Results for 'Islamic philosophy'

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  1. Islamic Ethics and the Implications for Business.Gillian Rice - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (4):345 - 358.
    As global business operations expand, managers need more knowledge of foreign cultures, in particular, information on the ethics of doing business across borders. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to share the Islamic perspective on business ethics, little known in the west, which may stimulate further thinking and debate on the relationships between ethics and business, and to provide some knowledge of Islamic philosophy in order to help managers do business in Muslim cultures. The case of (...)
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  2. Orientalisms in the Interpretation of Islamic Philosophy.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2006 - Radical Philosophy 135.
    In this paper, I argue that Edward Said’s central thesis in Orientalism has a direct explanatory role to play in our understanding of the work produced in at least one area of scholarship about the Arab and Islamic worlds, namely Arab-Islamic philosophy from the classical or medieval period. Moreover, I claim that it continues to play this role not only for scholarship produced in the West by Western scholars but also within the Arab world itself. After recalling (...)
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  3.  89
    Causality in Islamic Philosophy: The Arguments of Ibn Sīnā.Syamsuddin Arif - 2012 - In Muzaffar Iqbal (ed.), New Perspectives on the History of Islamic Science - Volume 3. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. pp. 299-316.
    This article is intended to provide insight into aspects of Ibn Sīnā’s natural philosophy. It will summarize his interpretation of the Aristotelian four causes, explicate his theory of efficient and necessary causal linkage, and analyze his arguments for causal efficacy. Finally, it will discuss Ibn Sīnā’s views on chance happenings in nature.
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  4.  31
    Review of John Walbridge, The Science of Mystic Lights: Quṭb Al-Dīn Shīrāzī and the Illuminationist Tradition in Islamic Philosophy.Hossein Ziai - 1994 - International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 26:120-124.
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  5. Traditional Islamic Exclusivism –A Critique.Imran Aijaz - 2014
    In this paper, I give an account and critique of what I call ”Traditional Islamic Exclusivism’ -- a specific Islamic interpretation of religious exclusivism. This Islamic version of religious exclusivism rests on exclusivist attitudes towards truth, epistemic justification and salvation. After giving an account of Traditional Islamic Exclusivism by explaining its theological roots in the Qur’an and ahadith, I proceed to critique it. I do so by arguing that Islamic epistemic exclusivism, which forms the main (...)
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  6. Islamic Ethics and the Controversy About the Moral Heart of Confucianism.Mohammad Ashraf Adeel - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):151-156.
    This essay briefly evaluates the ongoing controversy between LIU Qingping and GUO Qiyong (and their followers) about the “moral heart ”of Confucianism in order to draw acomparison with Islamic ethics for mutual illumination of the two traditions.
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  7. A Critique of Modern Philosophy and Plea for Philosophy in Islamic Culture.Ali Rizvi - manuscript
    In this paper I make a case for a genuine and legitimate role for philosophy in modern Islamic culture. However, I argue that in order to make any progress towards reinstating such philosophical activity, we need to look deep into the nature and essence of modern philosophy. In this paper I aim to do this precisely by challenging modern philosophy’s self conception as an absolute critique (i.e. a critique of everything/anything). I argue that such a conception (...)
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  8.  82
    The Seal of Philosophy: Tymieniecka’s Phenomenology of Life in Islamic Metaphysical Perspective.Olga Louchakova-Schwartz - 2014 - In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Nazif Muhtaroglu & Detlev Quintern (eds.), Islamic and Occidental Philosophy in Dialogue, 7. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 71-101.
    This paper argues that the Islamic metaphysical vision finds its Western philosophical counterpart in Anna-Teresa Tymienecka's Phenomenology of Life. Comparative analysis of the main categories and strategies of knowledge in Islamic metaphysics and the Phenomenology of Life demonstrates obvious similarities, but also significant distinctions whereby the systems can be viewed as complementary. Tymieniecka’s philosophy begins with epoché on preceding philosophical knowledge, while Islamic philosophy begins with revelation. Tymieniecka uses presuppositionless phenomenological direct intuition combined with reflective (...)
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  9.  74
    An Islamic Account of Reformed Epistemology.Jamie B. Turner - 2019 - Philosophy East and West (Early Release).
