Results for 'Old Age'

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  1. The Lived Experience of Doubling: Simone de Beauvoir's Phenomenology of Old Age.Sarah Clark Miller - 2001 - In Wendy O'Brien & Lester Embree (eds.), The Existential Phenomenology of Simone de Beauvoir. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 127-147.
    This essay demonstrates that Beauvoir's La Vieillesse is a phenomenological study of old age indebted to Husserl's phenomenology of the body. Beauvoir's depiction of the (...)
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  2. Transformations of Old Age: Selfhood, Normativity, and Time.Sara Heinämaa - 2014 - In Silvia Stoller (ed.), Simone de Beauvoir’s Philosophy of Age: Gender, Ethics. Indiana University Press. pp. 167-87.
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  3.  56
    Art For Arts Sake In The Old Stone Age.Gregory Currie - 2009 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 6 (1):1-23.
    Is there a sensible version of the sloganArt for arts sake”? If there is, does it apply to anything? I believe that the answers to (...)these questions are Yes and Yes. A positive answer to the first question alone would not be of interest; an intelligible claim without application does not do us much good. Its the positive answer to the second question which is, I think, more important and perhaps surprising, since I claim to find art for arts sake at a time well before most authorities would allow that there was any art at all. But I begin more recently than that. (shrink)
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  4. Aging: The Indian Context.Swami Narasimhananda - 2009 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 114 (4):273-278.
    Old age in the Indian context and facing it through Ayurveda.
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  5.  80
    Death and Aging in Technopolis: Towards a Role Definition of Wisdom.Edmund Byrne - 1976 - Journal of Value Inquiry 10 (3):161-177.
    In this paper I will argue that our own society's philosophy of death and dying has a largely negative effect on public policies towards the elderly, (...)and that these policies will be changed for the better when and if we come to appreciate our elderly as the principal sources of our collective wisdom. Towards these ends, I shall consider in turn some basic types of theories about death, some basic attitudes towards dying and the duration of dying, some models of aging as they affect and/or embody attitudes towards old age, and finally the place of creative expansion in one's advanced years. (shrink)
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  6. Technological Change and Human Obsolescence: An Axiological Analysis.John Danaher - forthcoming - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology.
    Can human life have value in a world in which humans are rendered obsolete by technological advances? This article answers this question by developing an extended analysis (...)
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  7. Virtue and Age.Judith Andre - manuscript
    Elderhoodor old age, if one prefersis a stage of life without much cultural meaning. It is generally viewed simply as a time of regrettable decline. Paying (...) more attention to it, to its special pleasures and developmental achievements, will be helpful not only to elders but to those younger as well. I will argue that three existential tasks are central in elderhood, but also important at every other stage of adult life. I identify three: cherishing the present, accepting the past, and investing in a future broader than ones own. Articulating these tasks is intellectually interesting, useful to elders, and should be enlightening (as well as reassuring) to younger adults. (shrink)
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  8.  44
    (Un)Obvious Education, or Complexities of the Polish Education Aimed at Older People.Krystyna Kamińska - 2017 - In Łukasz Tomczyk & Andrzej Klimczuk (eds.), Selected Contemporary Challenges of Ageing Policy. Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny W Krakowie. pp. 121--147.
    The contemporary combination of information infrastructure with the commonly experienced transformation of knowledge created, in relation to education especially for older adults, an entirely new area of (...)
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  9. The Problems of Divine Location and Age.Seungbae Park - 2017 - European Journal of Science and Theology 31 (2):41-53.
    I develop two problems, which I call the problem of divine location and the problem of divine age, to challenge the theist belief that God created the (...)
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  10.  57
    Analysis of Intergenerational Policy Models.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2013 - Ad Alta: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 3 (1):66--69.
    Contemporary demographic processes forcing increasing attention to the problems of relationships and dependencies between the different age groups. The ageing of the population in each society leads (...)
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  11. Polskie miasta wobec starości i starzenia siȩ.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2013 - Magazyn Miasta:15--17.
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  12.  86
    Beate Rossler, Ed., Privacies: Philosophical Evaluations Reviewed by.Annabelle Lever - 2005 - Philosophy in Review 25 (1):67-69.
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  13.  51
    Age and Workplace Discrimination in Lithuania.Rūta Brazienė - 2017 - In Łukasz Tomczyk & Andrzej Klimczuk (eds.), Selected Contemporary Challenges of Ageing Policy. Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny W Krakowie. pp. 53--68.
    This paper aims to disclose an expression of age and workplace discrimination in the Lithuanian labor market. The paper is discussing theoretical aspects of age discrimination and (...)
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  14.  75
    Inteligentne Miasta Przyjazne Starzeniu Siȩ - Przykłady Z Krajów Grupy Wyszehradzkiej.Andrzej Klimczuk & Łukasz Tomczyk - 2016 - Rozwój Regionalny I Polityka Regionalna 34:79--97.
