Results for 'Ecosystem Ecology'

882 found
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  1. Holism vs. reductionism: Do ecosystem ecology and landscape ecology clarify the debate?Donato Bergandi & Patrick Blandin - 1998 - Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3):185-206.
    The holism-reductionism debate, one of the classic subjects of study in the philosopy of science, is currently at the heart of epistemological concerns in ecology. Yet the division between holism and reductionism does not always stand out clearly in this field. In particular, almost all work in ecosystem ecology and landscape ecology presents itself as holistic and emergentist. Nonetheless, the operational approaches used rely on conventional reductionist methodology.From an emergentist epistemological perspective, a set of general 'transactional' (...)
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  2.  79
    Ecological Models for Gene Therapy. II. Niche Construction, Nongenetic Inheritance, and Ecosystem Perturbations.Arnaud Pocheville, Maël Montévil & Régis Ferrière - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):414-422.
    In this paper, we apply the perspective of intra-organismal ecology by investigating a family of ecological models suitable to describe a gene therapy to a particular metabolic disorder, the adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID). The gene therapy is modeled as the prospective ecological invasion of an organ (here, bone marrow) by genetically modified stem cells, which then operate niche construction in the cellular environment by releasing an enzyme they synthesize. We show that depending on the chosen order (a choice that (...)
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  3. Les métamorphoses de l'organicisme en écologie: De la communauté végétale aux écosystèmes/The metamorphoses of organicism in ecology: From plant community to ecosystems.Donato Bergandi - 1999 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 52 (1):5-32.
    L'écologie préénergétique des années 1905-1935 est à la recherche de ses objets d'étude. Des unités fondamentales de la nature (telles que formation végétale, association végétale, climax, biome, communauté biotique, écosystème) se trouvent en compétition et se succèdent les unes aux autres. Autour des années 1920 et 1930, la philosophie organiciste d'Alfred N. Whitehead, ainsi que la perspective évolutionniste d'Herbert Spencer et les propositions émergentistes de Samuel Alexander et Conwy L. Morgan, deviennent des références sous-jacentes au débat épistémologique concernant les unités (...)
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  4. Making Ecological Values Make Sense: Toward More Operationalizable Ecological Legislation.Justin Donhauser - 2016 - Ethics and the Environment 21 (2):1-25.
    Value claims about ecological entities, their functionality, and properties take center stage in so-called “ecological” ethical and aesthetic theories. For example, the claim that the biodiversity in an old-growth forest imbues it with “value in and for itself” is an explicit value claim about an ecological property. And the claim that one can study “the aesthetics of nature, including natural objects...such as ecosystems” presupposes that natural instances of a type of ecological entity exist and can be regarded as more or (...)
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  5. Multifaceted Ecology Between Organicism, Emergentism and Reductionism.Donato Bergandi - 2011 - In A. Schwarz & K. Jax (eds.), Ecology Revisited. Reflecting on Concepts, Advancing Science. Springer. pp. 31-43.
    The classical holism-reductionism debate, which has been of major importance to the development of ecological theory and methodology, is an epistemological patchwork. At any moment, there is a risk of it slipping into an incoherent, chaotic Tower of Babel. Yet philosophy, like the sciences, requires that words and their correlative concepts be used rigorously and univocally. The prevalent use of everyday language in the holism-reductionism issue may give a false impression regarding its underlying clarity and coherence. In reality, the conceptual (...)
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  6. Eco-cybernetics: the ecology and cybernetics of missing emergences.Donato Bergandi - 2000 - Kybernetes 29 (7/8):928-942..
    Considers that in ecosystem, landscape and global ecology, an energetics reading of ecological systems is an expression of a cybernetic, systemic and holistic approach. In ecosystem ecology, the Odumian paradigm emphasizes the concept of emergence, but it has not been accompanied by the creation of a method that fully respects the complexity of the objects studied. In landscape ecology, although the emergentist, multi-level, triadic methodology of J.K. Feibleman and D.T. Campbell has gained acceptance, the importance (...)
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  7. Ecology, Evolution, Ethics: In Search of a Meta-paradigm – An Introduction.Donato Bergandi - 2013 - In The Structural Links Between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics: The Virtuous Epistemic Circle. Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer. pp. 1-28.
