Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less A D Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions.Malcolm R. Forster & Elliott Sober - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   180 citations  
  • Layered History: Styles of Reasoning as Stratified Conditions of Possibility.James Elwick - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (4):619-627.
    This paper depicts Ian Hacking’s ‘styles of reasoning’ as conditions of possibility. After distinguishing between possibilities and causes, it articulates the implicit stratigraphical metaphor used to describe the relationship between different conditions of possibility, with ‘lower’ layers being necessary for ‘higher’ ones. It notes the use of this stratigraphical metaphor in the work of multiple scholars in history and in science studies. The paper suggests three ways in which this model can be useful: clarifying the definition and use of ‘context’ (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Character Analysis in Cladistics: Abstraction, Reification, and the Search for Objectivity.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2009 - Acta Biotheoretica 57 (1-2):129-162.
    The dangers of character reification for cladistic inference are explored. The identification and analysis of characters always involves theory-laden abstraction—there is no theory-free “view from nowhere.” Given theory-ladenness, and given a real world with actual objects and processes, how can we separate robustly real biological characters from uncritically reified characters? One way to avoid reification is through the employment of objectivity criteria that give us good methods for identifying robust primary homology statements. I identify six such criteria and explore each (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Part-Whole Science.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2011 - Synthese 178 (3):397-427.
    A scientific explanatory project, part-whole explanation, and a kind of science, part-whole science are premised on identifying, investigating, and using parts and wholes. In the biological sciences, mechanistic, structuralist, and historical explanations are part-whole explanations. Each expresses different norms, explananda, and aims. Each is associated with a distinct partitioning frame for abstracting kinds of parts. These three explanatory projects can be complemented in order to provide an integrative vision of the whole system, as is shown for a detailed case study: (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • If P , Then What? Thinking in Cases.John Forrester - 1996 - History of the Human Sciences 9 (3):1-25.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   47 citations  
  • On the Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.Charles Darwin - 1859 - Sterling.
    Familiarity with Charles Darwin's treatise on evolution is essential to every well-educated individual. One of the most important books ever published--and a continuing source of controversy, a century and a half later--this classic of science is reproduced in a facsimile of the critically acclaimed first edition.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   421 citations  
  • Schaffner’s Model of Theory Reduction: Critique and Reconstruction.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (2):119-142.
    Schaffner’s model of theory reduction has played an important role in philosophy of science and philosophy of biology. Here, the model is found to be problematic because of an internal tension. Indeed, standard antireductionist external criticisms concerning reduction functions and laws in biology do not provide a full picture of the limits of Schaffner’s model. However, despite the internal tension, his model usefully highlights the importance of regulative ideals associated with the search for derivational, and embedding, deductive relations among mathematical (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • Fiction and Scientific Representation.Roman Frigg - 2010 - In .
    Understanding scientific modelling can be divided into two sub-projects: analysing what model-systems are, and understanding how they are used to represent something beyond themselves. The first is a prerequisite for the second: we can only start analysing how representation works once we understand the intrinsic character of the vehicle that does the representing. Coming to terms with this issue is the project of the first half of this chapter. My central contention is that models are akin to places and characters (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  • Robustness Analysis.Michael Weisberg - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):730-742.
    Modelers often rely on robustness analysis, the search for predictions common to several independent models. Robustness analysis has been characterized and championed by Richard Levins and William Wimsatt, who see it as central to modern theoretical practice. The practice has also been severely criticized by Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober, who claim that it is a nonempirical form of confirmation, effective only under unusual circumstances. This paper addresses Orzack and Sober's criticisms by giving a new account of robustness analysis and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   140 citations  
  • Severe Testing as a Basic Concept in a Neyman–Pearson Philosophy of Induction.Deborah G. Mayo & Aris Spanos - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):323-357.
    Despite the widespread use of key concepts of the Neyman–Pearson (N–P) statistical paradigm—type I and II errors, significance levels, power, confidence levels—they have been the subject of philosophical controversy and debate for over 60 years. Both current and long-standing problems of N–P tests stem from unclarity and confusion, even among N–P adherents, as to how a test's (pre-data) error probabilities are to be used for (post-data) inductive inference as opposed to inductive behavior. We argue that the relevance of error probabilities (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   52 citations  
  • Xv*—How to Decide If Races Exist.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 2006 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (3):363-380.
    Through most of the twentieth century, life scientists grew increasingly sceptical of the biological significance of folk classifications of people by race. New work on the human genome has raised the possibility of a resurgence of scientific interest in human races. This paper aims to show that the racial sceptics are right, while also granting that biological information associated with racial categories may be useful.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Evolutionary Biology and Ecology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2010 - In M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyma, W. F. Eanes & J. S. Levinton (eds.), Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Sinauer.