    In reference to the philosophical theology of medieval Islamic theologian Ibn Taymiyya, this paper outlines a parallel between Taymiyyan thought and Alvin Plantinga’s thesis of ‘Reformed Epistemology’. In critiquing a previous attempt to build an account of ‘Islamic externalism’, the Taymiyyan model offers an account that can be seen as wholly ‘Plantingan’.
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  10. The Islamic Concept of Education Reconsidered.Khosrow Bagheri & Zohreh Khosravi - 2006 - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ISLAMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES 23 (4):88-103.
    Some authors have analyzed the Islamic concept of education in parallel to the assumed contrast between Islam and the liberal tradition. Hence, given the latter’s rationalist tendencies, an almost indoctrinatory essence is assumed for the Islamic concept of education. However, we argue that rationality is involved in all elements of the Islamic concept of education. There might be some differences between the Islamic and liberal conceptions of rationality, but these are not so sharp that the derivative (...)
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  11. Philosophy in the Middle Ages: The Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Traditions (3rd Ed.). [REVIEW]Seamus O’Neill - 2011 - Teaching Philosophy 34 (4):439-444.
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  12. Is There an Islamic Environmentalism?Richard Foltz - 2000 - Environmental Ethics 22 (1):63-72.
    Contemporary Muslim writers have demonstrated that an environmental ethic can be derived from the scriptural sources of Islam. However, at present, the impact of this type of interpretation within the Muslim world appears to be minimal. The most promising prospects for disseminating an environmental awareness based on Islamic principles have come from governments, such as those of Iran, Pakistan,and Saudi Arabia, which claim Islam as a basis for legislation.
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  13. An Evidential Argument for Islamic Theism.Zain Ali - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (4):55.
    In this paper, I argue that Islamic theism is best explained by the hypothesis of Divine Commission, whereby Muhammad is viewed as being divinely commissioned to serve the overall salvific purposes of God. To this end, I present three observation reports relating to Islamic theism and evaluate HDC against an alternative hypothesis, the hypothesis of Non-Commission whereby Muhammad is not viewed as being divinely commissioned. I argue that the probability of the observation reports is greater on the assumption (...)
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  14. The Concept of ‘Nature’ in Peripatetic Islamic Philosophers.Nuri Adıgüzel - 2018 - ULUM Journal of Religious Inquiries 1 (1):5-21.
    In this study, lexical and terminological meanings of the term “nature” were analyzed and some Peripatetical Islamic philosophers’ opinions about this term were included. A comparison was made between the words “tabiat” and “doğa” which are used in Turkish language to meet the term “nature”. The realm of existence which Peripatetical Islamic philosophers have used “nature” in as a noun was explained. Debate between Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) about the necessity of proving the term “nature” was (...)
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  15.  99
    Mysticism and Traditional Philosophy in Persia, Pre-Islamic and Islamic.Seyyed Hossein Nasr - 1971 - Studies in Comparative Religion, 5 (4).
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  16. A Path to the Oasis: Sharī‘Ah and Reason in Islamic Moral Epistemology.Edward Omar Moad - 2007 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 62 (3):135 - 148.
    I propose a framework for comparative Islamic—Western ethics in which the Islamic categories "Islam, Iman," and "Ihsan" are juxtaposed with the concepts of obligation, value, and virtue, respectively. I argue that "shari'a" refers to both the obligation component and the entire structure of the Islamic ethic; suggesting a suspension of the understanding of "shari'a" as simply Islamic "law," and an alternative understanding of "usul al-fiqh" as a moral epistemology of obligation. I will test this approach by (...)
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  17. The Development of Dialectic and Argumentation Theory in Post-Classical Islamic Intellectual History.Mehmet Karabela - 2011 - Dissertation, McGill University
    This dissertation is an analysis of the development of dialectic and argumentation theory in post-classical Islamic intellectual history. The central concerns of the thesis are; treatises on the theoretical understanding of the concept of dialectic and argumentation theory, and how, in practice, the concept of dialectic, as expressed in the Greek classical tradition, was received and used by five communities in the Islamic intellectual camp. It shows how dialectic as an argumentative discourse diffused into five communities (theologicians, poets, (...)
