Results for 'Alexandre Harvey Tremblay'

140 found
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  1. An Attempt to Prove Physics by Making Reality Indubitable.Alexandre Harvey Tremblay - manuscript
    In this manuscript I attempt to produce the most fundamental description of physics and reality I believe to be possible. Specifically, using algorithmic information theory, statistical physics and entropy as my tools, my strategy is to define reality as the ensemble of all realized experiments (the ensemble of what "I" has indubitably proven), the domain of science as the set of all realizable experiments (the set of what "I" could prove) and finally nature as the group of all possible transformations (...)
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  2. The Urbanization of Capital: Studies in the History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanization.David Harvey - 1987 - Science and Society 51 (1):121-125.
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  3. Digestion and Moral Progress in Epictetus.Michael Tremblay - 2019 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):100-119.
    The Stoic Epictetus famously criticizeshis students for studying Stoicism as ‘mere theory’ and encouraged them to add training to their educational program. This is made all the more interesting by the fact that Epictetus, as a Stoic, was committed to notion that wisdom is sufficient to be virtuous, so theory should be all that’s required to achieve virtue. How are we then to make sense of Epictetus criticism of an overreliance on theory, and his insistence on adding training? This paper (...)
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  4. Akrasia in Epictetus: A Comparison with Aristotle.Michael Tremblay - forthcoming - Apeiron.
    This paper argues that Epictetus’ ethics involves three features which are also present in Aristotle’s discussion of akrasia in the Nicomachean Ethics: 1) A major problem for agents is when they fail to render a universal premise effective at motivating a particular action in accordance with that premise. 2) There are two reasons this occurs: Precipitancy and Weakness. 3) Precipitancy and Weakness can be prevented by gaining a fuller understanding of our beliefs and commitments. This comparison should make clear that (...)
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  5.  30
    Science Studies in a Liberal Arts Curriculum.Sean F. Johnston & Mhairi Harvey - 2005 - In Carol Hill & Sean F. Johnston (eds.), Below the Belt: The Founding of a Higher Education Institution. Dumfries, UK: pp. 73-86.
    On the differing practices and assumptions in the academic specialisms of environmental studies and STS.
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  6.  67
    Alain de Libera, La référence vide. Théories de la proposition, Paris, PUF, coll. « Chaire Étienne Gilson », 2002, 357 pages. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2005 - Philosophiques 32 (1):282-284.
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  7.  66
    David Patterson, Anti-Semitism and Its Metaphysical Origins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015). [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2017 - European Journal of Jewish Studies 11 (2):203-209.
    This is a critical review of David Patterson's book Anti-Semitism and Its Metaphysical Origins (2015). In this review, I present the author's new explanation of the roots of anti-Semitism, which he finds in the anti-Semite's desire to become like God himself. Patterson's explanation makes an anti-Semite of all those who partake in the "Western rationalist project," especially philosophers (including Jewish philosophers such as Spinoza, Hermann Cohen, and Marx), but also Islamists and anti-Zionist Jews. I criticize Patterson on two fronts: First, (...)
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  8.  46
    Filatov, Vladimir P. (Ed.). Nikolai Onufrievich Losskii. Filosofiia Rossii Pervoi Poloviny XX Veka. Rosspen, Moscow, 2016. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2018 - Slavonic and East European Review 96 (3):551-553.
    This is a review of: Николай Онуфриевич Лосский, под редакцией В. П. Филатова, Москва: Росспэн (Серия "Философия России первой половины ХХ века"), 2016. It describes and appraises the content of this collection of nineteen articles on the life and thought of the prominent twentieth century Russian philosopher Nikolai Lossky. The volume, edited by Vladimir Filatov, presents the reader with an analysis of Lossky's philosophical legacy, including such aspects of his thought as his intuitivism, his personalism, his relation to phenomenology, his (...)
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  9.  24
    Informing, Teaching or Propagandising? Combining Environmental and Science Studies for Undergraduates.Sean Johnston & Mhairi Harvey - 2002 - Discourse: Learning and Teaching in Philosophical and Religious Studies 1 (2):130-140.