    This paper aims to illustrate one of the primary goals of the philosophy of biology⎯namely, the examination of central concepts in biological theory and practice⎯through an analysis of the concepts of population and metapopulation in evolutionary biology and ecology. I will first provide a brief background for my analysis, followed by a characterization of my proposed concepts: the causal interactionist concepts of population and metapopulation. I will then illustrate how the concepts apply to six cases that differ in their population (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  • On the Dangers of Making Scientific Models Ontologically Independent: Taking Richard Levins' Warnings Seriously.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):703-724.
    Levins and Lewontin have contributed significantly to our philosophical understanding of the structures, processes, and purposes of biological mathematical theorizing and modeling. Here I explore their separate and joint pleas to avoid making abstract and ideal scientific models ontologically independent by confusing or conflating our scientific models and the world. I differentiate two views of theorizing and modeling, orthodox and dialectical, in order to examine Levins and Lewontin’s, among others, advocacy of the latter view. I compare the positions of these (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • Pluralism in Evolutionary Controversies: Styles and Averaging Strategies in Hierarchical Selection Theories.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Michael J. Wade & Christopher C. Dimond - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (6):957-979.
    Two controversies exist regarding the appropriate characterization of hierarchical and adaptive evolution in natural populations. In biology, there is the Wright-Fisher controversy over the relative roles of random genetic drift, natural selection, population structure, and interdemic selection in adaptive evolution begun by Sewall Wright and Ronald Aylmer Fisher. There is also the Units of Selection debate, spanning both the biological and the philosophical literature and including the impassioned group-selection debate. Why do these two discourses exist separately, and interact relatively little? (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Prediction Versus Accommodation and the Risk of Overfitting.Christopher Hitchcock & Elliott Sober - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (1):1-34.
    an observation to formulate a theory, it is no surprise that the resulting theory accurately captures that observation. However, when the theory makes a novel prediction—when it predicts an observation that was not used in its formulation—this seems to provide more substantial confirmation of the theory. This paper presents a new approach to the vexed problem of understanding the epistemic difference between prediction and accommodation. In fact, there are several problems that need to be disentangled; in all of them, the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   73 citations  
  • Predicting Novel Facts.Michael R. Gardner - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (1):1-15.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  • Fisher’s Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection--A Philosophical Analysis.Samir Okasha - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):319-351.
    This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the ongoing controversy surrounding R.A. Fisher's famous ‘fundamental theorem’ of natural selection. The difference between the ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ interpretations of the theorem is explained. I argue that proponents of the modern interpretation have captured Fisher's intended meaning correctly and shown that the theorem is mathematically correct, pace the traditional consensus. However, whether the theorem has any real biological significance remains an unresolved issue. I argue that the answer depends on whether we accept (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • Scientific Perspectivism.Ronald N. Giere - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    Many people assume that the claims of scientists are objective truths. But historians, sociologists, and philosophers of science have long argued that scientific claims reflect the particular historical, cultural, and social context in which those claims were made. The nature of scientific knowledge is not absolute because it is influenced by the practice and perspective of human agents. Scientific Perspectivism argues that the acts of observing and theorizing are both perspectival, and this nature makes scientific knowledge contingent, as Thomas Kuhn (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   232 citations  
  • Science, Truth, and Democracy.Philip Kitcher - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Striving to boldly redirect the philosophy of science, this book by renowned philosopher Philip Kitcher examines the heated debate surrounding the role of science in shaping our lives. Kitcher explores the sharp divide between those who believe that the pursuit of scientific knowledge is always valuable and necessary--the purists--and those who believe that it invariably serves the interests of people in positions of power. In a daring turn, he rejects both perspectives, working out a more realistic image of the sciences--one (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   392 citations  
  • Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin's Fallacy.Anthony W. F. Edwards - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (8):798-801.
    In popular articles that play down the genetical differences among human populations, it is often stated that about 85% of the total genetical variation is due to individual differences within populations and only 15% to differences between populations or ethnic groups. It has therefore been proposed that the division of Homo sapiens into these groups is not justified by the genetic data. This conclusion, due to R.C. Lewontin in 1972, is unwarranted because the argument ignores the fact that most of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  • Two Ways of Thinking About Fitness and Natural Selection.Mohan Matthen & André Ariew - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 99 (2):55-83.
