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Mental Acts and Mechanistic Psychology in Descartes' Passions

In Neil Robertson, Gordon McOuat & Tom Vinci (eds.), Descartes and the Modern. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 49-71 (2008)

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  1. The Passions of the Soul and Descartes’s Machine Psychology.Gary Hatfield - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (1):1-35.
    Descartes developed an elaborate theory of animal physiology that he used to explain functionally organized, situationally adapted behavior in both human and nonhuman animals. Although he restricted true mentality to the human soul, I argue that he developed a purely mechanistic (or material) ‘psychology’ of sensory, motor, and low-level cognitive functions. In effect, he sought to mechanize the offices of the Aristotelian sensitive soul. He described the basic mechanisms in the Treatise on man, which he summarized in the Discourse. However, (...)
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  • Remaking the Science of Mind: Psychology as a Natural Science.Gary Hatfield - 1995 - In Christopher Fox, Roy Porter & Robert Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth Century Domains. University of California Press. pp. 184–231.
    Psychology considered as a natural science began as Aristotelian "physics" or "natural philosophy" of the soul, conceived as an animating power that included vital, sensory, and rational functions. C. Wolff restricted the term " psychology " to sensory, cognitive, and volitional functions and placed the science under metaphysics, coordinate with cosmology. Near the middle of the eighteenth century, Krueger, Godart, and Bonnet proposed approaching the mind with the techniques of the new natural science. At nearly the same time, Scottish thinkers (...)
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  • Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: A Contentiously Classical Approach.Georges Rey - 1997 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This volume is an introduction to contemporary debates in the philosophy of mind. In particular, the author focuses on the controversial "eliminativist" and "instrumentalist" attacks - from philosophers such as of Quine, Dennett, and the Churchlands - on our ordinary concept of mind. In so doing, Rey offers an explication and defense of "mental realism", and shows how Fodor's representational theory of mind affords a compelling account of much of our ordinary mental talk of beliefs, hopes, and desires.
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  • Ten Problems of Consciousness: A Representational Theory of the Phenomenal Mind.Michael Tye - 1995 - MIT Press.
    Tye's book develops a persuasive and, in many respects, original argument for the view that the qualitative side of our mental life is representational in..
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  • Naturalizing the Mind.Fred Dretske - 1995 - Noûs 31 (4):528-537.
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  • Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes.Fred DRETSKE - 1988 - MIT Press.
    In this lucid portrayal of human behavior, Fred Dretske provides an original account of the way reasons function in the causal explanation of behavior.
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  • Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes.Fred DRETSKE - 1988 - Philosophical Quarterly 40 (158):95-102.
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  • Knowledge and the Flow of Information.Fred Dretske - 1981 - MIT Press.
    This book presents an attempt to develop a theory of knowledge and a philosophy of mind using ideas derived from the mathematical theory of communication developed by Claude Shannon. Information is seen as an objective commodity defined by the dependency relations between distinct events. Knowledge is then analyzed as information caused belief. Perception is the delivery of information in analog form for conceptual utilization by cognitive mechanisms. The final chapters attempt to develop a theory of meaning by viewing meaning as (...)
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  • Knowledge and the Flow of Information.Fred I. Dretske - 1981 - Mind 92 (367):457-461.
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  • The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception From Kant to Helmholtz.Gary HATFIELD - 1990 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Gary Hatfield examines theories of spatial perception from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century and provides a detailed analysis of the works of Kant and Helmholtz, who adopted opposing stances on whether central questions about spatial perception were fully amenable to natural-scientific treatment. At stake were the proper understanding of the relationships among sensation, perception, and experience, and the proper methodological framework for investigating the mental activities of judgment, understanding, and reason issues which remain at the core of philosophical psychology (...)
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  • The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception From Kant to Helmholtz.Gordon G. Brittan Jr - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (3):432-434.