    Evolutionary, ecological and ethical studies are, at the same time, specific scientific disciplines and, from an historical point of view, structurally linked domains of research. In a context of environmental crisis, the need is increasingly emerging for a connecting epistemological framework able to express a common or convergent tendency of thought and practice aimed at building, among other things, an environmental policy management respectful of the planet’s biodiversity and its evolutionary potential.
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  8. Distinguishing ecological from evolutionary approaches to transposable elements.Stefan Linquist, Brent Saylor, Karl Cottenie, Tyler A. Elliott, Stefan C. Kremer & T. Ryan Gregory - 2013 - Biological Reviews 88 (3):573- 584.
    Considerable variation exists not only in the kinds of transposable elements (TEs) occurring within the genomes of different species, but also in their abundance and distribution. Noting a similarity to the assortment of organisms among ecosystems, some researchers have called for an ecological approach to the study of transposon dynamics. However, there are several ways to adopt such an approach, and it is sometimes unclear what an ecological perspective will add to the existing co-evolutionary framework for explaining transposon-host interactions. This (...)
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  9.  96
    Ecological Models for Gene Therapy. I. Models for Intraorganismal Ecology.Arnaud Pocheville & Maël Montévil - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):401-413.
    In this paper, we discuss the perspective of intra-organismal ecology by investigating a family of ecological models. We consider two types of models. First order models describe the population dynamics as being directly affected by ecological factors (here understood as nutrients, space, etc). They might be thought of as analogous to Aristotelian physics. Second order models describe the population dynamics as being indirectly affected, the ecological factors now affecting the derivative of the growth rate (that is, the population acceleration), (...)
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  10. The Philosophical Foundations of Ecological Civilization: A Manifesto for the Future.Arran Gare - 2016 - London and New York: Routledge.
    The global ecological crisis is the greatest challenge humanity has ever had to confront, and humanity is failing. The triumph of the neo-liberal agenda, together with a debauched ‘scientism’, has reduced nature and people to nothing but raw materials, instruments and consumers to be efficiently managed in a global market dominated by corporate managers, media moguls and technocrats. The arts and the humanities have been devalued, genuine science has been crippled, and the quest for autonomy and democracy undermined. The resultant (...)
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  11. Ecology of languages. Sociolinguistic environment, contacts, and dynamics. (In: From language shift to language revitalization and sustainability. A complexity approach to linguistic ecology).Albert Bastardas-Boada - 2019 - Barcelona, Spain: Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona.
    Human linguistic phenomenon is at one and the same time an individual, social, and political fact. As such, its study should bear in mind these complex interrelations, which are produced inside the framework of the sociocultural and historical ecosystem of each human community. Understanding this phenomenon is often no easy task, due to the range of elements involved and their interrelations. The absence of valid, clearly developed paradigms adds to the problem and means that the theoretical conclusions that emerge (...)
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  12. Ecological Imagination in Moral Education, East and West.Steven Fesmire - 2012 - Contemporary Pragmatism 9 (1):205-222.
    Relational philosophies developed in classical American pragmatism and the Kyoto School of modern Japanese philosophy suggest aims for greater ecological responsiveness in moral education. To better guide education, we need to know how ecological perception becomes relevant to our deliberations. Our deliberations enlist imagination of a specifically ecological sort when the imaginative structures we use to understand ecosystemic relationships shape our mental simulations and rehearsals. Enriched through cross-cultural dialogue, a finely aware ecological imagination can make the deliberations of the coming (...)
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  13. How Ecology Can Edify Ethics: The Scope of Morality.Lantz Miller - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (4):443-454.
    Over the past several decades environmental ethics has grown markedly, normative ethics having provided essential grounding in assessing human treatment of the environment. Even a systematic approach, such as Paul Taylor’s, in a sense tells the environment how it is to be treated, whether that be Earth’s ecosystem or the universe itself. Can the environment, especially the ecosystem, as understood through the study of ecology, in turn offer normative and applied ethics any edification? The study of (...) has certainly increased awareness of the fact that it is not possible for a moral agent within the ecosystem to step outside its intricate mesh of actions and events, of causes and effects. That is, absolutely everything that an agent can do can have some, often unforeseeable, outcome in the environment. An incompletely snuffed-out match tossed out a car window can cause a forest fire, which causes biome destruction, which causes x, y, and z. In sum, the ecosystem can edify ethics in terms of the scope of ethics, which remains an unsettled, if too-often ignored, matter. By such an inclusive view of moral scope, as derived in part from ecology and as presented here, the scope of moral behavior would include—whether or not adventitiously—every action an agent may do. By this view, moral scope is, in essence, unlimited. The article offers some ramifications of this view of moral scope. (shrink)
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  14. “Reductionist holism”: an oxymoron or a philosophical chimaera of E.P. Odum’s systems ecology?Donato Bergandi - 1995 - Ludus Vitalis 3 ((5)):145-180..