    This article discusses experiences in the integrated teaching of Environmental Studies and Science Studies in a generalist curriculum at a university campus in Scotland. At the University of Glasgow Crichton Campus, a mixed curriculum has been developed to combine coherently Environmental and Science Studies, perhaps the first such curriculum in the UK and equally uncommon in America. The Crichton curricum is intentionally multi-disciplinary, drawing closely on the successful nineteenth-century Scottish model exported to America. This generalist approach, emphasising broad philosophical principles, (...)
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  10.  42
    Nicolai Hartmann's Definition of Biological Species.Frederic Tremblay - 2011 - In Roberto Poli, Carlo Scognamiglio & Frederic Tremblay (eds.), The Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 125--139.
    Before the Darwinian revolution species were thought to be universals. Since then, numerous attempts have been made to propose new definitions. The twentieth-century German philosopher Nicolai Hartmann defined 'species' as an individual system of processes and a process of life of a higher-order. To provide a clear understanding of Hartmann's conception of species, I first present his method of definition. Then I look at Hartmann's Philosophie der Natur (1950) to present his concepts of "organism" and "species." And I end the (...)
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  11.  61
    The Metaphysics of the Early Vladimir Solov’Ëv. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2013 - Quaestio: Yearbook of the History of Metaphysics 13:391-394.
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  12.  30
    Nicolai Hartmann International Conference, Università La Sapienza - 19-21 luglio 2010.Frederic Tremblay - 2010 - Philosophical News 1.
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  13.  94
    Nicolai Hartmann and the Metaphysical Foundation of Phylogenetic Systematics.Frederic Tremblay - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (1):56-68.
    When developing phylogenetic systematics, the entomologist Willi Hennig adopted elements from Nicolai Hartmann’s ontology. In this historical essay I take on the task of documenting this adoption. I argue that in order to build a metaphysical foundation for phylogenetic systematics, Hennig adopted from Hartmann four main metaphysical theses. These are (1) that what is real is what is temporal; (2) that the criterion of individuality is to have duration; (3) that species are supra-individuals; and (4) that there are levels of (...)
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  14.  51
    Nicholas Rescher, Metaphysics: The Key Issues From A Realistic Perspective, Amherst (NY): Prometheus Books, 2006, 352 Pages. [REVIEW]Frédéric Tremblay - 2007 - Philosophiques 34 (1):217-219.
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  15.  79
    Rescher, Nicholas. Essais sur les fondements de l’ontologie du procès, traduction et introduction par Michel Weber, Ontos-Verlag, 2006. [REVIEW]Frédéric Tremblay - 2007 - Philosophiques 34 (2):419-421.
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  16.  28
    Alyssa DeBlasio, The End of Russian Philosophy: Tradition and Transition at the Turn of the 21st Century, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2015 - Slavonic and East European Review 94 (4):745-749.
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  17.  28
    George M. Young, The Russian Cosmists. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2016 - Slavonic and East European Review 94 (1):155-158.
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  18.  44
    Pain, Competency and Consent.William R. C. Harvey, George C. Webster & Derek L. Jones - 1993 - HEC Forum 5 (3):205-211.
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  19.  19
    On Cicovacki’s Introduction to Nicolai Hartmann’s Philosophy. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2014 - Quaestio 14:348-350.
    Review of P. Cicovacki, The Analysis of Wonder: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann, Bloomsbury, New York- London-New Delhi-Sydney 2014.
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  20.  20
    Pierre-Marie Morel, Aristote : une philosophie de l'activité. Paris, Éditions Flammarion, 2003, 306 p. [REVIEW]Frederic Tremblay - 2006 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 62 (2):412-418.
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  21. “Empiricism Contra Experiment: Harvey, Locke and the Revisionist View of Experimental Philosophy”.Alan Salter & Charles T. Wolfe - 2009 - Bulletin d'histoire et d'épistémologie des sciences de la vie 16 (2):113-140.
