Results for 'Sociology of Families'

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  1.  69
    From Völkerpsychologie to the Sociology of Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):250-274.
    This article focuses on two developments in nineteenth-century (philosophy of) social science: Moritz Lazarus’s and Heymann Steinthal’s Völkerpsychologie and Georg Simmel’s early sociology of knowledge. The article defends the following theses. First, Lazarus and Steinthal wavered between a “strong” and a “weak” program for Völkerpsychologie. Ingredients for the strong program included methodological neutrality and symmetry; causal explanation of beliefs based on causal laws; a focus on groups, interests, tradition, culture, or materiality; determinism; and a self-referential model of social institutions. (...)
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  2. On the Sociology of Subjectivity: A Reply to Raphael Sassower.Jeff Kochan - 2018 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7 (5):39-41.
    Author's response to: Raphael Sassower, 'Heidegger and the Sociologists: A Forced Marriage?,' Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7, no. 5 (2018): 30-32. -- Part of a book-review symposium on: Jeff Kochan (2017), Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (Cambridge UK: Open Book Publishers).
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  3. A Non-Philosophical Approach to the Sociology of Religious Pluralism: International Conference on Religion in a Pluralistic Society, Jadavpur University and Lancaster University 7-9 April 2016 at Jadavpur University, Kolkata.Swami Narasimnhananda - manuscript
    This paper follows Francois Laruelle’s non-philosophy and his non-religion and non-theology to suggest anon-philosophical approach to the sociology of religious pluralism. The entanglements of experiences of the religious end-user are analysed vis-a-vis Laruelle’s thought and a dogma free inclusive approach to religion is envisaged.
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  4. History and Sociology of Science.Géraldine Delley & Sébastien Plutniak - 2018 - In Sandra L. López Varela (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences. Oxford:
    The relationship between archaeology and other sciences has only recently become a research topic for sociologists and historians of science. From the 1950s to the present day, different approaches have been taken and the aims of research studies have changed considerably. Besides methodological textbooks, which aim at advancing archaeological knowledge, historians of archaeology have tackled this question by exploring the development of archaeology as a scientific discipline. More recently, collaborations between archaeologists and other scientists have been examined as a general (...)
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  5. Conjectures and Reputations:The Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and the History of Economic Thought.D. Wade Hands - 1997 - History of Political Economy 29:695-739.
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  6. The Sociology of Scientific Knowlege and Economics: Some Thoughts on the Possibilities.D. Wade Hands - 1994 - In Roger Backhouse (ed.), New Perspectives in Economic Methodology. Routledge. pp. 75-106.
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  7. Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Jeff Kochan - 2017 - Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.
    REVIEW (1): "Jeff Kochan’s book offers both an original reading of Martin Heidegger’s early writings on science and a powerful defense of the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) research program. Science as Social Existence weaves together a compelling argument for the thesis that SSK and Heidegger’s existential phenomenology should be thought of as mutually supporting research programs." (Julian Kiverstein, in Isis) ---- REVIEW (2): "I cannot in the space of this review do justice to the richness and range of (...)
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  8. Aleksandr Bogdanov's History, Sociology and Philosophy of Science.Arran Gare - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):231-248.
    With the failure of the Soviet Union, Aleksandr Bogdanov has come under increasing scrutiny as the anti-authoritarian, left-wing opponent of Lenin among the Bolsheviks and the main inspiration behind the Proletk'ult movement, the movement which attempted to create a new, proletarian culture (Sochor, 1988). Bogdanov's efforts to create a new, universal science of organization, a precursor to systems theory and cybernetics, has also attracted considerable attention (Gorelik, 1980; Bello, 1985; Biggart et.al. 1998). And he has been recognized as an early (...)
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  9. Dr. Henk E. S. Woldring. Karl Mannheim: The Development of His Thought Philosophy, Sociology and Social Ethics. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1986.Bruce C. Wearne - 1988 - Philosophia Reformata 53 (1):59-69.
    This is a review of Henk Woldring's book on Karl Mannheim.