    I said that the book is brilliant. This is not so much because of the conclusions eventually reached about the inadequacy of a purely naturalistic approach to mind. These conclusions are already familiar in the work of Donald Davidson and others. Rather, it is because of the accumulation of historical detail and insight on the basis of which these conclusions are reached. It is often said, for instance, that Kant is a watershed figure, in some sense synthesizing and then moving (...)
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  • Descartes' Physiology and its Relation to His Psychology.Gary Hatfield - 1992 - In John Cottingham (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 335--370.
    Descartes understood the subject matter of physics (or natural philosophy) to encompass the whole of nature, including living things. It therefore comprised not only nonvital phenomena, including those we would now denominate as physical, chemical, minerological, magnetic, and atmospheric; it also extended to the world of plants and animals, including the human animal (with the exception of those aspects of the human mind that Descartes assigned to solely to thinking substance: pure intellect and will). Descartes wrote extensively on physiology and (...)
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  • Is an Aristotelian Philosophy of Mind Still Credible? (A Draft).Myles Burnyeat - 1992 - In Martha C. Nussbaum & Amelie Oksenberg Rorty (eds.), Essays on Aristotle’s de Anima. Clarendon Press. pp. 15-26.
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  • Knowlegde and the Flow of Information.F. Dretske - 1989 - Trans/Form/Ação 12:133-139.
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  • Changing Aristotle's Mind.Martha C. Nussbaum & Hilary Putnam - 1992 - In Martha C. Nussbaum & Amelie Oksenberg Rorty (eds.), Essays on Aristotle's De Anima. Clarendon Press. pp. 27-56.
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  • The Principles of Psychology.William James - 1890 - Dover Publications.
    This first volume contains discussions of the brain, methods for analyzing behavior, thought, consciousness, attention, association, time, and memory.
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  • Functional Analysis.Robert Cummins - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (November):741-64.
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  • Descartes.Marjorie Glicksman Grene - 1985 - Hackett.
    This essential work is made up of eight interrelated essays grouped to elucidate two major themes -- Descartes's role in the dilemma of modern philosophy, and ...
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  • Animals.Gary Hatfield - 2008 - In Janet Broughton & John Carriero (eds.), Companion to Descartes. Blackwell. pp. 404–425.
    This chapter considers philosophical problems concerning non-human (and sometimes human) animals, including their metaphysical, physical, and moral status, their origin, what makes them alive, their functional organization, and the basis of their sensitive and cognitive capacities. I proceed by assuming what most of Descartes’s followers and interpreters have held: that Descartes proposed that animals lack sentience, feeling, and genuinely cognitive representations of things. (Some scholars interpret Descartes differently, denying that he excluded sentience, feeling, and representation from animals, and I consider (...)
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  • Did Descartes Have a Jamesian Theory of the Emotions?Gary Hatfield - 2007 - Philosophical Psychology 20 (4):413-440.
    Rene Descartes and William James had "body first" theories of the passions or emotions, according to which sensory stimulation causes a bodily response that then causes an emotion. Both held that this bodily response also causes an initial behavioral response (such as flight from a bear) without any cognitive intervention such as an "appraisal" of the object or situation. From here they differ. Descartes proposed that the initial processes that produce fear and running are entirely mechanical. Even human beings initially (...)
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  • Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology.Andre Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.) - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    But what are functions? Here, 15 leading scholars of philosophy of psychology and philosophy of biology present new essays on functions.
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  • The Cognitive Faculties.Gary Hatfield - 1998 - In Daniel Garber & Michael Ayers (eds.), The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 953–1002.
    During the seventeenth century the major cognitive faculties--sense, imagination, memory, and understanding or intellect--became the central focus of argument in metaphysics and epistemology to an extent not seen before. The theory of the intellect, long an important auxiliary to metaphysics, became the focus of metaphysical dispute, especially over the scope and powers of the intellect and the existence of a `pure' intellect. Rationalist metaphysicians such as Descartes, Spinoza, and Malebranche claimed that intellectual knowledge, gained independently of the senses, provides the (...)