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  18.  26
    Ten foundations and features of Islamic psychology.Majid Asadpour - 2016 - In Shakele magazine. pp. 6-11.
    philosophy of Islamic Psychology and some recent debates about it. It is published in a student journal of university of Tehran.
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  19.  62
    Hegel and the Divinity of Light in Zoroastrianism and Islamic Phenomenology.Mohammad Azadpur - 2007 - The Classical Bulletin 82 (2):227-246.
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  20.  99
    De Re and De Dicto Modality in Islamic Traditional Logic.Zia Movahed - 2010 - Sophia Perennis 2:5-14.
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  21.  23
    KNOWLEDGE IN THE MAIN SOURCES OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF SUFISM IN THE PRE-GHAZZĀLĪ PERIOD.Emrah Kaya - 2020 - Dinbilimleri Akademik Arastirma Dergisi 2 (20):1403-1427.
    This article aims to elaborate on the pre-Ghazzālī period Sufis’ approaches to the concept of knowledge. We know that Ghazzālī, as a milestone in the Islamic thought, satisfies in taṣawwuf after a long quest. He benefits from the Sunnī taṣawwuf already established before him. Therefore, the importance of the sources feeding Ghazzālī’s Sufi view is manifest. Thus, in this article, I focus on the ideas of the main figures of the Sunnī taṣawwuf regarding the concept of knowledge. Having stated (...)
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  22.  72
    Knowledge and Authority in Shī‘Ī Philosophy.Hossein Ziai - 2001 - In Linda Clarke (ed.), Shī‘ite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions. Binghamton and New York: GLOBAL PUBLICATIONS, Binghamton University. pp. 359-374.
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  23. Filsafat Islam - Tradisi dan Kontroversi.Syamsuddin Arif - 2014 - TSAQAFAH - Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 10 (1):221-247.
    Is there such a thing called “Islamic philosophy”? If there is one, what is it? What does it mean for philosophy to be Islamic? How does Islamic philosophy differ from non-Islamic one? Why do some Muslim scholars reject philosophy, ban its instruction, and even scorn its proponents? The present article will address all these questions and seeks to offer a balanced perspective on controversial issues pertaining to philosophy in Islamic intellectual (...)
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  24.  24
    Reason and Rationality in the Epistles of Ikhwān Al-Safā’.Emrah Kaya - 2019 - Ilahiyat Tetkikleri Dergisi 1 (52):155-172.
    Ikhwān al-ṣafā’ are one of the most significant groups of authors of Islamic thought. Their teachings became influential where philosophy and Sufism and reason and intuition came together. Ikhwān al-ṣafā’ adopted Neoplatonic philosophy to Islamic thought and affected the course of events and developments of Islamic philosophy and Sufism. Nevertheless, some researchers claim to have Ikhwān al-ṣafā’ evaluated issues superficially and not had original ideas and approaches. However, the fact that Ikhwān al-ṣafā’ throughout their (...)
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  25. Interpretation in Muslim Philosophy.Abduljaleel Alwali - 2012 - online: Globethics.
    Muslim philosophers had been preoccupied with the question of interpretation since the Islamic Philosophy was first developed by its founder Al Kindi till its interpretative maturity by Ibn Rushd who represents the maturity of rationalism in Islamic Arab philosophy. Rational option was the most suitable for Arab Muslim civilization as it expresses the vitality of civilization and its ability to interact with other contemporary civilizations and trends. Islamic philosophy interpretation themes are various as they (...)
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  26. Sayyid Qutb and Aquinas: Liberalism, Natural Law and the Philosophy of Jihad.Lucas Thorpe - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60:413-435.
    In this paper I focus on the work of Sayyid Qutb and in particular his book Milestones, which is often regarded as the Communist Manifesto of Islamic fundamentalism. This paper has four main sections. First I outline Qutb’s political position and in particular examine his advocacy of offensive jihad. In section two I argue that there are a number of tendencies that make his position potentially more liberal that it is often taken to be. I here argue that there (...)
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  27. A Dictionary of Muslim Philosophy.M. Saeed Sheikh - 1970 - Lahore, Institute of Islamic Culture.
