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  1. Beyond Epistemology: A Pragmatist Approach to Feminist Science Studies. [REVIEW]Edrie Sobstyl - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (4):216-220.
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  • Can Science Be Objective? Longino's Science as Social Knowledge.Sharon L. Crasnow - 1993 - Hypatia 8 (3):194-201.
    InScience as Social Knowledge, Helen Longino offers a contextual analysis of evidential relevance. She claims that this “contextual empiricism” reconciles the objectivity of science with the claim that science is socially constructed. I argue that while her account does offer key insights into the role that values play in science, her claim that science is nonetheless objective is problematic.
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  • Pharma Goes to the Laundry: Public Relations and the Business of Medical Education.Carl Elliott - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (5):18.
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  • Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry.Helen E. Longino (ed.) - 1990 - Princeton University Press.
    This is an important book precisely because there is none other quite like it.
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  • The Fate of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    "--Richard Grandy, Rice University "This is the first compelling diagnosis of what has gone awry in the raging 'science wars.
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  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.Karl Popper - 1962 - Routledge.
    This classic remains one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history.
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  • Who Knows: From Quine to a Feminist Empiricism.Lynn Hankinson Nelson - 1990 - Temple University Press.
    INTRODUCTION Reopening a Discussion The empiricist-derived epistemology that has directed most social and natural scientific inquiry for the last three ...
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  • Secrets of Life, Secrets of Death: Essays on Language, Gender, and Science.Evelyn Fox Keller - 1992 - Routledge.
    The essays included here represent Fox Keller's attempts to integrate the insights of feminist theory with those of her contemporaries in the history and philosophy of science.
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  • Feminist Epistemologies.Linda Alcoff & Elizabeth Potter (eds.) - 1992 - Routledge.
    "First Published in 1992, Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.".
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  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.Karl Popper - 1962 - Routledge.
    The way in which knowledge progresses, and especially our scientific knowledge, is by unjustified anticipations, by guesses, by tentative solutions to our problems, by conjectures. These conjectures are controlled by criticism: that is, by attempted refutations, which include severely critical tests. They may survive these tests; but they can never be positively justified: they can neither be established as certainly true nor even as 'probable'. Criticism of our conjectures is of decisive importance: by bringing out our mistakes it makes us (...)
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  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.Karl Popper - 1962 - Routledge.
    _Conjectures and Refutations_ is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.
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  • Science and Gender a Critique of Biology and its Theories on Women.Ruth Bleier - 1984
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  • Beyond Epistemology: A Pragmatist Approach to Feminist Science Studies.Sharyn Clough - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Clough shows how inadequate empirical philosophy is in creating real change in the sciences. Instead, she supports a more pragmatic approach based on the work of Richard Rorty and Donald Davidson. This work encourages Clough's fellow feminists to refocus their critiques and discard their philosophical debates about epistemology.
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  • Solomon's Empirical/Non-Empirical Distinction and the Proper Place of Values in Science.Sharyn Clough - 2008 - Perspectives on Science 16 (3):pp. 265-279.
    In assessing the appropriateness of a scientific community's research effort, Solomon considers a number of "decision vectors," divided into the empirical and non-empirical. Value judgments get sorted as non-empirical vectors. By way of contrast, I introduce Anderson's discussion of the evidential role of value judgments. Like Anderson, I argue that value judgments are empirical in the relevant sense. I argue further that Solomon's decision matrix needs to be reconceptualized: the distinction should not be between the empirical vs. non-empirical, but between (...)
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  • Science as Social Knowledge.Sharon L. Crasnow - 1992 - Hypatia 8 (3):194-201.
    In Science as Social Knowledge, Helen Longino offers a contextual analysis of evidential relevance. She claims that this "contextual empiricism" reconciles the objectivity of science with the claim that science is socially constructed. I argue that while her account does offer key insights into the role that values play in science, her claim that science is nonetheless objective is problematic.
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  • Whose Science? Whose Knowledge?Sandra Harding - 1991 - Cornell University Press.
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  • Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives.Sandra Harding - 1991 - Cornell University.
    Sandra Harding here develops further the themes first addressed in her widely influential book, The Science Question in Feminism, and conducts a compelling analysis of feminist theories on the philosophical problem of how we know what we ...
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  • Can There Be A Feminist Science?Helen E. Longino - 1987 - Hypatia 2 (3):51 - 64.
    This paper explores a number of recent proposals regarding "feminist science" and rejects a content-based approach in favor of a process-based approach to characterizing feminist science. Philosophy of science can yield models of scientific reasoning that illuminate the interaction between cultural values and ideology and scientific inquiry. While we can use these models to expose masculine and other forms of bias, we can also use them to defend the introduction of assumptions grounded in feminist political values.
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  • Uses of Value Judgments in Science: A General Argument, with Lessons From a Case Study of Feminist Research on Divorce.Elizabeth Anderson - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (1):1-24.