    Podstawowym celem artykułu jest przybliżenie dwóch wzajemnie powi¸a}zanych koncepcji istotnych z perspektywy zarz¸a}dzania publicznego w ramach polityki wobec starzenia siȩ społeczeństwa na poziomie lokalnym. (...)Pierwsza koncepcja tointeligentne miasta", która dotyczy wykorzystania nowych technologii informacyjno-komunikacyjnych do poprawy zarz¸a}dzania miastami oraz dostarczania obywatelom innowacyjnych usług publicznych. Druga koncepcja tomiasta przyjazne starzeniu siȩ", która obejmuje optymalizacjȩ wszystkich funkcji miejskich do potrzeb wszystkich grup wiekowych oraz wykorzystanie szerokiego zaangażowania interesariuszy na rzecz poprawy jakości życia w okresie starości. Drugim celem jest wskazanie prób praktycznego wdrażania tych koncepcji w krajach Grupy Wyszehradzkiej, które w odróżnieniu od omawianych zazwyczaj w literaturze przykładów z Europy Zachodniej charakteryzuj¸a siȩ nie tylko szybkim starzeniem siȩ populacji, ale też niedostatkami infrastruktury. W podsumowaniu przybliżono wnioski z przeprowadzonej analizy oraz potencjalne dalsze kierunki badań. ** The main aim of this paper is to introduce two interrelated concepts relevant from the perspective of public management of the ageing policy at the local level. The first concept is "smart cities," which refers to the use of new information and communication technologies to improve urban management and delivery of innovative public services for citizens. The second concept is "age-friendly cities," which includes optimization of all municipal functions to meet the needs of all age groups and to use the wide involvement of relevant stakeholders to improve the quality of life in old age. The second aim of the paper is to describe closer attempts of the practical implementation of these concepts in countries of the Visegrad Group that unlike generally discussed in the literature examples from the Western Europe are not only characterized by rapidly ageing populations, but also shortcomings of the infrastructure. Conclusions include a summary of the undertaken analysis and potential future directions of research. (shrink)
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  15. Selected Contemporary Challenges of Ageing Policy.Andrzej Klimczuk & Łukasz Tomczyk (eds.) - 2017 - Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny W Krakowie.
    This volume-"Selected Contemporary Challenges of Aging Policy"-is the most international of all published monographs from the series "Czech-Polish-Slovak Studies in Andragogy and (...)Social Gerontology." Among the scholars trying to grasp the nuances and trends of social policy, there are diverse perspectives, resulting not only from the extensive knowledge of the authors on the systematic approach to the issue of supporting older people but also from the grounds of the represented social gerontology schools. In the texts of Volume VII interesting are both distinct and coherent elements presenting the role of local, regional and global policies in the prism of the countries from which the authors originate: the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia, Italy, Turkey, and the United States. The chapters show a wealth of methodological approaches to the perception of social policy and its tools. In the texts there are issues related to the idea of active ageing, discrimination against older people in the workplace, comparability of solutions friendly to employment of older adults in the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia as well as focused on the importance of educational forms determining an active life in old age. This monograph also attempted to answer the question regarding how to transfer the idea of intergenerational learning into the realm of practice. This issue complements the chapter on the implementation of intergenerational programs in institutions providing long-term care support. The book also outlines a public policy on ageing in the perspective of the changes over the last few decades and the case demonstrating solutions to accelerate self-reliance as a key to active ageing. We hope that seventh volume of our series will be an intellectual stimulus for further international research on change in social policy and will contribute to the dissemination of best practices as well as contribute to positive social change. (shrink)
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  16. Evolution, Dysfunction, and Disease: A Reappraisal: Table 1.Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (2):301-327.
    Somenaturalistaccounts of disease employ a biostatistical account of dysfunction, whilst others use aselected effectaccount. Several recent authors have argued that the biostatistical account (...)
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  17.  61
    Kapitał społeczny ludzi starych na przykładzie mieszkańców miasta Białystok.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2012 - Wiedza I Edukacja.
    "Kapitał społeczny ludzi starych na przykładzie mieszkańców miasta Białystok" to książka oparta na analizach teoretycznych i empirycznych, która przedstawia problem diagnozowania i używania kapitału społecznego ludzi (...) starych w procesach rozwoju lokalnego i regionalnego. Kwestia ta jest istotna ze względu na zagrożenia i wyzwania związane z procesem szybkiego starzenia się społeczeństwa polskiego na początku XXI wieku. Opracowanie stanowi próbę sformułowania odpowiedzi na pytania: jaki jest stan kapitału społecznego ludzi starych mieszkających w Białymstoku, jakim ulega przemianom i jakie jest jego zróżnicowanie? Ludzie starzy tu postrzegani jako kategoria społeczna, czyli zbiór osób podobnych do siebie pod względem społecznie istotnych cech (takich jak wiek, posiadane role społeczne i świadomość korzystania ze świadczeń społecznych), którzy świadomi tego podobieństwa i swojej odrębności od innych. Przyjmuje się ponadto, osoby takie przekroczyły 60. rok życia. Zakłada się też, że w zasobach ludzkich skumulowany jest kapitał ludzki, społeczny i kulturowy. Kapitał społeczny jest tu ujmowany szeroko jako potencjał współdziałania osadzony w powiązaniach międzyludzkich i normach społecznych, który może przynosić korzyści osobom, grupom i społeczeństwom. W części teoretycznej przedstawiono informacje o starości jako etapie w życiu jednostki, wyjaśniono pojęcie ludzi starych, omówiono społeczne teorie starzenia się, historyczne czynniki oddziaływające na położenie kategorii społecznej ludzi starych, zmiany ich miejsca w społeczeństwie polskim w trakcie transformacji ustrojowej i na początku XXI wieku, możliwe konsekwencje wzrostu długości życia w warunkach demokracji i kapitalizmu oraz charakterystykę problemu starzenia się ludności Białegostoku jako miasta pogranicza. Zaprezentowano też różnorodne koncepcje kapitału społecznego, sfery