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  28. Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rush (Averroes) on Creation and the Divine Attributes.Ali Hasan - 2013 - In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. pp. 141-156.
    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was concerned that early Islamic philosophers were leaning too heavily and uncritically on Aristotelian and Neoplatonic ideas in developing their models of God and His relation to the world. He argued that their views were not only irreligious, but philosophically problematic, and he defended an alternative view aimed at staying closer to the Qur’an and the beliefs of the ordinary Muslim. Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) responded to al-Ghazali’s critique and developed a sophisticated Aristotelian view. The present chapter explores (...)
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  29. “Pletho, Scholarios and the Arabic Philosophy”.Georgios Steiris - 2017 - In Never the Twain Shall Meet: Latins and Greeks Learning from Each Other in Byzantium, Byzantinisches Archiv Series Philosophica 2. Berlin – New York: De Gruyter. pp. 309-334.
    Although the two worlds, Arabic and Byzantine, were in proximity for many centuries, the influence of Arabic philosophy on the Byzantine intellectual tradition has not been studied thoroughly. Recent studies have substantiated the influence of the Arabic and Persian thought over Byzantine science. However, in the field of philosophy, research is still at an early stage and the impact of Arabic thought on Byzantine and vice versa has not been examined widely and in depth. Direct references to philosophers (...)
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  30. The Elements of Avicenna’s Physics: Greek Sources and Arabic Innovations.Andreas Lammer - 2016 - Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter.
    This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the physical theory of the Islamic philosopher Avicenna (d. 1037). It seeks to understand his contribution against the developments within the preceding Greek and Arabic intellectual milieus, and to appreciate his philosophy as such by emphasising his independence as a critical and systematic thinker. Exploring Avicenna’s method of "teaching and learning," it investigates the implications of his account of the natural body as a three-dimensionally extended composite of matter and form, (...)
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  31. D'vûd-i Karsî’nin Şerhu Îs'gûcî Adlı Eserinin Eleştirmeli Metin Neşri ve Değerlendirmesi.Ferruh Özpilavcı - 2017 - Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi 21 (3):2009-2009.
    Dâwûd al-Qarisî (Dâvûd al-Karsî) was a versatile and prolific 18th century Ottoman scholar who studied in İstanbul and Egypt and then taught for long years in various centers of learning like Egypt, Cyprus, Karaman, and İstanbul. He held high esteem for Mehmed Efendi of Birgi (Imâm Birgivî/Birgili, d.1573), out of respect for whom, towards the end of his life, Karsî, like Birgivî, occupied himself with teaching in the town of Birgi, where he died in 1756 and was buried next to (...)
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  32.  95
    Al-Fārābi on the Democratic City.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2003 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 11 (3):379 – 394.
    This essay will explore some of al-Farabi’s paradoxical remarks on the nature and status of the democratic city (al-madinah al-jama'iyyah). In describing this type of non-virtuous city, Farabi departs significantly from Plato, according the democratic city a superior standing and casting it in a more positive light. Even though at one point Farabi follows Plato in considering the timocratic city to be the best of the imperfect cities, at another point he implies that the democratic city occupies this position. Since (...)
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  33. Suhrawardī on Knowledge and the Experience of Light.Hossein Ziai - 2005, - In Matthew T. Kapstein (ed.), The Experience of Light: Divine Radiance and Religious Experience. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 25-44.
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  34. An Inquiry Concerning Alghazali’s Manner of Approach to Philosophy.Ilyas Altuner - 2012 - Igdir University Journal of Social Sciences (1):47-60.
    Although the first thing coming to mind when called Alghazali is theologian celebrated for criticism of philosophy, we only will not mention his critical thinking. It can be thought that this famous thinker of Islamic world has purely attempted to criticism of metaphysics but in our opinion this is not exactly true. With reference to traditional commentaries on Alghazali is not quite well, we desire to try in order to show a reliable approach. In this paper we will (...)
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  35. Against State Censorship of Thought and Speech: The “Mandate of Philosophy” Contra Islamist Ideology.Norman Swazo - 2018 - International Journal of Political Theory 3 (1):11-33.