    How do fitness and natural selection relate to other evolutionary factors like architectural constraint, mode of reproduction, and drift? In one way of thinking, drawn from Newtonian dynamics, fitness is one force driving evolutionary change and added to other factors. In another, drawn from statistical thermodynamics, it is a statistical trend that manifests itself in natural selection histories. It is argued that the first model is incoherent, the second appropriate; a hierarchical realization model is proposed as a basis for a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   166 citations  
  • Does 'Race' Have a Future?Philip Kitcher - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (4):293–317.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Thomas S. Kuhn - 1962 - University of Chicago Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3821 citations  
  • The Social Construction of What?Ian Hacking - 1999 - Harvard University Press.
    Especially troublesome in this dispute is the status of the natural sciences, and this is where Hacking finds some of his most telling cases, from the conflict ...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   541 citations  
  • Philosophy and Scientific Realism.David Hawkins - 1964 - Journal of Philosophy 61 (17):509-512.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Explanation and Scientific Understanding.Michael Friedman - 1974 - Journal of Philosophy 71 (1):5-19.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   486 citations  
  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.Karl Raimund Popper - 1962 - London, England: Routledge.
    The way in which knowledge progresses, and especially our scientific knowledge, is by unjustified anticipations, by guesses, by tentative solutions to our problems, by conjectures. These conjectures are controlled by criticism: that is, by attempted refutations, which include severely critical tests. They may survive these tests; but they can never be positively justified: they can neither be established as certainly true nor even as 'probable'. Criticism of our conjectures is of decisive importance: by bringing out our mistakes it makes us (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   183 citations  
  • Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.Karl Raimund Popper - 1962 - London, England: Routledge.
    _Conjectures and Refutations_ is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   218 citations  
  • Mapping Kinds in GIS and Cartography.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - forthcoming - In Catherine Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge. pp. 197-216.
    Geographic Information Science (GIS) is an interdisciplinary science aiming to detect and visually represent patterns in spatial data. GIS is used by businesses to determine where to open new stores and by conservation biologists to identify field study locations with relatively little anthropogenic influence. Products of GIS include topographic and thematic maps of the Earth’s surface, climate maps, and spatially referenced demographic graphs and charts. In addition to its social, political, and economic importance, GIS is of intrinsic philosophical interest due (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Replaying Life’s Tape.John Beatty - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy 103 (7):336-362.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   54 citations  
  • The Ordinary Concept of Race.Michael O. Hardimon - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (9):437-455.
    The ordinary concept of race is important and poorly understood. The present article seeks to address this problem by providing a general answer to the question: What is the concept of race?
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   43 citations  
  • The Return of the Gene.Kim Sterelny & Philip Kitcher - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (7):339.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   158 citations  
  • The Scientific Image.Michael Friedman - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (5):274-283.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   918 citations  
  • Gödel, Nagel, Minds, and Machines.Solomon Feferman - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy 106 (4):201-219.
    Ernest Nagel Lecture, Columbia University, Sept. 27, 2007.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • The Darwinian Revolution.Michael Ruse - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is the Darwinian revolution and why is it important for philosophers? These are the questions tackled in this Element. In four sections, the topics covered are the story of the revolution, the question of whether it really was a revolution, the nature of the revolution, and the implications for philosophy, both epistemology and ethics.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  • The Scientific Image.C. Van Fraassen Bas - 1980 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    In this book van Fraassen develops an alternative to scientific realism by constructing and evaluating three mutually reinforcing theories.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   506 citations  
  • Novel Evidence and Severe Tests.Deborah G. Mayo - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (4):523-552.
    While many philosophers of science have accorded special evidential significance to tests whose results are "novel facts", there continues to be disagreement over both the definition of novelty and why it should matter. The view of novelty favored by Giere, Lakatos, Worrall and many others is that of use-novelty: An accordance between evidence e and hypothesis h provides a genuine test of h only if e is not used in h's construction. I argue that what lies behind the intuition that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • Logical Versus Historical Theories of Confirmation.Alan Musgrave - 1974 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25 (1):1-23.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   85 citations  
  • Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement.Nancy Cartwright - 1989 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Ever since David Hume, empiricists have barred powers and capacities from nature. In this book Cartwright argues that capacities are essential in our scientific world, and, contrary to empiricist orthodoxy, that they can meet sufficiently strict demands for testability. Econometrics is one discipline where probabilities are used to measure causal capacities, and the technology of modern physics provides several examples of testing capacities (such as lasers). Cartwright concludes by applying the lessons of the book about capacities and probabilities to the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   579 citations  
  • How the Laws of Physics Lie.Nancy Cartwright - 1983 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    In this sequence of philosophical essays about natural science, the author argues that fundamental explanatory laws, the deepest and most admired successes of modern physics, do not in fact describe regularities that exist in nature. Cartwright draws from many real-life examples to propound a novel distinction: that theoretical entities, and the complex and localized laws that describe them, can be interpreted realistically, but the simple unifying laws of basic theory cannot.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1074 citations  
  • Historical Ontology.Ian Hacking - 2002 - Harvard University Press.