    The contrast between the strategies of research employed in reductionism and holism masks a radical contradiction between two different scientific philosophies. We concentrate in particular on an analysis of the key philosophical issues which give structure to holistic thought. A first (non-exhaustive) analysis of the philosophical tradition will dwell upon: a) the theory of emergence: each level of organisation is characterised by properties whose laws cannot be deduced from the laws of the inferior levels of organisation (Engels, Morgan); b) clarification (...)
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  15. Sagoff on Ecosystems as Self-Organizing Systems.Rachel Fredericks - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):258-261.
    In “What Does Environmental Protection Protect?” Mark Sagoff argues that there is no ecological way to test the claim that natural ecosystems are complex adaptive systems. In this critical commentary, I recreate that argument, object to it, and attempt to clarify its normative upshot. I show that Sagoff relies on substantive assumptions about (1) the tools and methods of ecological science, (2) what can be done with those tools and methods, and (3) ecology’s being separable from other disciplines, all (...)
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  16. The Structural Links Between Ecology, Evolution and Ethics: The Virtuous Epistemic Circle.Donato Bergandi (ed.) - 2013 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    Abstract - Evolutionary, ecological and ethical studies are, at the same time, specific scientific disciplines and, from an historical point of view, structurally linked domains of research. In a context of environmental crisis, the need is increasingly emerging for a connecting epistemological framework able to express a common or convergent tendency of thought and practice aimed at building, among other things, an environmental policy management respectful of the planet’s biodiversity and its evolutionary potential. -/- Evolutionary biology, ecology and ethics: (...)
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  17. Ecological Imagination and Aims of Moral Education Through the Kyoto School and American Pragmatism.Steven Fesmire - 2012 - In Paul Standish & Naoko Saito (eds.), Education and the Kyoto School of Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 109-130.
    Cross-cultural dialogue between the Kyoto School of modern Japanese philosophy and the classical pragmatist tradition in American philosophy can help educators to clarify aims for greater ecological responsiveness in moral education. This dialogue can contribute to meeting an urgent practical need to cultivate ecological imagination, and an equally practical need to make theoretical sense of the way in which ecological perception becomes relevant to moral deliberation. The first section of this chapter explores relational thinking in the Kyoto School and American (...)
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  18. When Ecology Needs Economics and Economics Needs Ecology: Interdisciplinary Exchange during the Anthropocene.S. Andrew Inkpen & C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (2):203-221.
    Evidence that humans play a dominant role in most ecosystems forces scientists to confront systems that contain factors transgressing traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, it is an open que...
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  19.  76
    Ecological Humanism: A Moral Image for Our Emotive Culture.Steven Fesmire - 2001 - The Humanist 61 (1):27-30.
    Anglo-Americans tend to see themselves as isolated individuals who recognize that their self-interest requires them to cooperate and thus submit to moral rules or moral authorities as long as others agree to do the same. But this picture fails to acknowledge a deeper interconnectedness to the persons and places we live with, and so it fails to sustain an understanding of why our social and natural ecology is important to our flourishing. Fesmire advocates that we cultivate metaphors that more (...)
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  20. « Fundamentals of ecology » de E.P. Odum : véritable « approche holistique » ou réductionnisme masqué ?Donato Bergandi - 1993 - Bulletin d'Écologie, 24 24 (1):57-68.
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  21. Animats in the modeling ecosystem.Xabier Barandiaran & Anthony Chemero - 2009 - Adaptive Behavior 17 (4):287-292.
    There are many different kinds of model and scientists do all kind of things with them. This diversity of model type and model use is a good thing for science. Indeed, it is crucial especially for the biological and cognitive sciences, which have to solve many different problems at many different scales, ranging from the most concrete of the structural details of a DNA molecule to the most abstract and generic principles of self-organization in networks. Getting a grip (or more (...)