    Contemporary Islam presents Europe in particular with a political and moral challenge: Moderate-progressive Muslims and radical fundamentalist Muslims present differing visions of the relation of politics and religion and, consequently, differing interpretations of freedom of expression. There is evident public concern about Western “political correctness,” when law or policy accommodates censorship of speech allegedly violating religious sensibilities. Referring to the thought of philosopher Baruch Spinoza, and accounting for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human (...)
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  36. Ontology and Cosmology of the ʿaql in Ṣadrā's Commentary on Uṣūl Al-Kāfī.Amir Asghari - 2017 - Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies 10 (2):157-182.
    ABSTRACT: Mullā Ṣadrā’s (c 1571-1640) commentary on Uṣūl al- Kāfī is one of the more famous commentaries on this significant Shi‘i hadith collection. For his philosophical and Sui background, Ṣadrā’s approach to the hadith is slightly different and in some ways contrary to the earlier commentators such as`Allāma Majlisī in Shi'a and Ibn Taymīyya in Sunni Islam. This paper aims to shed light on the way, Ṣadrā interprets al-Kāfī and particularly to determine his understanding of the ʿaql (intellect) at the (...)
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  37. Nasir Al-Din Tusi.S. J. Badakhchani - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  38.  80
    Abu Ya‘Qub Al-Sijistani.Paul E. Walker - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  39. Reconciling Religion and Philosophy: Nasir-I Khusraw's (D. 1088) Jami' Al-Hikmatayn.Khalil Andani - 2016 - In Khaled El-Rouayheb Sabine Schmidtke (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy. New York: pp. 169-181.
    Nāṣir-i Khusraw (d. 481/1088), the renowned Ismāʿīlī philosopher, poet, travel writer, and missionary (dāʿī), took on the formidable challenge of showing the essential harmony between philosophy and Ismāʿīlī doctrine in his Jāmiʿ al-ḥikmatayn (The Reconciliation of Philosophy and Religion). After introducing his life and works, this chapter explores this text’s central themes and examines the manner in which Nāṣir attempts to achieve this reconciliation. Fundamental to Nāṣir’s method is a form of spiritual hermeneutics, or taʾwīl, through which he (...)
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  40. Direct Intuition: Strategies of Knowledge in the Phenomenology of Life, with Reference to the Philosophy of Illumination.Olga Louchakova-Schwartz - 2013 - Analecta Husserliana 113:291-315.
    This article presents phenomenological meta-analysis of Tymieniecka's phenomenology of life with regard to its strategies of knowledge. The novelty of phenomenology of life consists in special orientation of direct intuition of Tymieniecka's insight. The analysis suggests that the positioning of the direct intuition differes from philosopher to philosopher. Even though this perspective pays attention to individual differences in philosophical thinking, this view has to be distinguished froll1 psychologism as criticized by Husser!. and rather, seen as a development of Husserl 's (...)
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  41. Beşir Fuad and His Opponents: The Form of a Debate Over Literature and Truth in Nineteenth-Century Istanbul.Mehmet Karabela - 2011 - Journal of Turkish Literature 8 (1):96-106.
    One and a half months after Victor Hugo died in 1885, Beşir Fuad published a biography of him, in which Fuad defended Emile Zola’s naturalism and realism against Hugo’s romanticism. This resulted in the most important dispute in nineteenth-century Turkish literary history, the hakikiyyûn and hayâliyyûn debate, with the former represented by Beşir Fuad and the latter represented by Menemenlizâde Mehmet Tahir. This article focuses on the form of this debate rather than its content, and this focus reveals how the (...)
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  42.  49
    Agency and Virtues.Zahra Khazaei - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 21 (3):119-140.
    In the philosophy of action, agency manifests the capacity of the agent to act. An agent is one who acts voluntarily, consciously and intentionally. This article studies the relationship between virtues and agency to learn to what extent agency is conceptually and metaphysically dependent on moral or epistemic virtues; whether virtue is a necessary condition for action and agency, besides the belief, desire and intention? Or are virtues necessary merely for the moral or epistemic character of the agent and (...)
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  43.  45
    Averroes’s Method of Re-Interpretation.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 1998 - International Philosophical Quarterly 38 (2):175-185.