    The focus of this volume, which collects both recent and now-classic essays, is the historical emergence of concepts and objects, through new uses of words and ...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   194 citations  
  • Idealization and Abstraction: A Framework.Martin R. Jones - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 86 (1):173-218.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  • Genetics and Reductionism.Sahotra Sarkar - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    With the advent of the Human Genome Project there have been many claims for the genetic origins of complex human behavior including insanity, criminality, and intelligence. But what does it really mean to call something 'genetic'? This is the fundamental question that Sahotra Sarkar's book addresses. The author analyses the nature of reductionism in classical and molecular genetics. He shows that there are two radically different kinds of reductionist explanation: genetic reduction and physical reduction . This important book clarifies the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   82 citations  
  • A Confutation of Convergent Realism.Larry Laudan - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (1):19-49.
    This essay contains a partial exploration of some key concepts associated with the epistemology of realist philosophies of science. It shows that neither reference nor approximate truth will do the explanatory jobs that realists expect of them. Equally, several widely-held realist theses about the nature of inter-theoretic relations and scientific progress are scrutinized and found wanting. Finally, it is argued that the history of science, far from confirming scientific realism, decisively confutes several extant versions of avowedly 'naturalistic' forms of scientific (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   611 citations  
  • On a Confusion About a Function of Consciousness.Ned Block - 1995 - Brain and Behavioral Sciences 18 (2):227-–247.
    Consciousness is a mongrel concept: there are a number of very different "consciousnesses." Phenomenal consciousness is experience; the phenomenally conscious aspect of a state is what it is like to be in that state. The mark of access-consciousness, by contrast, is availability for use in reasoning and rationally guiding speech and action. These concepts are often partly or totally conflated, with bad results. This target article uses as an example a form of reasoning about a function of "consciousness" based on (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   970 citations  
  • Modeling in the Museum: On the Role of Remnant Models in the Work of Joseph Grinnell. [REVIEW]James R. Griesemer - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (1):3-36.
    Accounts of the relation between theories and models in biology concentrate on mathematical models. In this paper I consider the dual role of models as representations of natural systems and as a material basis for theorizing. In order to explicate the dual role, I develop the concept of a remnant model, a material entity made from parts of the natural system(s) under study. I present a case study of an important but neglected naturalist, Joseph Grinnell, to illustrate the extent to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  • Biological Theory and the Metaphysics of Race: A Reply to Kaplan and Winther. [REVIEW]Quayshawn Spencer - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (1):114-120.
    In Kaplan and Winther’s recent article they argue for three bold theses: first, that “it is illegitimate to read any ontology about ‘ race ’ off of biological theory or data”; second, that “using biological theory to ground race is a pernicious reification”; and, third, that “ race is fundamentally a social rather than a biological category.” While Kaplan and Winther’s theses are thoughtful, I show that the arguments that their theses rest on are unconvincing. In order to be constructive, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • What 'Biological Racial Realism' Should Mean.Quayshawn Spencer - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 159 (2):181-204.
    A curious ambiguity has arisen in the race debate in recent years. That ambiguity is what is actually meant by ‘biological racial realism’. Some philosophers mean that ‘race is a natural kind in biology’, while others mean that ‘race is a real biological kind’. However, there is no agreement about what a natural kind or a real biological kind should be in the race debate. In this article, I will argue that the best interpretation of ‘biological racial realism’ is one (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • Dynamics of Reason.Michael Friedman - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (3):702-712.
    This book introduces a new approach to the issue of radical scientific revolutions, or "paradigm-shifts," given prominence in the work of Thomas Kuhn. The book articulates a dynamical and historicized version of the conception of scientific a priori principles first developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant. This approach defends the Enlightenment ideal of scientific objectivity and universality while simultaneously doing justice to the revolutionary changes within the sciences that have since undermined Kant's original defense of this ideal. Through a modified (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   157 citations  
  • Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience.Carl F. Craver - 2007 - Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
    Carl Craver investigates what we are doing when we sue neuroscience to explain what's going on in the brain.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   532 citations