jego oddziaływania na rozwój społeczno-gospodarczy, jego stan w Polsce oraz wytyczne do strategicznego budowania jego zasobów. Przybliżono również wybrane informacje o aktywności ludzi starych w życiu publicznym, społecznym i gospodarczym jako kluczowych cechach ich kapitału społecznego. Porządkując różne stanowiska teoretyczne, wyniki badań i dane statystyczne, dążono do powiązania wielu rozproszonych źródeł w przekonaniu, jest to istotne w celu określenia i zagospodarowania zasobów kapitału społecznego seniorów, jak również niwelacji opóźnienia polskiej socjologii w zakresie badań nad ludźmi starymi. Pomimo, za podstawową perspektywę teoretyczną publikacji uznana została koncepcja kapitału P. Bourdieu, autor bierze również pod uwagę propozycje badawcze J.S. Colemana, R.D. Putnama, F. Fukuyamy, A. Giddensa, P. Sztompki i A. Sadowskiego. Drugi rozdział zawiera określenie ram metodologicznych badań przeprowadzonych na potrzeby tej publikacji. Omówiono przyjęte założenia badawcze oraz przybliżono sposób i przebieg realizacji badań. Przede wszystkim zdecydowano się na korzystanie z metody jakościowej i zastosowanie techniki wywiadu swobodnego ukierunkowanego. Uznano, podmiotowy kontakt z ludźmi starymi umożliwi dokładniejsze rozpoznanie kontekstu, w którym znajdują się zasoby ich kapitału społecznego. Jest to ważne, gdyż przenoszenie na rodzimy grunt opracowanych za granicą interpretacji działań ludzi starych i rozwiązań aktywizujących, może okazać się nieskuteczne lub wywołać negatywne efekty zewnętrzne. Ponadto w literaturze przedmiotu zwraca się uwagę na niedostatek badań gerontologicznych zgodnych z paradygmatem interpretatywnym. Badaniu poddano 26 respondentów w wieku od 60 do 89 lat żyjących w mieście Białystok związanych z jedną z dwóch różnych instytucji: Domem Pomocy Społecznej i Uniwersytetem Trzeciego Wieku. Poprzez porównywanie osób znajdujących się na dwóch biegunach aktywności społecznej możliwe było dostrzeżenie podobieństw i różnic w ich wyposażeniu kapitałowym, a zarazem w osiągniętych w ciągu życia pozycjach w strukturze klasowej i zasobach służących pomyślnej starości6. W trzecim rozdziale przedstawiona została część wyników analiz empirycznych. Przybliżono tu sposób, w jaki ludzie starzy myślą o podobnych sobie przodkach i osobach współczesnych, a także czynniki, w zależności od których zmienia się ich pozycja społeczna w mieście oraz problemy społeczne, jakie uznają za najważniejsze dla ludzi starych. Analizie poddano opinie o ich czasie wolnym, szansach i barierach aktywności ekonomicznej. Wyróżniono typy kapitału społecznego ludzi starych w zależności od instytucji, z którymi związani oraz podejścia do postrzegania i wykorzystywania zróżnicowania wewnętrznego seniorów. Omówiono wizerunek seniorów w środkach masowego przekazu. Publikacja nie zawiera ścisłego zakończenia. W ostatnim rozdziale wskazano jedynie na główne wnioski płynące z badań oraz na potencjalne dalsze kierunki analiz. Uzupełnienie tego podejścia stanowią zamieszczone w aneksie zestawienia oddolnych technik budowania kapitału społecznego oraz podstawowych cech Miast Przyjaznych Starszemu Wiekowi. Z opracowania tego z pewnością będą mogli skorzystać nie tylko naukowcy zajmujący się tematyką ludzi starych, ale i pracownicy socjalni, politycy, pracodawcy, przedstawiciele mediów i organizacji pozarządowych oraz obywatele Białegostoku i innych miast. ** "Social Capital of Old People on the Example of Bialystok Residents" is a book based on theoretical and empirical study, which presents an issue of diagnosing and using of old people social capital in the local and regional development processes. This issue is significant because of the threats and challenges associated with process of rapid ageing of Polish society at the beginning of 21st century. Publication, in particular, is an attempt to give answers to the following questions: what is the state of old people social capital in Bialystok, what transformations it undergoes and how is it differentiated? In this study old people are viewed as a social category, which is a set of people similar to each other in terms of socially significant features (such as age, possessed social roles and awareness of received social benefits), who are aware of these similarities and differences between each other. Moreover, it is assumed, that such persons exceeded the 60 years of age. It is also assumed that human, social and cultural capital is accumulated in the human resources. Social capital is recognized here broadly as a potential for collaboration embedded in interpersonal relationships and social norms that may benefit individuals, groups and societies. The book consists of three chapters. The first, which is the theoretical part of work, includes information about: old age as a stage of individual life and explanation of the old people notion. It discusses social theories of ageing, historical factors affecting on the social position of old people category, changes in their place in Polish society during the system transformation and in the early 21st century. It describes the possible consequences of increased life expectancy for democracy and capitalism - including the concepts of society for all ages, silver economy. It also features ageing population issue, as well as social policy towards the elderly and old age in Bialystok as the borderland city. A variety of social capital concepts were presented; the spheres of its influence on socio-economic development, its status in Poland and guidelines for strategic building of its resources. Selected information on the activity of old people in public, social and economic life as key features of their social capital was brought closer. Putting various theoretical positions, results of research and statistical data in order was aimed to link many dispersed sources considering that it is relevant to identify and develop seniors' social capital resources, as well as leveling the delay of Polish sociology research on the elderly. Fundamental theoretical perspective of publication is the concept of capital according to P. Bourdieu. However, the proposals of J.S. Coleman, R.D. Putnam, F. Fukuyama, A. Giddens, P. Sztompka and A. Sadowski were also used. The second chapter contains a methodological framework for the purposes of study. Research assumptions, method and course of implementation of studies were discussed. The study is based on the qualitative method and the application of in-depth interview techniques. It was considered that the personal contact with old people will be more accurate than other research techniques to identify the context in which they social capital resources can be found. It is important because the transfer of developed abroad activating solutions and interpretations of old people actions may be ineffective or have