    One contentious issue in contemporary interpretations of medieval Islamic philosophy is the degree of esotericism espoused by its proponents, and therefore the degree of interpretive effort required by its modem readers to ascertain the author's real beliefs. One philosopher who has been accused of esotericism is Averroes (Ibn Rushd), particularly because he is quite explicit in distinguishing among the different types of reasoning appropriate to different classes of people: philosophers, theologians, and laypersons. But on closer inspection Averroes appears (...)
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  44. Al-Fārābi on the Role of Philosophy of History in the History of Civilization.Georgios Steiris - 2018 - In Christian and Islamic Philosophies of Time. Wilmington USA: Vernon Press. pp. 135-144.
    This volume constitutes an attempt at bringing together philosophies of time—or more precisely, philosophies on time and, in a concomitant way, history—emerging from Christianity’s and Islam’s intellectual histories. Starting from the Neoplatonic heritage and the voice of classical philosophy, the volume enters the Byzantine and Arabic intellectual worlds up to Ibn Al-Arabi’s times. A conscious choice in this volume is not to engage with, perhaps, the most prominent figures of Christian and Arabic philosophy, i.e., Augustine on the one (...)
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  45.  13
    GENDER JUSTICE IN ISLAM: AN EVALUATION OF ZIBA MIR-HOSSEINI's RELIGIOUS EPISTEMOLOGY BY EXAMINING HER INTERPRETATION OF QUR’AN 4:34.Tim Orr - 2020 - Dissertation, Middlesex University
    This thesis examines Mir-Hosseini’s hermeneutical strategies to reinterpret how Islam understands gender equality by evaluating whether she allows the text to speak or uses specific hermeneutical methods to create the desired egalitarian meaning. I argue that her strategies fail to succeed by examining her understanding of Qur’an 4:34, which she considers the linchpin to furthering gender oppression in Islam, by utilizing Aysha A. Hidayatullah’s work as a framework of examination. I evaluate the interpretive choices she uses to recover gender equality (...)
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  46.  47
    The Sublime Visions of Philosophy: Fundamental Ontology and the Imaginal World (‘Ālam Al–Mithāl).Mohammad Azadpur - 2006 - In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.), Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm. pp. 183-201.
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  47.  88
    Kitab Syajarah Al-Kawn Ibnu Arabi: Mengurai Konsep Alam Semesta dan Sirah Nabi (Ibn Arabi's Cosmology and Prophet's Biography).Zainul Maarif - 2019 - Jakarta, Indonesia: Turos Pustaka.
    This is an elaboration and a critique of Ibn Arabi's cosmology written in his book "Shajarah Al-Kawn".
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  48.  68
    Emergentism and Sadra’s Psychology; a Common Physicalistic Challenge.Mahdi Homazadeh - 2019 - Asian Philosophy 29 (3):221-230.
    This paper first explores in detail a regenerated theory in philosophy of mind, known among contemporary philosophers as ‘emergentism’. By distinguishing strong and weak versions of the theory, I explain two important explanatory challenges presented by physicalists against this theory. In the following, I provide a brief overview of Sadr al-Muta’allihin’s theory of the incipience and degrees of the soul, examining similarities and differences between this theory and strong emergentism. Then, underlining the main aspects of similarity between the two (...)
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  49. Die Gedachte Natur Ursprünge der Modernen Wissenschaft.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.
    The explanation of nature in theoretical terms was first postulated and initiated by Ancient Greek philosophers. With the rise of monotheistic religions, however, curiosity about our transient world was widely regarded as contributing nothing to salvation. There was a decline in natural philosophy, which lasted for several centuries and was then reversed both in Islamic philosophy and in Christian theology in the Middle Ages. At this point, the "Book of Nature" was recognized as a complement to the (...)
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  50.  75
    A Branched Model For Substantial Motion.Muhammad Legenhausen - 2009 - Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies 2:53-67.
    The seventeenth century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Sadr al-Din Shirazi, known as Mulla Sadra, introduced the idea of substantial motion in Islamic philosophy. This view is characterized by a continuity criterion for diachronic identity, a four-dimensional view of individual substances, the notion that possibilities change, and the continual creation of all creatures. Modern philosophical logic provides means to model a variety of claims about individuals, substances, modality and time. In this paper, the semantics of formal systems discussed by Carnap, (...)
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