Journal of Aqidah and Islamic Thought 8 (1):111-139.
    This article discusses Ibn Sina's idea of 'nature' and his theory of change, including that of substantial change, in comparison with the views held by Aristotle and some Pre-socratic philosophers.
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  14.  36
    Divine Emanation as Cosmic Origin: Ibn Sīnā and His Critics.Syamsuddin Arif - 2012 - TSAQAFAH - Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 8 (2):331-346.
    The question of cosmic beginning has always attracted considerable attention from serious thinkers past and present. Among many contesting theories that have emerged, that of emanation was appropriated by Muslim philosophers like Ibn Sînâ in order to reconcile the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of matter with the teaching of al-Qur’ân on the One Creator-God. According to this theory, the universe, which comprises a multitude of entities, is generated from a transcendent Being, the One, that is unitary, through the medium (...)
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  15.  37
    Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya in the "Lands Below the Wind: An Ideological Father of Radicalism or a Popular Sufi Master?Syamsuddin Arif - 2013 - In Birgit Krawietz & Georges Tamer (eds.), Islamic Theology, Philosophy and Law: Debating Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 220-249.
    This article argues that while it is true that the intellectual relationship established through multipurpose pilgrimage to the heartland of Islam has never lost its significance, the political implications of this connection seem to be overestimated. As will be shown by the following survey, although the number of writings by and on Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya in the Malay-Indonesian language is strikingly considerable, the nature and extent of their impact in the religious life and thought of people have yet to be (...)
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  16.  26
    Intuition and Its Role in Ibn Sīnā’s Epistemology.Syamsuddin Arif - 2000 - Al-Shajarah 5 (1):95-126.
    This paper reexamines Ibn Sina’s theory of knowledge and discusses the key role he assigns to intuition in solving the epistemological problems of knowing the first principles, the middle terms, primary concepts, and existence of oneself. To reconstruct and give a coherent restatement of his epistemology by means of textual analysis and hermeneusis is certainly a worthwhile task since Ibn Sina’s own statement of his views about knowledge has come down to us in a very disjointed form, scattered throughout his (...)
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  17.  18
    Al-Āmidi’s Reception of Ibn Sīnā: Reading Al-Nūr Al-Bāhir Fi Al-Ḥikam Al-Zawāhir.Syamsuddin Arif - 2010 - In Tzvi Langermann (ed.), Avicenna and His Legacy: A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy. Turnhout: Brepols. pp. 205-219.
    Contrary to the widespread assumption, philosophy in the Islamic world did not begin with al-Kindi nor ended with Ibn Rushd (Averroes). This article looks into the metaphysics part of Sayf al-Din al-Amidi's kitab al-Nur al-Bahir fi al-Hikam al-Zawahir ('The Splendid Light on the Bright Wisdom') in order to show the continuity of philosophy in post-classical period.
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  18. Repairing Historical Wrongs and the End of Empire.Daniel Butt - 2012 - Social and Legal Studies 21 (2):227-242.
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  19. Inheriting Rights to Reparation: Compensatory Justice and the Passage of Time.Daniel Butt - 2013 - Ethical Perspectives 20 (2):245-269.
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  20. ‘Victors’ Justice’? Historic Injustice and the Legitimacy of International Law.Daniel Butt - 2009 - In Lukas H. Meyer (ed.), Legitimacy, Justice and Public International Law. Cambridge Univeristy Press. pp. 163.
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  21. Option Luck, Gambling, and Fairness.Daniel Butt - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (3):417-443.
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  22. ‘‘ ‘The Polluter Pays’: Backward-Looking Principles of Intergenerational Justice and the Environment.Daniel Butt - 2013 - In Jean-Christophe Merle (ed.), Spheres of Global Justice. Springer. pp. 757-774.
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  23. Global Equality of Opportunity as an Institutional Standard of Distributive Justice.Daniel Butt - 2012 - In Chi Carmody, Frank J. Garcia & John Linarelli (eds.), Global Justice and International Economic Law: Opportunities and Prospects. Cambridge University Press.
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  24.  95
    Historic Injustice and the Inheritance of Rights and Duties in East Asia.Daniel Butt - 2013 - In Jun-Hyeok Kwak & Melissa Nobles (eds.), Inherited Responsibility and Historical Reconciliation in East Asia. Routledge. pp. 38-55.
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  25.  84
    Newcomb’s Problem, Arif Ahmed (Editor). Cambridge University Press, 2018, 233 Pages. [REVIEW]J. Dmitri Gallow - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    Newcomb’s Problem, Arif Ahmed (editor). Cambridge University Press, 2018, 233 pages.
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  26.  46
    Review of Arif Ahmed (Ed.), Newcomb's Problem. [REVIEW]Jack Spencer - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2019.
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  27.  72
    What Rationality Is.Arif Ahmed - manuscript
    A choice function C is rational iff: if it allows a path through a sequence of decisions with a particular outcome, then that outcome is amongst the ones that C would have chosen from amongst all the possible outcomes of the sequence. This implies, and it is the strongest definition that implies, that anyone who is irrational could be talked out of their own preferences. It also implies weak but non-vacuous constraints on choices over ends. These do not include alpha (...)