    In this paper we suggest a revisionist perspective on two significant figures in early modern life science and philosophy: William Harvey and John Locke. Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, is often named as one of the rare representatives of the ‘life sciences’ who was a major figure in the Scientific Revolution. While this status itself is problematic, we would like to call attention to a different kind of problem: Harvey dislikes abstraction and controlled (...)
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  22. Maimonides and Spinoza on the Knowledge of Good and Evil: A Reappraisal of W.Z. Harvey.James Elliott - 2017 - Iyyun 66 (3):258-269.
    In an unsung yet excellent paper, W.Z. Harvey set out to explain how both Maimonides and Spinoza have similarly problematic views on the nature of the knowledge of good and evil. In it, he proposed an answer to solving the problem. In the many decades since, debates surrounding this topic have flourished. A recent paper by Joshua Parens, his conclusions mark a distinction between Spinoza and Maimonides that threaten to undermine Harvey’s solution to the problem. I will argue (...)
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  23. Le sens du travail et la philosophie d'Alexandre Kojève.Yusuke Kaneko - 2018 - Problemata 9 (2):63-79.
    One can work for another person, probably for all the others in an ethical way, and not for money. This is the main idea pursued in this article. When it comes to labour, we are inclined to deal with Marx. But even Marx apparently did not notice this ethical side of labour, because his focus was mainly on the creation of value, which was common among thinkers at that time, such as Locke and Smith. In contrast, Hegel consistently tackled the (...)
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  24.  90
    The Dog That is a Heavenly Constellation and the Dog That is a Barking Animal by Alexandre Koyré.Oberto Marrama - 2014 - The Leibniz Review 24:95-108.
    The article includes the French to English translation of a seminal article by Alexandre Koyré (“Le chien, constellation céleste, et le chien animal aboyant”, in Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale, 55e Année, N° 1, Jan-Mar 1950, pp. 50-59), accompanied by an explanatory introduction. Koyré's French text provides an illuminating commentary of E1p17s, where Spinoza exposes at length his account of the relationship existing between God's intellect and the human intellect. The lack of an English translation of this article (...)
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  25. William Harvey (1578-1657) y el aristotelismo de la 'schola philosophorum' de Padua.Giulio F. Pagallo - 2003 - Apuntes Filosóficos 23:43-81.
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  26. Alexandre Joseph Hidulphe Vincent on George Gemistos Plethon.Katelis Viglas - 2012 - Anistoriton Journal of History, Archaeology and ArtHistory 13 (1):1-12.
    George Gemistos Plethon’s work in all its dimensions has attracted many scholars across the ages. One of those scholars was Alexandre Joseph Hidulphe Vincent, a French mathematician and erudite, who in the first and the only critical edition of Plethon’s Book of Laws by C. Alexandre in the nineteenth century, added three notes on his calendar, metrics and music, as he could reconstruct them from the ancient text. Vincent’s calculations were dictated by the main scientific thought of his (...)
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  27. Goldman and Siegel on the Epistemic Aims of Education.Alessia Marabini & Luca Moretti - 2020 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 54 (3):492-506.
    Philosophers have claimed that education aims at fostering disparate epistemic goals. In this paper we focus on an important segment of this debate involving conversation between Alvin Goldman and Harvey Siegel. Goldman claims that education is essentially aimed at producing true beliefs. Siegel contends that education is essentially aimed at fostering both true beliefs and, independently, critical thinking and rational belief. Although we find Siegel’s position intuitively more plausible than Goldman’s, we also find Siegel’s defence of it wanting. We (...)
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  28.  26
    Männlichkeit: Eine Begriffliche Annäherung in Phänomenologischer Perspektive.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - 2016 - In Hilge Landweer & Isabella Marcinski (eds.), Dem Erleben auf der Spur.
    Dieser Aufsatz widmet sich dem Begriff "Männlichkeit". Die Klärung des Begriffes soll mithilfe dreier philosophischer Strategien unternommen werden. Erstens werde ich zwei philosophische Modelle von Männlichkeit einander gegenüberstellen. Harvey C. Mansfields Theorie soll mithilfe von Pierre Bourdieus Konzept der männlichen Herrschaft kritisiert werden. Während Mansfield eine verbreitete Auffassung von Männlichkeit vertritt, die diese mit Assertivität, Mut und Adel verbindet, bietet Bourdieu uns ein gutes Instrumentarium dafür, versteckte Strukturen der männlichen Ordnung hinter diesem Bild zu entdecken. Zweitens wird diese Kritik (...)