negative external effects in the Polish context. Moreover, in the Polish science literature attention is paid to scarcity of gerontological research in accordance with the interpretive paradigm. Study involved 26 respondents aged 60 to 89 years living in Bialystok associated with one of two different institutions: nursing home for the elderly and University of the Third Age. By comparing the persons on two extremes of social activity it was possible to see similarities and differences in their capital equipment, and also in achievements of the life positions in the class structure and resources aimed at successful ageing. The third chapter presents the empirical analysis of the research results. This part outlines the way in which old people think about their ancestors and contemporary people. It also shows factors according to changes in their social position in the city, social issues which they consider most important for old people, their opinions about leisure time, opportunities and barriers of economic activity and types of old people social capital depending on the institution with which they are associated. Approach to the perception and use of internal disparities of seniors were also discussed. The analysis additionally contains the evaluation of senior citizens image in the polish mass media. This publication does not contain a strict ending. It only identifies the main conclusions of the research and potential directions of future analysis. Above all, older people could improve their position not by demanding increases in social benefits from which major parts are often taken away by their family members, but by highlighting their human, social and cultural capital. It is necessary to create favorable conditions for social and professional life of old people and their cooperation with members of local communities. Important role in this regard is played by institutions implementing three tasks: stimulating senior citizens' desire to satisfy previously unrealized needs; creating relationships between them so that they can solve their own problems and work for the others; and providing legal, social and vocational guidance. Stimulating cooperation between existing public, commercial and non-governmental sector organizations may serve to achieve these goals. The dissemination of bottom-up techniques of social capital building and checklist of essential features of Age-friendly Cities may also be important. -/- . (shrink)
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  18. The Conditions of the Question: What Is Philosophy?Gilles Deleuze, Daniel W. Smith & Arnold I. Davidson - 1991 - Critical Inquiry 17 (3):471-478.
    Perhaps the questionWhat is philosophy?” can only be posed late in life, when old age has come, and with it the time to speak in concrete (...)
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  19. Aktywność Ekonomiczna Ludzi Starych W Kontekście Badań Nad Kapitałem Społecznym Na Przykładzie Mieszkańców Białegostoku.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2011 - In Stefański Marian (ed.), Wȩzły Gordyjskie Rozwoju Polski Wschodniej. Innovatio Press. pp. 289--311.
    Work of elderly is a controversial problem. The introduction of protection of old age in form of pensions and retirement caused shaping in modern societies qualitatively new (...)
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  20.  76
    Modele Wielosektorowej Polityki Społecznej Wobec Ludzi Starych I Starości W Kontekście Zmiany Technologicznej.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2015 - Zarz¸Adzanie Publiczne 2:41--53.
    Starzenie siȩ społeczeństw stanowi wyzwanie, które wymaga opracowywania i wdrażania horyzontalnej polityki społecznej. Polityka ta powinna uwzglȩdniać zróżnicowanie osób starszych oraz odmienność działań skierowanych do osób starszych (...)
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  21.  36
    W Kreatywnym Chaosie. O Zróżnicowaniu Starości Na Przykładzie Prac Społeczności deviantART.Com.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2009 - In Honorata Jakubowska, Alicja Raciniewska & Łukasz Rogowski (eds.), Patrz¸Ac Na Starość. Uam. pp. 165--211.
    Internet increasingly serves not only to communication between its users. The emergence of Web 2.0 platforms which are peculiar to publication of various content allowed to (...) release of activity and commitment of millions of people worldwide. Study contains sociological analysis of already existing visual materials dealing with old age, which were made by users of the deviantART.com. Its one of the longest established online community bringing together artists from around the world. Article draws attention to the multiplicity of contemporary forms of presentation of old age and difficulties and methodological guidelines related to the study of resources from new media. ** Sieć internet coraz czȩściej służy nie tylko komunikacji miȩdzy jej użytkownikami. Pojawienie siȩ serwisów Web 2.0 stanowi¸a}cych swoiste platformy do publikacji najrozmaitszych treści pozwoliło na uwolnienie pokładów aktywności i zaangażowania milionów ludzi na świecie. Praca traktuje o próbie socjologicznej analizy wizualnych materiałów zastanych traktuj¸a}cych o starości, które zostały udostȩpnione publicznie przez osoby korzystaj¸a}ce z witryny deviantART.com. Jest to jedna z najdłużej funkcjonuj¸a}cych społeczności internetowych zrzeszaj¸acych artystów z całego świata. Artykuł zwraca uwagȩ na wielość współczesnych form prezentacji starości oraz trudności i wskazówki metodologiczne zwi¸azane z badaniem zasobów nowych mediów. (shrink)
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  22.  49
    Bezpieczeństwo Ludzi Starych W Kontekście Badań Nad Kapitałem Społecznym Na Przykładzie Mieszkańców Białegostoku.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2010 - In Małgorzata Halicka, Jerzy Halicki & Krzysztof Czykier (eds.), Zagrożenia W Starości I Na Jej Przedpolu. Uniwersytet W Białymstoku. pp. 75--90.
    Polish society gathers features specific tolate modernityperiod. In this period grows up the meaning of organizational forms, flow of information, trust to other people and (...)
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  23. Aging in the Social Space.Andrzej Klimczuk & Łukasz Tomczyk - 2015 - The Association of Social Gerontologists.
    A publication called Aging in the Social Space is a compilation of studies, which deal with theoretical understanding and empirical solutions, learning about problem spheres, specifying content (...)
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  24.  26
    ModeleSrebrnej GospodarkiW Unii Europejskiej W Ujȩciu Porównawczym. Próba Wprowadzenia Do Dyskusji.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2016 - Problemy Zarządzania 14 (2):41--59.