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  • Descartes.Lois Frankel & Marjorie Grene - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (2):261.
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  • Functions.Larry Wright - 1973 - Philosophical Review 82 (2):139-168.
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  • Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology.John B. Watson - 1915 - Philosophical Review 24 (2):210-213.
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  • Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology.J. B. Watson - 1916 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 13 (17):470-472.
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  • Descartes: An Intellectual Biography.Stephen Gaukroger - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):302-305.
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  • Form and Function: A Contribution to the History of Animal Morphology.E. S. Russell - 1916 - Journal of the History of Biology 17 (1):151-151.
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  • Descartes' Treatment of Animals.John Cottingham - 1998 - In Descartes. Oxford University Press.
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  • Descartes: An Intellectual Biography.Stephen Gaukroger - 1995 - Clarendon Press.
    This is the first intellectual biography of Descartes in English. Stephen Gaukroger provides a rich, authoritative account of Descartes' intellectual and personal development, understood in its historical context, and offers a reassessment of all aspects of his life and work.
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  • Contemporary Philosophy of Mind: A Contentiously Classical Approach.Georges Rey - 1998 - Mind 107 (425):246-250.
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  • The Scholastic Background.Roger Ariew & Alan Gabbey - 1998 - In Daniel Garber & Michael Ayers (eds.), The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1--425.
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  • The Function of the Passions.Daisie Radner - 2003 - In Byron Williston & André Gombay (eds.), Passion and Virtue in Descartes. Humanity Books. pp. 175--87.
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  • The Structure of The Passions of the Soul and the Soul-Body Union.Lisa Shapiro - 2003 - In Byron Williston & André Gombay (eds.), Passion and Virtue in Descartes. Humanity Books. pp. 31--79.
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  • Principles of Behavior. An Introduction to Behavior Theory.Clark L. Hull - 1943 - Journal of Philosophy 40 (20):558-559.
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  • The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science.John Henry - 1997
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  • Late Scholastic Theories of the Passions: Controversies in the Thomist Tradition.Peter King - 2002 - In Henrik Lagerlund & Mikko Yrjonsuri (eds.), Emotions and Choice From Boethius to Descartes. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 229--258.
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  • The Body and the Brain.John Sutton - 2000 - In S. Gaukroger, J. Schuster & J. Sutton (eds.), Descartes' Natural Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 697--722.
    Does self?knowledge help? A rationalist, presumably, thinks that it does: both that self?knowledge is possible and that, if gained through appropriate channels, it is desirable. Descartes notoriously claimed that, with appropriate methods of enquiry, each of his readers could become an expert on herself or himself. As well as the direct, first?person knowledge of self to which we are led in the Meditationes , we can also seek knowledge of our own bodies, and of the union of our minds and (...)
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  • Descartes' Naturalism About the Mental.Gary Hatfield - 2000 - In Stephen Gaukroger, John Schuster & John Sutton (eds.), Descartes' Natural Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 630–658.
    The chapter advances two theses involving Descartes and the mind. The first concerns Descartes' conception of mental faculties, particularly the intellect. As I read the _Meditations_, a fundamental aim of that work is to make the reader aware of the deliverances of the pure intellect, perhaps for the first time. Descartes' project is to alter the reader's Aristotelian beliefs about the faculty of the intellect and its relation to the senses, while at the same time coaxing her to use the (...)
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  • On Sensory–Motor Mechanisms in Descartes: Wonder Versus Reflex.Jean-Marie Beyssade - 2003 - In Byron Williston & André Gombay (eds.), Passion and Virtue in Descartes. Humanity Books. pp. 129--152.
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  • Psychology From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist.John Broadus Watson - 1919
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  • .Marjorie Grene (ed.) - 1973 - Anchor Books.
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  • Psychologia Empirica (Transl.: Empirical Psychology, Treated According to the Scientific Method).C. Wolff - 1738 - Prostat in Officina Libraria Rengeriana.
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  • The Stream of Thought.William James - 1890 - In Principles of Psychology.
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