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  29. “I Don’T Want the Responsibility:” The Moral Implications of Avoiding Dependency Relations with Companion Animals.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2017 - In Pets and People: The Ethics of Our Relationships with Companion Animals. pp. 80-94.
    I argue that humans have moral relationships with dogs and cats that they could adopt, but do not. The obligations of those of us who refrain from incurring particular relationships with dogs and cats are correlative with the power of persons with what Jean Harvey calls “interactive power,” the power to take the initiative in and direct the course of a relationship. I connect Harvey’s points about interactive power to my application of Eva Kittay’s “dependency critique,” to show (...)
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  30.  36
    Descartes on the Heartbeat: The Leuven Affair.Lucian Petrescu - 2013 - Perspectives on Science 21 (4):397-428.
    There is an interesting historical detour in the dissemination of one of the seventeenth century’s most praised discoveries: the reception of Harvey’s account of the circulation of the blood is closely intertwined, especially in the Low Countries, with Descartes’ account of the origin of the heartbeat. Descartes was one of the first figures to support the circulation of the blood and to give credit to Harvey for it, although he presumably arrived at the same conclusion independently through his (...)
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  31. The Many Encounters of Thomas Kuhn and French Epistemology.Simons Massimiliano - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 61:41-50.
    The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or ‘French epistemology’. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors (...)
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  32.  73
    Demystifying the Negative René Girard’s Critique of the “Humanization of Nothingness”.Andreas Wilmes - 2019 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 24 (1):91-126.
    This paper will address René Girard’s critique of the “humanization of nothingness” in modern Western philosophy. I will first explain how the “desire for death” is related to a phenomenon that Girard refers to as “obstacle addiction.” Second, I will point out how mankind’s desire for death and illusory will to self-divinization gradually tend to converge within the history of modern Western humanism. In particular, I will show how this convergence between self-destruction and self-divinization gradually takes shape through the evolution (...)
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  33. Portrait of René Girard as a Post-Hegelian: Masters, Slaves, and Monstrous Doubles.Andreas Wilmes - 2017 - Philosophical Journal of Conflict and Violence 1 (1):57-85.
    This paper will analyze the evolution and the key aspects of René Girard’s critique of the Hegelian “struggle for recognition” and the master-slave dialectic. Through a discussion of Girard’s views on Identity, Difference, Violence, Desire and Negativity, the study will aim to highlight the philosophical uniqueness of the mimetic theory in respect to French Hegelianism and postHegelianism.
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  34. Heat in Renaissance Philosophy.Filip Buyse - 2020 - In Marco Sgarbi (ed.), Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy. Berlin: Springer.
    The term ‘heat’ originates from the Old English word hǣtu, a word of Germanic origin; related to the Dutch ‘hitte’ and German ‘Hitze’. Today, we distinguish three different meanings of the word ‘heat’. First, ‘heat’ is understood in colloquial English as ‘hotness’. There are, in addition, two scientific meanings of ‘heat’. ‘Heat’ can have the meaning of the portion of energy that changes with a change of temperature. And finally, ‘heat’ can have the meaning of the transfer of thermal energy (...)
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  35.  97
    Alexander Koyré, Fifty Years After His Death: Regarding Four Recent Publications. [REVIEW]Jean-François Stoffel - 2019 - Pro-Fil : An Internet Journal of Philosophy 20:58-71.
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  36.  29
    Historiografická Metoda Thomase Kuhna a Její Význam Z Hlediska Sociologie Vědeckého Poznání.Libor Benda - 2011 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 33 (3):445-468.