    Jednym ze zjawisk zwi¸a}zanych z procesem starzenia siȩ społeczeństw s¸a przemiany systemów gospodarczych zorientowane na produkcjȩ i dystrybucjȩ dóbr i usług dla osób starszych, jak (...)
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  25. Moral Case for Legal Age Change.Joona Räsänen - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):461-464.
    Should a person who feels his legal age does not correspond with his experienced age be allowed to change his legal age? In this paper, I argue (...)
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  26. Information, Physics, Quantum: The Search for Links.John Archibald Wheeler - 1989 - In Proceedings III International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Tokyo: pp. 354-358.
    This report reviews what quantum physics and information theory have to tell us about the age-old question, How come existence? No escape is evident from four (...)conclusions: (1) The world cannot be a giant machine, ruled by any preestablished continuum physical law. (2) There is no such thing at the microscopic level as space or time or spacetime continuum. (3) The familiar probability function or functional, and wave equation or functional wave equation, of standard quantum theory provide mere continuum idealizations and by reason of this circumstance conceal the information-theoretic source from which they derive. (4) No element in the description of physics shows itself as closer to primordial than the elementary quantum phenomenon, that is, the elementary device-intermediated act of posing a yes-no physical question and eliciting an answer or, in brief, the elementary act of observer-participancy. Otherwise stated, every physical quantity, every it, derives its ultimate significance from bits, binary yes-or-no indications, a conclusion which we epitomize in the phrase, it from bit. (shrink)
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  27.  58
    Something From Nothing: Why Some Negative Existentials Are Fundamental.Fatema Amijee - forthcoming - In Sara Bernstein & Tyron Goldschmidt (eds.), Non-being: New Essays on the Metaphysics of Nonexistence. Oxford University Press.
    It strikes many as obvious that negative factssuch as that Justin Trudeau is not the prime minister of Australiaare not fundamental: negative facts must ultimately be (...) explained in terms of positive facts (for instance, that Justin Trudeau is the prime minister of Canada). I focus on a particular class of negative facts: contingent negative existentials (such as that there are no 10ft tall humans). If contingent negative existentials are not fundamental, then they must be explained. But the claim that contingent negative existentials are explained is in tension with the widely held view that any universal generalization can be explained by its instances together with a totality fact (i.e. a fact to the effect that the instances exhaust the relevant domain). This is because a totality fact is itself a negative existential, and equivalent to a universal generalization. If the explanation for any contingent negative existential must appeal to another contingent negative existential, thenunless there are no fundamental factsnot all contingent negative existentials can be non-fundamental. I argue that we should give up the age-old mantra that only positive facts can be fundamental. I show that at least some contingent negative existentials are fundamental. I first make the case for including a totality fact in the explanans for a contingent negative existential and show that alternative accounts for explaining such facts are inadequate. I then undermine the standard arguments for subscribing to the view that there are no negative factsincluding negative existentialsat the fundamental level. (shrink)
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  28. Transfer of Personality to Synthetic Human ("Mind Uploading") and the Social Construction of Identity.John Danaher & Sim Bamford - 2017 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (11-12):6-30.
    Humans have long wondered whether they can survive the death of their physical bodies. Some people now look to technology as a means by which this might (...)
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  29. The Humanistic Paradigm and Bio-Psyhco-Social Approach as a Basis of Social Support for People with Mental Health Problems.Nataliia Bondarenko - 2018 - Psychology and Psychosocial Interventions 1:8-14.
    The article discusses the actual problem of social support for people with mental health problems, which has an important place in the study field of social psychology (...)
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  30. Historical Inductions: New Cherries, Same Old Cherry-Picking.Moti Mizrahi - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (2):129-148.
    In this article, I argue that arguments from the history of science against scientific realism, like the arguments advanced by P. Kyle Stanford and Peter Vickers, are (...)
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  31. How to Be a Realist About Sui Generis Teleology Yet Feel at Home in the 21St Century.Richard Cameron - 2004 - The Monist 87 (1):72-95.
    Contemporary discussion of biological teleology has been dominated by a complacent orthodoxy. Responsibility for this shortcoming rests primarily, I think, with those who ought to have been (...)
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  32. Panpsychism and Causation: A New Argument and a Solution to the Combination Problem.Hedda Hassel Mørch - 2014 - Dissertation, Oslo
    Panpsychism is the view that every concrete and unified thing has some form of phenomenal consciousness or experience. It is an age-old doctrine, which, to the (...)surprise of many, has recently taken on new life. In philosophy of mind, it has been put forth as a simple and radical solution to the mindbody problem (Chalmers 1996, 2003;Strawson 2006; Nagel 1979, 2012). In metaphysics and philosophy of science, it has been put forth as a solution to the problem of accounting for the intrinsic nature of the physical itself (Strawson 2006, Seager 2006). In this thesis, I show that panpsychism can also be defended on the basis of an argument from our (arguable) acquaintance with the nature of causation in agency. This argument has made frequent appearances throughout the history of philosophy, with philosophers such as Leibniz, Schopenhauer and James, and I construct and defend an updated version of it. Furthermore, I offer a solution to the combination problem: how can complex (human and animal-type) consciousness result from simple (fundamental particle-type) consciousness? This is generally regarded as the most serious problem facing contemporary panpsychism. I propose that mental combination can be construed as kind causal process culminating in a fusion, and show how this avoids the main difficulties with accounting for mental combination. (shrink)
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  33. Page, Text and Screen in the University: Revisiting the Illich Hypothesis.Lavinia Marin, Jan Masschelein & Maarten Simons - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (1):49-60.
    In the age of web 2.0, the university is constantly challenged to re-adapt itsold-fashionedpedagogies to the new possibilities opened up by digital technologies. (...)
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  34.  23
    Age and Ageing: What Do They Mean?Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Ratio.