    : The underdetermination argument establishes that scientists may use political values to guide inquiry, without providing criteria for distinguishing legitimate from illegitimate guidance. This paper supplies such criteria. Analysis of the confused arguments against value-laden science reveals the fundamental criterion of illegitimate guidance: when value judgments operate to drive inquiry to a predetermined conclusion. A case study of feminist research on divorce reveals numerous legitimate ways that values can guide science without violating this standard.
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  • Feminism, Underdetermination, and Values in Science.Kristen Intemann - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1001-1012.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have tried to open up the possibility that feminist ethical or political commitments could play a positive role in good science by appealing to the Duhem-Quine thesis and underdetermination of theories by observation. I examine several different interpretations of the claim that feminist values could play a legitimate role in theory justification and show that none of them follow from a logical gap between theory and observation. Finally, I sketch an alternative approach for defending the (...)
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  • Evolution, Gender, and Rape.Cheryl Brown Travis (ed.) - 2003 - Bradford.
    Multidisciplinary critiques of the notion of rape as an evolutionary adaptation.
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  • Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men.Anne Fausto-Sterling - 1992 - Basic Books.
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  • Epistemological Communities.Lynn Hankinson Nelson - 1993 - In Linda Alcoff & Elizabeth Potter (eds.), Feminist Epistemologies. Routledge.
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  • Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the (Ch. 9 Only).Thomas Kuhn - unknown
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  • Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice.Thomas S. Kuhn - 1977 - In The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. University of Chicago Press. pp. 320--39.
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  • Evaluating Solutions to Sponsorship Bias.M. Doucet & S. Sismondo - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (8):627-630.
    More than 40 primary studies, and three recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, have shown a clear association between pharmaceutical industry funding of clinical trials and pro-industry results. Industry sponsorship biases published scientific research in favour of the sponsors, a result of the strong interest commercial sponsors have in obtaining favourable results.Three proposed remedies to this problem are widely agreed upon among those concerned with the level of sponsorship bias: financial disclosure, reporting standards and trial registries. This paper argues that all (...)
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  • Biomedical Conflicts of Interest: A Defence of the Sequestration Thesis--Learning From the Cases of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy.A. Schafer - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (1):8-24.
    No discussion of academic freedom, research integrity, and patient safety could begin with a more disquieting pair of case studies than those of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy. The cumulative impact of the Olivieri and Healy affairs has caused serious self examination within the biomedical research community. The first part of the essay analyses these recent academic scandals. The two case studies are then placed in their historical context—that context being the transformation of the norms of science through increasingly close (...)
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  • From Aperspectival Objectivity to Strong Objectivity: The Quest for Moral Objectivity.Jennifer Tannoch-Bland - 1997 - Hypatia 12 (1):155 - 178.
    Sandra Harding is working on the reconstruction of scientific objectivity. Lorraine Daston argues that objectivity is a concept that has historically evolved. Her account of the development of "aperspectival objectivity" provides an opportunity to see Harding's "strong objectivity" project as a stage in this evolution, to locate it in the history of migration of ideals from moral philosophy to natural science, and to support Harding's desire to retain something of the ontological significance of objectivity.
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  • From Popperian Science to Normal Science. Commentary on Sestini (2010).Maya J. Goldenberg - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):306-310.
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  • Objectivity, Information, and Maxwell's Demon.Steven Weinstein - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1245-1255.
    This paper examines some common measures of complexity, structure, and information, with an eye toward understanding the extent to which complexity or information‐content may be regarded as objective properties of individual objects. A form of contextual objectivity is proposed which renders the measures objective, and which largely resolves the puzzle of Maxwell's Demon.
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  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.Mary Hesse - 1965 - Philosophical Quarterly 15 (61):372-374.
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  • Innovating Medical Knowledge: Undestanding Evidence-Based Medicine as a Socio-Medical Phenomenon.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2012 - In Nikolaos Sitaras (ed.), Evidence-Based Medicine: Closer to Patients or Scientists? InTech Open Science.
    Because few would object to evidence-based medicine’s (EBM) principal task of basing medical decisionmaking on the most judicious and up-to-date evidence, the debate over this prolific movement may seem puzzling. Who, one may ask, could be against evidence (Carr-Hill, 2006)? Yet this question belies the sophistication of the evidence-based movement. This chapter presents the evidence-based approach as a socio-medical phenomenon and seeks to explain and negotiate the points of disagreement between supporters and detractors. This is done by casting EBM as (...)
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  • Women, Feminism and Biology the Feminist Challenge.Lynda I. A. Birke - 1986
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  • A Hasty Retreat From Evidence: The Recalcitrance of Relativism in Feminist Epistemology.Sharyn Clough - 1998 - Hypatia 13 (4):88-111.