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  22. From 'Sustainable Development' to 'Ecological Civilization': Winning the War for Survival.Arran Gare - 2017 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 13 (3):130-153.
    The central place accorded the notion of ‘sustainable development' among those attempting to overcome ecological problems could be one of the main reasons for their failure. ‘Ecological civilization' is proposed and defended as an alternative. ‘Ecological civilization' has behind it a significant proportion of the leadership of China who would be empowered if this notion were taken up in the West. It carries with it the potential to fundamentally rethink the basic goals of life and to provide an alternative image (...)
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  23.  21
    Engineering Topology of Construction Ecology for Dynamic Integration of Sustainability Outcomes to Functions in Urban Environments: Spatial Modeling.Moustafa Osman Mohammed - 2022 - International Scholarly and Scientific Research and Innovation 16 (11):312-323.
    Integration sustainability outcomes give attention to construction ecology in the design review of urban environments to comply with Earth’s System that is composed of integral parts of the (i.e., physical, chemical and biological components). Naturally, exchange patterns of industrial ecology have consistent and periodic cycles to preserve energy flows and materials in Earth’s System. When engineering topology is affecting internal and external processes in system networks, it postulated the valence of the first-level spatial outcome (i.e., project compatibility success). (...)
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  24.  5
    Balancing Food Security & Ecological Resilience in the Age of the Anthropocene.Samantha Noll - 2018 - In Sarah Kenehan & Erinn Gilson (eds.), Food, Environment, and Climate Change. New York, NY, USA:
    Climate change increasingly impacts the resilience of ecosystems and agricultural production. On the one hand, changing weather patterns negatively affect crop yields and thus global food security. Indeed, we live in an age where more than one billion people are going hungry, and this number is expected to rise as climate-induced change continues to displace communities and thus separate them from their means of food production (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre 2015). In this context, if one accepts a humancentric ethic, then (...)
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  25. Political Economy of Forest Ecology in Sierra Leone: A Focus on the Western Area Peninsular Forest.Emerson Abraham Jackson - 2018 - Postmodern Openings 9 (1):63-90.
    This article addressed historical aspects of the political economy involving sustained forest ecology in Sierra Leone as a whole, with emphasis on the Freetown Peninsula and its surrounding communities. Attention is paid to cultural, social and economic aspects involving forest livelihoods of residents on the Freetown Peninsula and far afield. The term 'Political Economy' is used in this situation to denote the relationship between the economics of people's livelihoods and public policy (in relation to the management of legislative procedures) (...)
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  26. Biomimicry and the Materiality of Ecological Technology and Innovation.Vincent Blok - 2016 - Environmental Philosophy 13 (2):195-214.
    In this paper, we reflect on the concept of nature that is presupposed in biomimetic approaches to technology and innovation. Because current practices of biomimicry presuppose a technological model of nature, it is questionable whether its claim of being a more ecosystem friendly approach to technology and innovation is justified. In order to maintain the potentiality of biomimicry as ecological innovation, we explore an alternative to this technological model of nature. To this end, we reflect on the materiality of (...)
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  27.  48
    An alliance beyond the human realm for ecological justice.Shashi Motilal - 2019 - Éthique Et Économique 17 (1).
    This paper proposes to argue that ecological justice that is rooted in an ecocentric approach to nature is the key to achieving integral human development which goes beyond ‘development that is only worth our while’. Ecological justice is achievable if there is a clear understanding of relations at two distinct levels - one, the relation among humans and another between the entire human community and other elements of the ecosystem. These relations are the basis of the alliances that we (...)
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  28.  93
    Internalizing Aldo Leopold's Land Ethic The Communitarian Perspective on Ecological Sustainability and Social Policy.Arran Gare - 2021 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 17 (3):397-420.