    This article provides a philosophical overview of different approaches to age and ageing. It is often assumed that our age is determined by the amount of time (...)
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  35.  29
    Age Change in Healthcare Settings: a Reply to Lippert-Rasmussen and Petersen.Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Lippert-Rasmussen and Petersen discuss myMoral case for legal age changein their articleAge change, official age and fairness in health’. They argue that in (...)important healthcare settings (such as distributing vital organs for dying patients), the state should treat people on the basis of their chronological age because chronological age is a better proxy for what matters from the point of view of justice than adjusted official age. While adjusted legal age should not be used in deciding who gets scarce vital organs, I remind the readers that using chronological age as a proxy is problematic as well. Using age as a proxy could give wrong results and it is better, if possible, for states to use the vital information directly than use age as a proxy. (shrink)
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  36.  16
    О Месте Трактата О Юности И Старости, Жизни И Смерти И О Дыхании В Корпусе Аристотелевских Сочинений, Его Названии И Разделении Текста Издателями.Maria Solopova - 2018 - Schole 12 (1):167-181.
    The article deals with some textual issues related with Aristotles treatiseOn Youth and Old Age, Life and Death. This text is conventionally included in the (...)so-calledsmall scientific works”. In the article I considers the title variants testified in the sources as well as the place the treatise occupies within the set of Aristotles scientific works. I trace the parallels of this treatise with another Aristotles works, such asDe longitudine et brevitate vitaeandDe anima”. The treatise is further compared with Aristotles works on physics and biology, esp. “De partibus animalium”, “De motu animalium”, “De generatione animalium”. I discuss the concept of life, functions of the vegetative soul, itsmediallocation, and Aristotles definition of the souls and bodys «midpoint» in respect to the «upward» and «downward» directions. For understanding the meaning of the term «innate natural heat» it is proposed to compare it with the terminology of such Aristotelian works asDe motu animaliumandDe generatione animalium”. (shrink)
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  37. Further Defence of Legal Age Change: a Reply to the Critics.Joona Räsänen - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):471-472.
    InMoral case for legal age change’, I argue that sometimes people should be allowed to change their age. I refute six immediate objections against the view (...)
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  38. Meta-Metaphysics.Tuomas Tahko - 2018 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Meta-metaphysics concerns the nature and methodology of metaphysics and metaphysical inquiry. The emergence of meta-metaphysics as a systematic area of study is relatively recent, going back (...) to the late 1990s. But the issues pursued in meta-metaphysics are certainly not novel: an age old question about the nature of metaphysics is whether it is possible to obtain knowledge about metaphysical matters in the first place, and if it is, how this knowledge is obtained. (shrink)
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  39. Consciousness, Free Will, Moral Responsibility.Caruso Gregg - forthcoming - In Rocco Gennaro (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Consciousness. Routledge.
    In recent decades, with advances in the behavioral, cognitive, and neurosciences, the idea that patterns of human behavior may ultimately be due to factors beyond our conscious (...)
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  40.  26
    The Problem with Reason.Kaius Ikejezie - manuscript
    Reason is the tool of our knowledge but in philosophy this tool encounters difficulties, especially, when it is faced with the big questions - the source of philosophy (...)'s deep disagreements. Another difficulty arises from the fact that philosophy and religion cross each other's path: the first draws deductions from rational principles in its approach to religion while the second does not remain firm on its terrain - it keeps looking for rational answers. In essence, this is what this article deals with. If for thousands of years philosophers have been taking turns in arguing and disagreeing with one another on some big questions, there comes a time when the circle has to be broken. In fact, that time has come; this article offers a novel approach to end the age-old debate on, for instance, God talk. (shrink)
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  41. This is What a Historicist and Relativist Feminist Philosophy of Disability Looks Like.Shelley Tremain - 2015 - Foucault Studies (19):7.
    ABSTRACT: With this article, I advance a historicist and relativist feminist philosophy of disability. I argue that Foucaults insights offer the most astute tools with which (...)to engage in this intellectual enterprise. Genealogy, the technique of investigation that Friedrich Nietzsche famously introduced and that Foucault took up and adapted in his own work, demonstrates that Foucaults historicist approach has greater explanatory power and transgressive potential for analyses of disability than his critics in disability studies have thus far recognized. I show how a feminist philosophy of disability that employs Foucaults technique of genealogy avoids ahistorical, teleological, and transcultural assumptions that beleaguer much work in disability studies. The article also situates feminist philosophical work on disability squarely in age-old debates in (Eurocentric) Western philosophy about universalism vs. relativism, materialism vs. idealism, realism vs. nominalism, and freewill vs. determinism, as well as contributes to ongoing discussions in (Western) feminist philosophy and theory about (among other things) essentialism vs. constructivism, identity, race, sexuality, agency, and experience. (shrink)
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  42. Introduction: Know Thyself.Richard Gipps & Michael Lacewing - 2019 - In Richard Gipps & Michael Lacewing (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. Oxford, UK: pp. 1-22.
    In this introduction to the Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychoanalysis, we provide an overview of the promise and problems of connecting philosophy and psychoanalysis through a (...)
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  43.  37
    Gleiche Gerechtigkeit: Grundlagen Eines Liberalen Egalitarismus.Stefan Gosepath - 2004 - Suhrkamp.