    While feminist epistemologists have made important contributions to the deconstruction of the traditional representationalist model, some elements of the Cartesian legacy remain. For example, relativism continues to play a role in the underdetermination thesis used by Longino and Keller. Both argue that because scientific theories are underdetermined by evidence, theory choice must be relative to interpretive frameworks. Utilizing Davidson's philosophy of language, I offer a nonrepresentationalist alternative to suggest how relativism can be more fully avoided.
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  • A Question of Evidence.Lynn Hankinson Nelson - 1993 - Hypatia 8 (2):172 - 189.
    I outline a pragmatic account of evidence, arguing that it allows us to underwrite two implications of feminist scholarship: that knowledge is socially constructed and constrained by evidence, and that social relations, including gender, race, and class, are epistemologically significant. What makes the account promising is that it abandons any pretense of a view from nowhere, the view of evidence as something only individuals gather or have, and the view that individual theories face experience in isolation.
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  • Evolutionary Psychology: The Burdens of Proof.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):211-233.
    I discuss two types of evidential problems with the most widely touted experiments in evolutionary psychology, those performed by Leda Cosmides and interpreted by Cosmides and John Tooby. First, and despite Cosmides and Tooby's claims to the contrary, these experiments don't fulfil the standards of evidence of evolutionary biology. Second Cosmides and Tooby claim to have performed a crucial experiment, and to have eliminated rival approaches. Though they claim that their results are consistent with their theory but contradictory to the (...)
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  • “Strong Objectivity‘: A Response to the New Objectivity Question.Sandra Harding - 1995 - Synthese 104 (3):331 - 349.
    Where the old objectivity question asked, Objectivity or relativism: which side are you on?, the new one refuses this choice, seeking instead to bypass widely recognized problems with the conceptual framework that restricts the choices to these two. It asks, How can the notion of objectivity be updated and made useful for contemporary knowledge-seeking projects? One response to this question is the strong objectivity program that draws on feminist standpoint epistemology to provide a kind of logic of discovery for maximizing (...)
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  • Pharma Goes to the Laundry: Public Relations and the Business of Medical Education.Carl Lemmens - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (5):18-23.
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  • In Search Of Feminist Epistemology.Helen E. Longino - 1994 - The Monist 77 (4):472-485.
    The proposal of anything like a feminist epistemology has, I think, two sources. Feminist scholars have demonstrated how the scientific cards have been stacked against women for centuries. Given that the sciences are taken as the epitome of knowledge and rationality in modern Western societies, the game looks desperate unless some ways of knowing different from those that have validated misogyny and gynephobia can be found. Can we know the world without hating ourselves? This is one of the questions at (...)
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  • Evidence‐Based Everything.P. B. S. Fowler - 1997 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (3):239-243.
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  • A Popperian Perspective of the Term 'Evidence‐Based Medicine'.Eyal Shahar - 1997 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 3 (2):109-116.
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  • From Popperian Science to Normal Science. Commentary on Sestini (2009) 'Epistemology and Ethics of Evidence‐Based Medicine'.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):306-309.
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  • A Response to Sestini's (2011) Response.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):1004-1005.
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  • Epistemology and Ethics of Evidence‐Based Medicine: A Response to Comments.Piersante Sestini - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):1002-1003.
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  • Why Reading the Title Isn’T Good Enough: An Evaluation of the 4S Approach to Evidence-Based Medicine.Kirstin Borgerson - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2):152-175.
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  • Why Reading the Title Isn't Good Enough.Kirstin Borgerson - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2).
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  • Secrets of Life, Secrets of Death: Essays on Language, Gender and Science.Evelyn Fox Keller - 1994 - The Personalist Forum 10 (1):47-49.
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  • Iconoclast or Creed? Objectivism, Pragmatism, and the Hierarchy of Evidence.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):168-187.
    Because “evidence” is at issue in evidence-based medicine (EBM), the critical responses to the movement have taken up themes from post-positivist philosophy of science to demonstrate the untenability of the objectivist account of evidence. While these post-positivist critiques seem largely correct, I propose that when they focus their analyses on what counts as evidence, the critics miss important and desirable pragmatic features of the evidence-based approach. This article redirects critical attention toward EBM’s rigid hierarchy of evidence as the culprit of (...)
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  • Group Judgment and the Medical Consensus Conference.Miriam Solomon - 2011 - In Fred Gifford (ed.), Philosophy of Medicine. Elsevier.
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  • Who Knows: From Quine to a Feminist Empiricism.Lynn Hankinson Nelson - 1992 - Hypatia 7 (1):100-114.
    I argue that Nelson's feminist transformation of empiricism provides the basis of a dialogue across three currently competing feminist epistemologies: feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theories, and postmodern feminism, a dialogue that will result in a dissolution of the apparent tensions between these epistemologies and provide an epistemology with the openness and fluidity needed to embrace the concerns of feminists.
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