    It is clear that environmentalist are failing in their efforts to avert a global ecological catastrophe. It is argued here that Aldo Leopold had provided the foundations for an effective environmental movement, but to develop his land ethic, it is necessary first to interpret and advance it by seeing it as a form of communitarianism, and link it to communitarian ethical and political philosophy. This synthesis can then be further developed by incorporating advanced ideas in ecology and human (...). Overcoming the division between the sciences and humanities and granting a place to narratives as a highly developed form of eco-semiosis, these provide the foundation for a new grand narrative committed to creating an ecological civilization, a civilization organized to augment the life of ecosystems, including human ecosystems, by augmenting the conditions for its members to flourish and develop their full potential to augment life. (shrink)
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  29. Inner Diversity: An Alternative Ecological Virtue Ethics.Jason Kawall - 2001 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 8 (2):27-35.
    I propose a modified virtue ethics, grounded in an analogy between ecosystems and human personalities. I suggest that we understand ourselves as possessing changing systems of inter-related sub personalities with different virtues, and view our characters as flexible and evolving.
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  30.  54
    Biomimicry and the Materiality of Ecological Technology and Innovation in advance.Vincent Blok - forthcoming - Environmental Philosophy.
    In this paper, we reflect on the concept of nature that is presupposed in biomimetic approaches to technology and innovation. Because current practices of biomimicry presuppose a technological model of nature, it is questionable whether its claim of being a more ecosystem friendly approach to technology and innovation is justified. In order to maintain the potentiality of biomimicry as ecological innovation, we explore an alternative to this technological model of nature. To this end, we reflect on the materiality of (...)
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  31. Explaining the behaviour of random ecological networks: the stability of the microbiome as a case of integrative pluralism.Roger Deulofeu, Javier Suárez & Alberto Pérez-Cervera - 2019 - Synthese 198 (3):2003-2025.
    Explaining the behaviour of ecosystems is one of the key challenges for the biological sciences. Since 2000, new-mechanicism has been the main model to account for the nature of scientific explanation in biology. The universality of the new-mechanist view in biology has been however put into question due to the existence of explanations that account for some biological phenomena in terms of their mathematical properties (mathematical explanations). Supporters of mathematical explanation have argued that the explanation of the behaviour of ecosystems (...)
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  32.  50
    Information Systems Governance and Industry 4.0 - epistemology of data and semiotic methodologies of IS in digital ecosystems.Ângela Lacerda Nobre, Rogério Duarte & Marc Jacquinet - 2018 - Advances in Information and Communication Technology 527:311-312.
    Contemporary Information Systems management incorporates the need to make explicit the links between semiotics, meaning-making and the digital age. This focus addresses, at its core, pure rationality, that is, the capacity of human interpretation and of human inscription upon reality. Creating the new real, that is the motto. Humans are intrinsically semiotic creatures. Consequently, semiotics is not a choice or an option but something that works like a second skin, establishing limits and permeable linkages between: human thought and human's infinite (...)
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  33.  8
    Integrating Biosemiotics and Biohermeneutics in the Quest for Ecological Civilization as a Practical Utopia.Arran Gare - 2022 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 18 (2):23-47.
    : ‘Ecological civilization’ has been put forward as a utopia, as this notion has been defended by Ernst Bloch and Paul Ricoeur. It is a vision of the future that puts into question that which presently exists, revealing its contingency while offering an inspiring image of the future that can mobilize people to create this future. Ecological civilization is a vision based on ecological thinking, seeing all life as interdependent communities of communities. Humanity’s place in nature is redefined as participating (...)
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  34.  22
    Non-Human Climate Refugees: The Role that Urban Communities Should Play in Ensuring Ecological Resilience.Samantha Noll - 2018 - Environmental Ethics 40 (2):119-134.
    Urban residents have the potential to play a key role in helping to facilitate ecological resilience of wilderness areas and ecosystems beyond the city by helping ensure the migration of nonhuman climate refugee populations. Three ethical frameworks related to this issue could determine whether we have an ethical duty to help nonhuman climate refugee populations: ethical individualism, ethical holism, and species ethics. Using each of these frameworks could support the stronger view that policy makers and members of the public have (...)
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  35. Arthur G. Tansley’s ‘new psychology’ and its relation to ecology.Joachim L. Dagg - 2007 - Web Ecology 2007.
    In 1935, A. G. Tansley, who was knighted later, proposed the ecosystem concept. Nevertheless, this concept was not without predecessors. Why did Tansley’s ecosystem prevail and not one of its competitors? The purpose of this article is to pin the distinguishing features of Tansley’s ecosystem down, as far as the published record allows. It is an exercise in finding the difference that made a difference. Besides being a pioneering ecologist, Tansley was an adept of psychoanalysis. His interest (...)