    Význam Thomase Kuhna z hlediska jeho vlivu na další vývoj představ o povaze vědy a konkrétně na vznik tzv. sociologie vědeckého poznání bývá dnes běžně spojován s jeho Strukturou vědeckých revolucí, zatímco jeho starším historickým pracím je v tomto ohledu jen zřídkakdy věnována pozornost. Příspěvek analyzuje právě tyto práce a pokouší se charakterizovat základní metodologické rysy Kuhnova přístupu k dějinám vědy, který je v nich uplatňován. Prostřednictvím jejich porovnání s metodologickými východisky rané sociologie vědeckého poznání se snaží zjistit, nakolik lze (...)
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  37. Ética das Virtudes.Hobuss João - 2011 - Editora UFSC.
    Uma ética centrada nas virtudes é incontornável na discussão moral dos dias atuais. Tendo em vista esta observação, o presente volume buscará oferecer uma série de discussões que possibilitem vislumbrar seus principais conceitos, suas noções fundamentais, bem como teorias alternativas da virtude que possam acrescentar elementos à discussão que encontraremos a seguir.
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  38.  90
    Neuroenhancement, Coercion, and Neo-Luddism.Alexandre Erler - 2020 - In Nicole A. Vincent, Thomas Nadelhoffer & Allan McCay (eds.), Neurointerventions and the Law: Regulating Human Mental Capacity. New York, NY, USA: pp. 375-405.
    This chapter addresses the claim that, as new types of neurointervention get developed allowing us to enhance various aspects of our mental functioning, we should work to prevent the use of such interventions from ever becoming the “new normal,” that is, a practice expected—even if not directly required—by employers. The author’s response to that claim is that, unlike compulsion or most cases of direct coercion, indirect coercion to use such neurointerventions is, per se, no more problematic than the pressure people (...)
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  39. Making Sense of the Cotard Syndrome: Insights From the Study of Depersonalisation.Alexandre Billon - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (3):356-391.
    Patients suffering from the Cotard syndrome can deny being alive, having guts, thinking or even existing. They can also complain that the world or time have ceased to exist. In this article, I argue that even though the leading neurocognitive accounts have difficulties meeting that task, we should, and we can, make sense of these bizarre delusions. To that effect, I draw on the close connection between the Cotard syndrome and a more common condition known as depersonalisation. Even though they (...)
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  40.  84
    Revisionist Reporting.Kyle Blumberg & Harvey Lederman - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    Several theorists have observed that attitude reports have what we call “revisionist” uses. For example, even if Pete has never met Ann and has no idea that she exists, Jane can still say to Jim ‘Pete believes Ann can learn to play tennis in ten lessons’ if Pete believes all 6-year-olds can learn to play tennis in ten lessons and it is part of Jane and Jim’s background knowledge that Ann is a 6-year-old. Jane’s assertion seems acceptable because the claim (...)
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  41. Educating for Intellectual Virtue: A Critique From Action Guidance.Ben Kotzee, J. Adam Carter & Harvey Siegel - 2019 - Episteme:1-23.
    Virtue epistemology is among the dominant influences in mainstream epistemology today. An important commitment of one strand of virtue epistemology – responsibilist virtue epistemology (e.g., Montmarquet 1993; Zagzebski 1996; Battaly 2006; Baehr 2011) – is that it must provide regulative normative guidance for good thinking. Recently, a number of virtue epistemologists (most notably Baehr, 2013) have held that virtue epistemology not only can provide regulative normative guidance, but moreover that we should reconceive the primary epistemic aim of all education as (...)
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  42. Classical Opacity.Michael Caie, Jeremy Goodman & Harvey Lederman - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  43. Irrationality and Happiness: A (Neo-)Shopenhauerian Argument for Rational Pessimism.Alexandre Billon - 2016 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 11 (1):1-26.
    There is a long tradition in philosophy of blaming passions for our unhappiness. If only we were more rational, it is claimed, we would live happier lives. I argue that such optimism is misguided and that, paradoxically, people with desires, like us, cannot be both happy and rational. More precisely, if someone rational has desires he will not be fully happy, and if he has some desires that are rational and – in a yet-to-be-specified sense – demanding, he will be (...)
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  44. Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value.Pugh Jonathan, Maslen Hannah & Savulescu Julian - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):640-657.