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  10. Le competenze e le disfunzioni genitoriali. Un quadro introduttivo dei concetti sociologici sensibilizzanti.Luca Corchia - 2016 - The Lab’s Quarterly 17 (3):143-178.
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  11. Experiencing Multiple Realities: Alfred Schutz’s Sociology of the Finite Provinces of Meaning.Marius Ion Benta - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book offers a theoretical investigation into the general problem of reality as a multiplicity of ‘finite provinces of meaning’, as developed in the work of Alfred Schutz. A critical introduction to Schutz’s sociology of multiple realities as well as a sympathetic re-reading and reconstruction of his project, Experiencing Multiple Realities traces the genesis and implications of this concept in Schutz’s writings before presenting an analysis of various ways in which it can shed light on major sociological problems, such (...)
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  12. The Multiple Reality: A Critical Study on Alfred Schutz's Sociology of the Finite Provinces of Meaning.Marius Ion Benta - 2014 - Dissertation,
    This work is a critical introduction to Alfred Schutz’s sociology of the multiple reality and an enterprise that seeks to reassess and reconstruct the Schutzian project. In the first part of the study, I inquire into Schutz’s biographical con- text that surrounds the germination of this conception and I analyse the main texts of Schutz where he has dealt directly with ‘finite provinces of meaning.’ On the basis of this analysis, I suggest and discuss, in Part II, several solutions (...)
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  13.  92
    Inaccurate Ambitions and Missing Methodologies: Thoughts on Jeff Kochan and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. [REVIEW]Pablo Schyfter - 2018 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7 (8):8-14.
    Book review of: Jeff Kochan (2017). Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (Cambridge UK: Open Book Publishers).
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  14.  64
    How to Analyze Islamist Politics: Is It Possible to Make a Political Study Without Sociology of Islam?Ozgur Olgun Erden - 2018 - International Journal of Political Theory 3 (1).
    This article embarks on making a political analysis of Islamist politics by criticizing the hegemonic approach in the field and considering a number of the institutions or structures, composing of either state and its ideological-repressive apparatuses, political parties and actors, intellectual leadership and ideology, and political relations, events, or facts in political sphere. The aforesaid approach declares that the social and economic factors, namely class position, capital accumulation, market, education, and culture, have been far better significative for a political study (...)
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  15. The Problem of Relativism in the Sociology of (Scientific) Knowledge.Richard Schantz & Markus Seidel (eds.) - 2011 - ontos.
    This volume comprises original articles by leading authors – from philosophy as well as sociology – in the debate around relativism in the sociology of (scientific) knowledge. Its aim has been to bring together several threads from the relevant disciplines and to cover the discussion from historical and systematic points of view. Among the contributors are Maria Baghramian, Barry Barnes, Martin Endreß, Hubert Knoblauch, Richard Schantz and Harvey Siegel.
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  16. Deism and the Absence of Christian Sociology.Bruce C. Wearne - 2003 - Philosophia Reformata 68 (1):14-35.
    This article encourages a reconsideration of Christian sociology. It explains how deism makes a decisive impact in the theoretical foundations of the discipline. Dutch neocalvinistic philosophy in its North American immigrant setting after World War II issued a challenge which drew attention to the dogmas of deism implicit in sociology, but this challenge has not been met. Christian sociology, however, still retains its God-given vocation to find ways to encourage people everywhere to positively form complex differentiated social (...)
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  17.  92
    Commentary on Nancy Nicol’s Politics of the Heart: Recogniiton of Homoparental Families.Shelley M. Park - 2008 - Florida Philosophical Review 8 (1):157-163.
    This paper comments on the strategies and goals of a politics of recognition as celebrated by Nancy Nicol’s important documentary coverage of the gay and lesbian movement for family rights in Quebec. While agreeing that ending legal discrimination against lgbt families is important, I suggest that political recognition of same-sex families and their children is a too limited goal for queer families and their allies. Moreover, it is a goal, I argue, that often trades on trades on (...)