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  28.  76
    Accuracy and Statistical Evidence.Arif Ahmed - manuscript
    Abstract. Suppose that the word of an eyewitness makes it 80% probable that A committed a crime, and that B is drawn from a population in which the incidence rate of that crime is 80%. Many philosophers and legal theorists have held that if this is our only evidence against those parties then (i) we may be justified in finding against A but not against B; but (ii) that doing so incurs a loss in the accuracy of our findings. This (...)
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  29. Causal Decision Theory: A Counterexample.Arif Ahmed - 2013 - Philosophical Review 122 (2):289-306.
    The essay presents a novel counterexample to Causal Decision Theory (CDT). Its interest is that it generates a case in which CDT violates the very principles that motivated it in the first place. The essay argues that the objection applies to all extant formulations of CDT and that the only way out for that theory is a modification of it that entails incompatibilism. The essay invites the reader to find this consequence of CDT a reason to reject it.
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  30. Rationality and Future Discounting.Arif Ahmed - 2018 - Topoi:1-12.
    The best justification of time-discounting is roughly that it is rational to care less about your more distant future because there is less of you around to have it. I argue that the standard version of this argument, which treats both psychological continuity and psychological connectedness as reasons to care about your future, can only rationalize an irrational—because exploitable—form of future discounting.
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  31.  25
    Comment: Every Action Is an Emotional Action.Bence Nanay - 2017 - Emotion Review 9 (4):350-352.
    In action theory, emotional actions are standardly treated as exceptions—cases where the “normal” springs of action are not functioning properly. My aim here is to argue that this is not so. We have plenty of evidence—beautifully brought together in the present special issue—that emotions play a crucial and often constitutive role in all the important phases of action preparation and initiation. Most of our actions are less stupid than, say, Zidane’s head-butt, but all of our actions have emotional components. (...)
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  32. Walters on Conjunction Conditionalization.Arif Ahmed - 2011 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (1pt1):115-122.
    This discussion note examines a recent argument for the principle that any counterfactual with true components is itself true. That argument rests upon two widely accepted principles of counterfactual logic to which the paper presents counterexamples. The conclusion speculates briefly upon the wider lessons that philosophers should draw from these examples for the semantics of counterfactuals.
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  33. Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations.Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton - 2014 - Synthese 191 (18):4315-4352.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  34. Arntzenius on ‘Why Ain’Cha Rich?’.Arif Ahmed & Huw Price - 2012 - Erkenntnis 77 (1):15-30.
    The best-known argument for Evidential Decision Theory (EDT) is the ‘Why ain’cha rich?’ challenge to rival Causal Decision Theory (CDT). The basis for this challenge is that in Newcomb-like situations, acts that conform to EDT may be known in advance to have the better return than acts that conform to CDT. Frank Arntzenius has recently proposed an ingenious counter argument, based on an example in which, he claims, it is predictable in advance that acts that conform to EDT will do (...)
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  35. Sequential Choice and the Agent's Perspective.Arif Ahmed - manuscript
    Causal Decision Theory reckons the choice-worthiness of an option to be completely independent of its evidential bearing on its non-effects. But after one has made a choice this bearing is relevant to future decisions. Therefore it is possible to construct problems of sequential choice in which Causal Decision Theory makes a guaranteed loss. So Causal Decision Theory is wrong. The source of the problem is the idea that agents have a special perspective on their own contemplated actions, from which evidential (...)
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  36.  36
    Knowledge and Attitude of Ethics Committee (EC) Members on Bioethics and Structure & Function of EC in Bangladesh: A Pilot Study.Shamima Parvin Lasker, Arif Hossain & M. A. Shakoor - 2019 - In Policy Brief. Dhaka: Directorate General of Health Services. pp. 1-8.
    Having scandalous unethical research practices in the mid and late 20th century, study protocols of biomedical research reviewed by the Ethics Committee (EC) has become the accepted international standard. The Declaration of Helsinki uniformly requires that all biomedical research involving human participants, including research on identifiable human material or data, should be approved by the EC. Today, concerns over the quality of the EC functions worldwide. There are research globally in this regard but no data are available from Bangladesh. Hence, (...)
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  37.  71
    Self- Deprecation and the Habit of Laughter.Camille Atkinson - 2015 - Florida Philosophical Review 15 (1):19-36.
    My objective here is to give an account of self-deprecating humor—examining what works, what doesn't, and why—and to reflect on the significance of the audience response. More specifically, I will be focusing not only on the purpose or intention behind self-deprecating jokes, but considering how their consequences might render them successful or unsuccessful. For example, under what circumstances does self-deprecation tend to put listeners at ease, and when is this type of humor more likely to put people off? I will (...)
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  38. "The Morality of Laughter" by F.H. Buckley. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - unknown
    Why is humour so hard to understand? Rather like attempts to explain how music can move us, attempts to explain why things are funny seem doomed from the outset. Discussions of humour typically distinguish three kinds of theory: the incongruity theory (we are amused by the incongruous), the relief theory (humour is an expression of relief in difficult situations) and the superiority theory (we laugh to express our sense of superiority over others). In the face of genuine humour, theories like (...)
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  39. Smokers and Psychos: Egan Cases Don't Work.Arif Ahmed - manuscript
    Andy Egan's Smoking Lesion and Psycho Button cases are supposed to be counterexamples to Causal Decision Theory. This paper argues that they are not: more precisely, it argues that if CDT makes the right call in Newcomb's problem then it makes the right call in Egan cases too.
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