    Deep brain stimulation has been of considerable interest to bioethicists, in large part because of the effects that the intervention can occasionally have on central features of the recipient’s personality. These effects raise questions regarding the philosophical concept of authenticity. In this article, we expand on our earlier work on the concept of authenticity in the context of deep brain stimulation by developing a diachronic, value-based account of authenticity. Our account draws on both existentialist and essentialist approaches to authenticity, and (...)
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  45. Jaspers' Dilemma: The Psychopathological Challenge to Subjectivity Theories of Consciousness.Alexandre Billon & Uriah Kriegel - 2015 - In R. Gennaro (ed.), Disturbed Consciousness. MIT Press. pp. 29-54.
    According to what we will call subjectivity theories of consciousness, there is a constitutive connection between phenomenal consciousness and subjectivity: there is something it is like for a subject to have mental state M only if M is characterized by a certain mine-ness or for-me-ness. Such theories appear to face certain psychopathological counterexamples: patients appear to report conscious experiences that lack this subjective element. A subsidiary goal of this chapter is to articulate with greater precision both subjectivity theories and the (...)
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  46. Dickie’s Institutional Theory And The “Openness” Of The Concept Of Art.Alexandre Erler - 2006 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 3 (3):110-117.
    In this paper, I will look at the relationship between Weitz’s claim that art is an “open” concept and Dickie’s institutional theory of art, in its most recent form. Dickie’s theory has been extensively discussed, and often criticized, in the literature on aesthetics, yet it has rarely been observed – to my knowledge at least – that the fact that his theory actually incorporates, at least to some extent, Weitz’s claim about the “openness” of the concept of art, precisely accounts (...)
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  47. Prospects for a Naive Theory of Classes.Hartry Field, Harvey Lederman & Tore Fjetland Øgaard - 2017 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 58 (4):461-506.
    The naive theory of properties states that for every condition there is a property instantiated by exactly the things which satisfy that condition. The naive theory of properties is inconsistent in classical logic, but there are many ways to obtain consistent naive theories of properties in nonclassical logics. The naive theory of classes adds to the naive theory of properties an extensionality rule or axiom, which states roughly that if two classes have exactly the same members, they are identical. In (...)
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  48. From Locke to Materialism: Empiricism, the Brain and the Stirrings of Ontology.Charles Wolfe - 2018 - In What Does It Mean to Be an Empiricist? Springer Verlag.
    My topic is the materialist appropriation of empiricism – as conveyed in the ‘minimal credo’ nihil est in intellectu quod non fuerit in sensu (which interestingly is not just a phrase repeated from Hobbes and Locke to Diderot, but is also a medical phrase, used by Harvey, Mandeville and others). That is, canonical empiricists like Locke go out of their way to state that their project to investigate and articulate the ‘logic of ideas’ is not a scientific project: “I (...)
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  49. Regius and Gassendi on the Human Soul.Vlad Alexandrescu - 2013 - Intellectual History Review 23 (2):433-452.
    Reshaping the neo-Aristotelian doctrines about the human soul was Descartes’s most spectacular enterprise, which gave birth to some of the sharpest debates in the Republic of Letters. Neverthe- less, it was certainly Descartes’s intention, as already expressed in the Discours de la méthode, to show that his new metaphysics could be supplemented with experimental research in the field of medicine and the conservation of life. It is no surprise then that several natural philosophers and doctors, such as Henricus Regius from (...)
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  50.  27
    Ethical Perspectives on Advances in Biogerontology.Jean Woo, David Archard, Derrick Au, Sara Bergstresser, Alexandre Erler, Timothy Kwok, John Newman, Raymond Tong & Tom Walker - 2019 - Aging Medicine 2 (2):99-103.
    Worldwide populations are aging with economic development as a result of public health initiatives and advances in therapeutic discoveries. Since 1850, life expectancy has advanced by 1 year for every four. Accompanying this change is the rapid development of anti‐aging science. There are three schools of thought in the field of aging science. One perspective is the life course approach, which considers that aging is a good and natural process to be embraced as a necessary and positive aspect of life, (...)
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