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  18.  39
    "Theoretical Logic in Sociology", Volume 2: "The Antinomies of Classical Thought: Marx and Durkheim" by Jeffrey C. Alexander.Stephen P. Turner - 1985 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15 (2):211-216.
    The four volume work of which this book is a part has been praised as one of the great monuments of theoretical scholarship in sociology of the century. The praise has come largely from the older generation of students of Parsons and Merton. A great deal of dispraise has come from Alexander's own generation. Alan Sica's (1983) brilliant, biting review of Volume I speaks for many of Alexander's peers. Volume II is likely to be even more controversial. This volume (...)
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  19.  45
    Modern Sociology of Knowledge: Some leading Trends and Important Results.Rinat M. Nugaev - 1997 - Sociology :4M (8):5-16.
    Value dimensions of mature theory change in science are considered. It is argued that the interaction of the values of the cross-theories constitutes the major mechanism of theory change in this dimension. Examples from history of science describing the details of the mechanism are given.
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  20. A New Social Physic: The Sociology of Gabriel Tarde and its Legacy. Tonkonoff - 2013 - Current Sociology 61.
    This article aims to present a reconstruction of Gabriel Tarde’s micro-sociology in order to highlight its current relevance. The author of the article attempts to show that its distinction lies in taking the immense diversity of small social interactions as a starting point for the analysis of both face-to-face situations and large-scale institutions and social processes. Here the social field is described as made up of multiple propagations of desires and beliefs that spread from one individual to other, taking (...)
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  21. Systemism, Social Laws, and the Limits of Social Theory: Themes Out of Mario Bunge's: The Sociology-Philosophy Connection.Slava Sadovnikov - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (4):536-587.
    The four sections of this article are reactions to a few interconnected problems that Mario Bunge addresses in his The Sociology-Philosophy Connection , which can be seen as a continuation and summary of his two recent major volumes Finding Philosophy in Social Science and Social Science under Debate: A Philosophical Perspective . Bunge’s contribution to the philosophy of the social sciences has been sufficiently acclaimed. (See in particular two special issues of this journal dedicated to his social philosophy: "Systems (...)
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  22. Simmel and Mannheim on the Sociology of Philosophy, Historicism and Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2019 - In Martin Kusch, Katherina Kinzel, Johannes Steizinger & Niels Jacob Wildschut (eds.), The Emergence of Relativism: German Thought from the Enlightenment to National Socialism. London: Routledge. pp. 165-180.
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  23. What Can Philosophers Offer Social Scientists?; or The Frankfurt School and its Relevance to Social Science: From the History of Philosophical Sociology to an Examination of Issues in the Current EU.Mason Richey - 2008 - International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 3 (6):63-72.
    This paper presents the history of the Frankfurt School’s inclusion of normative concerns in social science research programs during the period 1930-1955. After examining the relevant methodology, I present a model of how such a program could look today. I argue that such an approach is both valuable to contemporary social science programs and overlooked by current philosophers and social scientists.
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  24.  62
    Relativism in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge Revisited.Martin Kusch - forthcoming - In Natalie Alana Ashton, Robin McKenna & Katharina Anna Sodoma (eds.), Social Epistemology and Epistemic Relativism. New York: Routledge.
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  25.  49
    The Sociology of Philosophical Knowledge Revisited.Martin Kusch - 2018 - In Marcel van Ackeren (ed.), Philosophy and the Historical Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 200-213.
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  26.  28
    Sociology’s Rhythms: Temporal Dimensions of Knowledge Production.Filip Vostal - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (4):499-524.
    From the temporal perspective, this article examines shifts in the productionof sociological knowledge. It identifies two kinds of rhythms of sociology: 1) that of sociological standpoints and techniques of investigation and 2) that of contemporary academic life and culture. The article begins by discussing some of the existing research strategies designed to "chase"high-speed society. Some, predominantly methodological, currents are explored and contrasted with the "slow" instruments of sociological analysis composed of different, yet complementary, modes of inquiry. Against this background, (...)