    Equal Justice explores the role of the idea of equality in liberal theories of justice. The title indicates the books two-part thesis: first, I claim that (...) justice is the central moral category in the socio-political domain; second, I argue for a specific conceptual and normative connection between the ideas of justice and equality. This pertains to the age-old question concerning the normative significance of equality in a theory of justice. The book develops an independent, systematic, and comprehensive theory of equality and egalitarianism. The principal question is about the importance of equality in a theory of justice. More precisely, we should pose questions in four contracting circles: 1. Is justice the supreme value guiding our setup of the basic structure of society, or are there other, equally important values, such as recognition, care, communal belonging? 2. If justice is the highest guiding principle, which competing idealsespecially equality and freedomought to have precedence in a policy oriented toward justice? What status does the ideal of equality have in that framework? 3. If equality is a basic ideal of just policy, how should it be practically realized? What sort of equality (equal opportunity, equality of welfare, resource equality) should be demanded? 4. What patterned distribution of which specific goods does the ideal of equality demand? Which principles of distribution can be justified according to our justice ideal? To conclude and summarize: 5. What is the essential core of an egalitarian theory of justice, as opposed to an inegalitarian theory? These five questions structure the works order of argumentation. Part A elaborates the conceptual foundations and basic moral principles of justice and equality. Chapter I sets out to install justice as the central moral category in the socio-political domain. At the beginning of the first chapter, the conceptual foundations of justice are clarified. While not eliminating the classical distinctions between different forms of justice, I argue that the distributive paradigm is of primary importance. The primacy of justice in the socio-political domain is developed out of a confrontation with alternative positions, those which maintain either that justice generally, or distributive justice in particular, are subsidiary virtues. At the end of Chapter I, the first of the questions mentioned above is answered in a way that establishes justice as the guiding normative concept for the foundation and evaluation of any social order. To clarify the role of equality in a theory of justice, Chapter II separates the idea of equality into four different principles. They are organized in a way that begins with the most general and uncontroversial principle of equality, and progresses towards increasingly detailed and contested principles. There are two theses that articulate and defend the significance of equality for justice: First there is a conceptual connection between justice and equality, in that principles of formal and proportional equality are necessary in order to explicate the concept of justice. These two principles establish an unbreakable bond between justice and equality. Justice can only be explainedor so I argueby reference to these and other (normative) principles of equality. The second thesis posits a normative relationship between justice and equality, which is disclosed by three substantive principles of equality: moral equality, the presumption of equality, and the principle of responsibility. I argue that the normative core of an egalitarian theory of justice is expressed by the latter two principles, which are themselves based on the first principle, that of moral equality. When we view one another as persons, what form of equality or equal treatment is normatively demanded? I argue that the answer to this question is given by the procedural principle of the presumption of equality: regardless of their apparent differences, all persons deserve strictly equal treatment, unless certain kinds of differences have whatever particular relevance would justify, on generally acceptable grounds, unequal treatment or unequal distribution. The justification of the presumption of equality is central to this work and has considerable importance. If the presumption principles validity can be justified by enlisting the principle of general justification, then the primacy of equality, and the essential argument for an egalitarian theory of justice, is established. This would likewise provide a procedure for the construction of a material theory of justice. The second question is answered thereby at the end of Chapter II: Equality should have primacy over competing ideals within a justice-oriented policy. The presumption of equality establishes this primacy and, at the same time, offers an appropriate metric and guideline for the construction of a material theory of distributive justice. The presumption of equality in Part B offers an elegant procedure for the development of a theory of distributive justice. Chapter III clearly sets out the necessary prerequisites that a theory of distribution must satisfy in order to determine a liberal-egalitarian distributional framework. We need to specify in which situation the distribution takes place; which goods are and are not to be distributed; in which respect the presumptive equality is to be produced; and by and to whom, and for what period, the relevant goods are to be distributed. The distribution is based on resources understood as general-purpose means. It is necessary to divide goods into different categories, since the justification for unequal treatment in one domain will not carry over into another. This makes presumptive equality necessarily complex. To that end, four spheres of justice are distinguished: (1) the political sphere, which involves allocating rights through the distribution of civil liberties; (2) the democratic sphere, in which political power and the rights of political participation are regulated; (3) the economic sphere, in which income and property are distributed; (4) the social sphere, in which social positions and opportunities are distributed. This framework of distributive justice answers the third of our guiding questions, about the nature of equality, in terms of equality of resources. Chapters IV and V set out the egalitarian distributive criteria for each sphere. I argue that the generally accepted, fundamental rights of classical liberalism are more effectively reconstructed by reference to the equal resource distribution presumptively required in those spheres. Chapter IV shows that when it comes to the first two spheres, those involving basic rights and freedoms and entitlement political participation, there can be no justified exceptions to the equal distribution of the relevant goods. That section argues, contrary to what we commonly find in theories of freedom or popular sovereignty, that the value of freedom and self-determination as the political basis of autonomy is best realized through the presumption of equal distribution. Chapter V deals with the other two spheres, those of economic goods and social positions, and argues for justified exceptions to equal distribution. In the economic sphere we find one principal reason favouring unequal distribution of resources, and three restrictions and compensations limiting that inequality. The basic exception to equal economic distribution arises from the unequal consequences of personal responsibility. From a suitably egalitarian standpoint, the principle of responsibility is the normative principle that determines which reasons justify economic inequality. Here the basic idea is that unequal shares of social goods are fair if they result from the choices and deliberate actions of the relevant parties. That individuals have to bear the costs of their own choices is a condition of autonomy. However, benefits or disadvantages arising from arbitrary and unmerited differences in social circumstances or natural endowments is unfair. The unequal consequences of independent decision-making and action must therefore be limited by compensating first for preferences, secondly for disadvantages, and thirdly by redistributing wealth in aid of the worse-off. I situations of emergency, compensating for disadvantages has priority over all other claims, owing to the urgency of the situation. Social inequalities go beyond the permissible limit if it is possible to improve the long-term social or economic situation of the worse-off by redistributing wealth to them. These exceptions lead to a complex system of free economic action within a framework of compensatory tax and transfer mechanisms. Finally, in the social sphere, the distribution of social positions, offices and opportunities must be structured to ensure that equally talented and motivated citizens have roughly equal chances of obtaining those offices or positions, irrespective of their economic or social class backgrounds. This compromise is permissible for reasons of freedom and prudence, and it makes a certain measure of inequality acceptable. The fourth of our guiding questions is answered accordingly. There are five principles of justice for the basic structure of society, and five legal principles that govern the special distribution of goods in the respective spheresall are ranked according to their most defensible grounds of priority, ensuring that everyone is accorded equal justice. Chapter VI recapitulates the initial question of equalitys value. The conception of equal justice developed in this work postulates five principles of equality and five principles of law; these constitute an egalitarian framework because they support and promote social justice. Equality has value with respect to them, but is not given any independent, intrinsic value. That is why I call the account developed here a form of constitutive egalitarianism: justice is realized through the realization of equality, itself accomplished by applying the five postulates of equality and five distributive principles of law. This is an egalitarianism on two levels. The first level is involves the claim that morality or justice is conceptually connected with equality. The second level gives equality a substantial weight in what is conceptually validated at the first level, namely the presumption of equality, and constructs an appropriate interpretation and conception of distributive justice through principles of distribution for the individual spheres. The weight and importance of equality is shown by the distributive criteria applied to those spheres. This answers our final guiding question about the nature of an egalitarian theory. (shrink)
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  44. Eat YSelf Fitter: Orthorexia, Health, and Gender.Christina Van Dyke - 2017 - In Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 553-571.