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  36. Urban Green Areas: History, Concepts and Ecological Importance.Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel & Bruno Corrêa Barbosa - 2015 - CES Revista 29 (1):30-42.
    The constant changes in the landscape caused mainly by the urban expansion process, have led to the destruction, fragmentation and isolation of natural habitats, with consequent damage to biodiversity. Recognized as potential "refuges" for biodiversity, urban areas have received great attention to the conservation of animals in addition to exercising functions of aesthetic and recreational. In this context, urban vegetation receives different nomenclatures are used interchangeably as synonyms, when in reality, in many cases, are not. In order to highlight the (...)
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  37. From Christian Spirituality To Eco-Friendliness.Emmanuel Orok Duke - 2020 - International Journal of Humanities and Innovation (IJHI) 3 (1):34-38.
    Spirituality connotes praxis informed by religious or faith convictions. This can transform the individual and society at large. Christian spirituality is centered on how a person’s relationship with the God of Jesus Christ informs and directs one’s approach to existence and engagement with the world. The ecosystem concerns humanity and relationship with it is invariably influenced by faith or religious informed praxis. The reality of climate change is convincing many people that humankind’s common homeland needs to be treated with (...)
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  38. The geography of human societies.Donato Bergandi - 1998 - In P. Acot (ed.), The European Origins of Scientific Ecology. Gordon & Breach. pp. 521-533.
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  39. What is the value of historical fidelity in restoration?Justin Garson - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):97-100.
    The following considers the role of historical fidelity in habitat reconstruction efforts. To what extent should habitat reconstruction be guided by the goal of recreating some past state of a damaged ecosystem? I consider Sarkar’s “replacement argument,” which holds that, in most habitat reconstruction efforts, there is little justification for appealing to historical fidelity. I argue that Sarkar does not provide adequate grounds for deprecating historical fidelity relative to other natural values such as biodiversity or wild nature.
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  40.  38
    Factors and conditions of the environmental and economic security formation in Ukraine.Igor Britchenko, Jozefína Drotárová, Oksana Yudenko, Larysa Holovina & Tetiana Shmatkovska - 2022 - Ad Alta: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 2 (12):108-112.
    The article examines the peculiarities of the formation of the ecological and economic security system and the specifics of its principles. The relevance of the transformation of approaches to understanding the essence and principles of ecological and economic security in the context of the need to ensure sustainable development is substantiated. The levels of ecological and economic security and the peculiarities of changes in profits and costs during the transition of the economic system and business entities between these levels are (...)
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  41. Invasive species increase biodiversity and, therefore, services: An argument of equivocations.Christopher Lean - 2021 - Conservation Science and Practice 553.
    Some critics of invasion biology have argued the invasion of ecosystems by nonindigenous species can create more valuable ecosystems. They consider invaded communities as more valuable because they potentially produce more ecosystem services. To establish that the introduction of nonindigenous species creates more valuable ecosystems, they defend that value is provisioned by ecosystem services. These services are derived from ecosystem productivity, the production and cycling of resources. Ecosystem productivity is a result of biodiversity, which is understood (...)
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  42.  60
    Climate Change and Conservation Biology as it Relates to Urban Environments.Samantha Noll & Michael Goldsby - 2020 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 25 (2).
    Climate change continues to have recognizable impacts across the globe, as weather patterns shift and impacts accumulate and intensify. In this wider context, urban areas face significant challenges as they attempt to mitigate dynamic changes at the local level — changes such as those caused by intensifying weather events, the disruption of critical supplies, and the deterioration of local ecosystems. One field that could help urban areas address these challenges is conservation biology. However, this paper presents the argument that work (...)
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  43. What is Natural about Natural Capital during the Anthropocene?C. Tyler DesRoches - 2018 - Sustainability 1 (10):806.
    The concept of natural capital denotes a rich variety of natural processes, such as ecosystems, that produce economically valuable goods and services. The Anthropocene signals a diminished state of nature, however, with some scholars claiming that no part of the Earth’s surface remains untouched. What are ecological economists to make of natural capital during the Anthropocene? Is natural capital still a coherent concept? What is the conceptual relationship between nature and natural capital? This article wrestles with John Stuart Mill’s two (...)