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  27. Human-Aided Artificial Intelligence: Or, How to Run Large Computations in Human Brains? Towards a Media Sociology of Machine Learning.Rainer Mühlhoff - 2019 - New Media and Society 1.
    Today, artificial intelligence, especially machine learning, is structurally dependent on human participation. Technologies such as Deep Learning (DL) leverage networked media infrastructures and human-machine interaction designs to harness users to provide training and verification data. The emergence of DL is therefore based on a fundamental socio-technological transformation of the relationship between humans and machines. Rather than simulating human intelligence, DL-based AIs capture human cognitive abilities, so they are hybrid human-machine apparatuses. From a perspective of media philosophy and social-theoretical critique, I (...)
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  28.  30
    The Blame of Infertility in Families Amongst the Ikwerre People of Rivers State.Grace Lawrence-Hart & Gregory Ajima Onah - 2019 - American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research 3 (10).
    Infertility, the inability to get pregnant after twelve months or more regular unprotected sexual intercourse is a global phenomenon but among the Ikwerre people of Rivers State, the blame of infertility in the family is always shifted to the woman despite the discovery of modern diagnosis that reveals that men and women can be responsible for childlessness. This research brings to bear the fact that modernity has not affected the Ikwerre people on the blame game of infertility in families. (...)
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  29.  60
    Karl Mannhelm and the Soclology of Knowledge.David Kettler & Volker Meja - 2001 - In Barry Smart & George Ritzer (eds.), Handbook of Social Theory. Sage Publications. pp. 100.
    An introduction to Karl Mannheim's sociology of knowledge for a textbook.
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  30. The Paradox of Ideology.Justin Schwartz - 1993 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):543 - 574.
    A standard problem with the objectivity of social scientific theory in particular is that it is either self-referential, in which case it seems to undermine itself as ideology, or self-excepting, which seem pragmatically self-refuting. Using the example of Marx and his theory of ideology, I show how self-referential theories that include themselves in their scope of explanation can be objective. Ideology may be roughly defined as belief distorted by class interest. I show how Marx thought that natural science was informed (...)
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  31. SUSY in the Sky of Diamonds.Rinat M. Nugayev - 2001 - In Michael Ciaran Duffy & Mogens True Wegener (eds.), Recent Advances in Relativity Theory. Hadronic Press. pp. 193-195.
    The host of SUSY(supersymmetry) based string theories is considered. Superstrings are comprehended as possible candidates on Quantum Gravity basic objects. It is argued that superstring theories constitute mainly mathematical progress and can reconcile general relativity with quantum field theory at best. Yet they cannot provide the genuine synthesis. Superstring unification of all the four forces at hand is a formal one . It is contended that genesis and proliferation of superstrings can better be described not by philosophy of science models (...)
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  32.  95
    The Logical Structure of Philosophy Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Religion, Politics, Economics Literature and History - Articles and Reviews 2006-2019.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    It is my contention that the table of intentionality (rationality, mind, thought, language, personality etc.) that features prominently here describes more or less accurately, or at least serves as an heuristic for, how we think and behave, and so it encompasses not merely philosophy and psychology, but everything else (history, literature, mathematics, politics etc.). Note especially that intentionality and rationality as I (along with Searle, Wittgenstein and others) view it, includes both conscious deliberative linguistic System 2 and unconscious automated prelinguistic (...)
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  33.  87
    Max Scheler's Critical Theory: The Idea of Critical Phenomenology.Eric J. Mohr - 2014 - Dissertation, Duquesne University
    I explore the critical significance of the phenomenological notion of intuition. I argue that there is no meaning that is originally formal-conceptual. The meanings of concepts function as symbolic approximations to original nonconceptual, intuitive givens. However, the meaning content originally intuitively given in lived experience has a tendency to be lost in pursuit of universalizability and communicability of conceptual content. Over time, conceptual approximations lose their reference to the experience that had given them their meaning in the first place. The (...)
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  34. The Twilight of the Scientific Age.Martín López Corredoira - forthcoming - Eikasia. Revista de Filosofía 54:119-146.