    Orthorexia is a condition in which the subject becomes obsessed with identifying and maintaining the ideal diet, rigidly avoiding foods perceived as unhealthy or harmful. In this (...)
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  45. Sexual Consent as Voluntary Agreement: Tales ofSeductionor Questions of Law?Lucinda Vandervort - 2013 - New Criminal Law Review 16 (1):143-201.
    This article proposes a rigorous method tomapthe law on to the facts in the legal analysis ofsexual consentusing a series of mandatory questions (...)
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  46. Gender, Age, Research Experience, Leading Role and Academic Productivity of Vietnamese Researchers in the Social Sciences and Humanities: Exploring a 2008-2017 Scopus Dataset.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2017 - European Science Editing 43 (3):51-55.
    Background: Academic productivity has been studied by scholars all round the world for many years. However, in Vietnam, this topic has scarcely been addressed. This research therefore (...)
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  47. Legal Subversion of the Criminal Justice Process? Judicial, Prosecutorial and Police Discretion in Edmondson, Kindrat and Brown.Lucinda Vandervort - 2012 - In Elizabeth Sheehy (ed.), SEXUAL ASSAULT IN CANADA: LAW, LEGAL PRACTICE & WOMEN'S ACTIVISM,. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. pp. 111-150.
    In 2001, three non-Aboriginal men in their twenties were charged with the sexual assault of a twelve year old Aboriginal girl in rural Saskatchewan. Legal proceedings (...)lasted almost seven years and included two preliminary hearings, two jury trials, two retrials with juries, and appeals to the provincial appeal court and the Supreme Court of Canada. One accused was convicted. The case raises questions about the administration of justice in sexual assault cases in Saskatchewan. Based on observation and analysis of the record, this paper: (1) examines relationships between legal errors dealing with availability of the defence ofbelief in consentand interpretation of theall reasonable stepsprovision, the need for retrials, and apprehended race-gender-age bias and discrimination; and 2) proposes incremental and systemic remedies to address the weaknesses in police, prosecutorial and judicial policy and practice highlighted by this case. (shrink)
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  48. Empirical Beliefs, Perceptual Experiences and Reasons.André J. Abath - 2008 - Manuscrito 31 (2):543-571.
    John McDowell and Bill Brewer famously defend the view that one can only have empirical beliefs if ones perceptual experiences serve as reasons for such beliefs, (...)where reasons are understood in terms of subjects reasons. In this paper I show, first, that it is a consequence of the adoption of such a requirement for one to have empirical beliefs that children as old as 3 years of age have to considered as not having genuine empirical beliefs at all. But we have strong reasons to think that 3-year-old children have empirical beliefs, or so I argue. If this is the case, McDowell and Brewers requirement for one to have empirical beliefs faces a strong challenge. After showing this, I propose an alternative requirement for one to have empirical beliefs, and argue that it should be favoured over McDowell and Brewers requirement. (shrink)
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  49. Heidegger and Blumenberg on Modernity.Teodor Negru - 2012 - Trans/Form/Ação 35 (2):93-119.
    The debate surrounding the way in which Heidegger and Blumenberg understand the modern age is an opportunity to discuss two different approaches to history. On one hand, (...)
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  50.  33
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: A Modern Indian Philosopher.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2018 - Milestone Education Review 1 (09):19-31.
    Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is one of the names who advocated to change social order of the age-old tradition of suppression and humiliation. He was an intellectual (...), scholar, statesman and contributed greatly in the nation building. He led a number of movements to emancipate the downtrodden masses and to secure human rights to millions of depressed classes. He has left an indelible imprint through his immense contribution in framing the modern Constitution of free India. He stands as a symbol of struggle for achieving the Social Justice. We can assign several roles to this great personality due to his life full dedication towards his mission of eradicating evils from Indian society. The social evils of Indian society, also neglected this great personality even in intellectual sphere too. The so-called intellectuals of India not honestly discussed his contribution to Indian intellectual heritage, rather what they discussed, also smells their biases towards a Dalit literate and underestimated his great personality. This paper will attempt to discuss important facts about life and a short description of the literature written by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. This is followed by discussion his philosophy in the five major sections i.e. Feminism and women empowerment, philosophy of education, ideas on social justice and equality, philosophy of politics and economics and philosophy of religion. (shrink)
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