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  44. Bridging practices, institutions, and landscapes through a scale-based approach for research and practice: A case study of a business association in South India.Vivek Anand Asokan, Masaru Yarime & Motoharu Onuki - 2019 - Ecological Economics 160:240-250.
    There is a need for enterprises to incorporate information on the environment into decision making and to take action on ecological restoration. Within academia, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts on how business can serve sustainability transformation is still lacking as diverging holistic approaches and reductive approaches cloud academic thinking. The authors take a science-policy interface perspective to cover the role of cognitive proximity, matching and coordination of scientific knowledge from diverse stakeholders for effective policy making and implementation. We show (...)
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  45. Functional diversity: An epistemic roadmap.Christophe Malaterre, Antoine C. Dussault, Sophia Rousseau-Mermans, Gillian Barker, Beatrix E. Beisner, Frédéric Bouchard, Eric Desjardins, Tanya I. Handa, Steven W. Kembel, Geneviève Lajoie, Virginie Maris, Alison D. Munson, Jay Odenbaugh, Timothée Poisot, B. Jesse Shapiro & Curtis A. Suttle - 2019 - BioScience 10 (69):800-811.
    Functional diversity holds the promise of understanding ecosystems in ways unattainable by taxonomic diversity studies. Underlying this promise is the intuition that investigating the diversity of what organisms actually do—i.e. their functional traits—within ecosystems will generate more reliable insights into the ways these ecosystems behave, compared to considering only species diversity. But this promise also rests on several conceptual and methodological—i.e. epistemic—assumptions that cut across various theories and domains of ecology. These assumptions should be clearly addressed, notably for the (...)
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  46.  83
    Organic Agriculture.Andrzej Klimczuk & Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska - 2020 - In Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa & Péter Marton (eds.), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies. Springer Verlag. pp. 1--7.
    Consumers are increasingly aware of the health- and safety-related implications of the food which they can buy in the market. At the same time, households have become more aware of their environmental responsibilities. Regarding the production of food, a crucial and multifunctional role is played by agriculture. The way vegetables, fruits, and other crops are grown and how livestock is raised has an impact on the environment and landscape. Operations performed by farmers, such as water management, can be dangerous for (...)
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  47.  16
    Abstraction and the Environment.Louis Caruana - manuscript
    The way we understand the environment is analogous to the way we draw a map. Drawing insights from this analogy, this paper shows how the abstraction that occurs in ecological explanation can lead to damaging distortion. It is mistaken, therefore, to assume that by abstraction we can easily determine the correct variables for controlling a given ecosystem as if it were ideally closed. Recent work shows that the environment is a global composite with a very high degree of internal (...)
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  48. Nihilism Incorporated: European Civilization and Environmental Destruction.Arran Gare - 1993 - Bungendore: Eco-Logical Press.
    Environmental degradation is the most important complex of problems ever confronted by humanity. Humans are interfering with the world's ecosystems so severely that they are beginning to undermine the conditions for their own continued existence. They are polluting the air, the oceans and the land. They are rapidly exhausting the reserves of minerals and destroying the resources of the world on which civilization depends, while destroying other life forms on a massive scale. At the same time humans are increasingly enclosing (...)
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  49. The Preservation Paradox and Natural Capital.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - Ecosystem Services: Science, Policy and Practice 101058 (N/A):1-7.
    Many ecological economists have argued that some natural capital should be preserved for posterity. Yet, among environmental philosophers, the preservation paradox entails that preserving parts of nature, including those denoted by natural capital, is impossible. The paradox claims that nature is a realm of phenomena independent of intentional human agency, that preserving and restoring nature require intentional human agency, and, therefore, no one can preserve or restore nature (without making it artificial). While this article argues that the preservation paradox is (...)
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  50. Our responsibility to manage evaluative diversity.Christopher Santos-Lang - 2014 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 44 (2):16-19.
    The ecosystem approach to computer system development is similar to management of biodiversity. Instead of modeling machines after a successful individual, it models machines after successful teams. It includes measuring the evaluative diversity of human teams (i.e. the disparity in ways members conduct the evaluative aspect of decision-making), adding similarly diverse machines to those teams, and monitoring the impact on evaluative balance. This article reviews new research relevant to this approach, especially the validation of a survey instrument for measuring (...)
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