    This brief article presents the introduction and draft of the fundamental ideas developed at length in the book of the same title, which gives a challenging point of view about science and its history/philosophy/sociology. Science is in decline. After centuries of great achievements, the exhaustion of new forms and fatigue have reached our culture in all of its manifestations including the pure sciences. Our society is saturated with knowledge which does not offer people any sense in their lives. There (...)
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  35. The Frankfurt School and the Young Habermas: Traces of an Intellectual Path (1956–1964).Luca Corchia - 2015 - Journal of Classical Sociology 15 (1):191-208.
    The aim of this study is to discern intersections between the intellectual path of the young Habermas and the issues addressed by the Positivismusstreit, the dispute between Popper and Adorno about methodology in the social sciences. I will present two perspectives, focusing on different temporal moments and interpretative problems. First, I will investigate the young Habermas’ relationship to the intellectual tradition of the Frankfurt School: his views on philosophy and the social sciences, normative bases of critical theory and political attitudes. (...)
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  36. Review of Jennifer Lena's "Entitled: Discriminating Tastes and the Expansion of the Arts". [REVIEW]C. Thi Nguyen - 2020 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 78 (2):257-261.
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  37.  36
    Dysfunctional Offsprings of Functional Families: Some Theoretical Considerations During COVID 19.Udayan Bhaumik - manuscript
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  38.  14
    How to Write a Proof: Patterns of Justification in Strategic Documents for Educational Reform.Jitka Wirthová - 2019 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 41 (2):307-335.
    Writing strategic documents is a major practice of many actors striving to see their educational ideas realised in the curriculum. In these documents, arguments are systematically developed to create the legitimacy of a new educational goal and competence to make claims about it. Through a qualitative analysis of the writing strategies used in these texts, I show how two of the main actors in the Czech educational discourse have developed a proof that a new educational goal is needed. I draw (...)
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  39.  88
    The “New Spirit of Academic Capitalism”: Can Scientists Create Generative Critique From Within?Milena Ivanova Kremakova - 2016 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 38 (1):27-51.
    The 21st-century university is a contested site of neoliberal transformation. Its role is moving away from that of a hub of culture, knowledge and critique to that of a provider of skills and employability for the market. The move towards a lean business model in the management of knowledge production is not an isolated phenomenon, but integral to the shifting economic, political and moral landscapes of global capitalism and the knowledge society. The literature discussing the changes in higher education, which (...)
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  40.  24
    Tolerance, Mıgratıon And Hybrıd Identities: Normative Reasoning Of Intercultural Dialogue In A Blurring Structure.Armando Aliu, Ilyas Öztürk, Dorian Aliu & Ömer Özkan - 2016 - International Journal of Political Studies 2 (3):10-22.
    The aim of this study is to proof the argument – i.e. ‘there are significant linkages amongst tolerance, hybrid identities and migration.’ These linkages can be comprehended by means of conceptualising extensions of hybrid identities in aggregate trans/inter-migration processes. It can be put forward that arising hybrid identities are embedded in a blurring structure of thoughts, beliefs, states of affairs, facts, belongings and so forth. From multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism viewpoints, it is argued that tolerance and migration ought to be analysed (...)
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  41. Endurance Work’: Embodiment and the Mind-Body Nexus in the Physical Culture of High-Altitude Mountaineering.Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson, Lee Crust & Christian Swann - 2017 - Sociology 52 (6):1324-1341.
    The 2015 Nepal earthquake and avalanche on Mount Everest generated one of the deadliest mountaineering disasters in modern times, bringing to media attention the physical-cultural world of high-altitude climbing. Contributing to the current sociological concern with embodiment, here we investigate the lived experience and social ‘production’ of endurance in this sociologically under-researched physical-cultural world. Via a phenomenological-sociological framework, we analyse endurance as cognitively, corporeally and interactionally lived and communicated, in the form of ‘endurance work’. Data emanate from in-depth interviews with (...)
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  42.  26
    Epistemological Tensions in Bourdieu’s Conception of Social Science.Simon Susen - 2011 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 33 (1):43-82.
    This paper explores Pierre Bourdieu’s conception of social science. In particular, it aims to show that the common assumption that Bourdieu remains trapped in a positivist paradigm does not do justice to his multifaceted account of social science. In order to illustrate the complexity of Bourdieu’s conception of social science, this study scrutinises ten epistemological tensions which can be found in his writings on the nature of systematic forms of knowledge production. In view of these epistemological tensions, a more fine-grained (...)
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  43.  52
    A Sociological Study on the Origin of the Act of Sin -The Case of Adam's Story-.Coşkun Dikbıyık - 2018 - Tasavvur - Tekirdag Theology Journal 4 (2):506 - 538.
    This study is a theoretical work in the field of sociology of religion which aims to explain the origin of the act of sin and the fundamental motives of crime and deviation tendencies in this context, from Adam’s story in the Qur'an, the main source of Islam. Sin is regarded as a negative act in religious-cultural sense where one struggles for life and tries to protect itself. Though a direct correlation cannot be established with belief values, the sense of (...)
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  44.  78
    Everyday Scientific Imagination: A Qualitative Study of the Uses, Norms, and Pedagogy of Imagination in Science.Michael Stuart - 2019 - Science & Education 28 (6-7):711-730.
    Imagination is necessary for scientific practice, yet there are no in vivo sociological studies on the ways that imagination is taught, thought of, or evaluated by scientists. This article begins to remedy this by presenting the results of a qualitative study performed on two systems biology laboratories. I found that the more advanced a participant was in their scientific career, the more they valued imagination. Further, positive attitudes toward imagination were primarily due to the perceived role of imagination in problem-solving. (...)
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  45. Implanting a Discipline: The Academic Trajectory of Nuclear Engineering in the USA and UK.Sean F. Johnston - 2009 - Minerva 47 (1):51-73.
    The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and hurried into academic venues thereafter proved unusually dependent on government definition and support. This paper contrasts the distinct histories of the new discipline in the USA and UK (and, more briefly, (...)
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  46. The Birth of Information in the Brain: Edgar Adrian and the Vacuum Tube.Justin Garson - 2015 - Science in Context 28 (1):31-52.
    As historian Henning Schmidgen notes, the scientific study of the nervous system would have been “unthinkable” without the industrialization of communication in the 1830s. Historians have investigated extensively the way nerve physiologists have borrowed concepts and tools from the field of communications, particularly regarding the nineteenth-century work of figures like Helmholtz and in the American Cold War Era. The following focuses specifically on the interwar research of the Cambridge physiologist Edgar Douglas Adrian, and on the technology that led to his (...)
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  47. Getting Things Less Wrong: Religion and the Role of Communities in Successfully Transmitting Beliefs.Caleb Cohoe - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (3):621-636.
    I use the case of religious belief to argue that communal institutions are crucial to successfully transmitting knowledge to a broad public. The transmission of maximally counterintuitive religious concepts can only be explained by reference to the communities that sustain and pass them on. The shared life and vision of such communities allows believers to trust their fellow adherents. Repeated religious practices provide reinforced exposure while the comprehensive and structured nature of religious worldviews helps to limit distortion. I argue that (...)
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  48.  75
    Making the Invisible Engineer Visible: DuPont and the Recognition of Nuclear Expertise.Sean F. Johnston - 2011 - Technology and Culture 52 (3):548-573.
    Between 1942 and the late 1950s, atomic piles (nuclear chain-reactors) were industrialized, initially to generate plutonium for the first atomic weapons and later to serve as copious sources of neutrons, radioisotopes and electrical power. These facilities entrained a new breed of engineering specialist adept at designing, operating and maintaining them. From the beginning, large companies supplied the engineering labor for this new technology, and played an important role in defining the nature of their nuclear expertise. In the USA, the most (...)
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  49.  74
    Shifting Perspectives: Holography and the Emergence of Technical Communities.Sean F. Johnston - 2005 - Technology and Culture 46 (1):77-103.
    Holography, the technology of three-dimensional imaging, has repeatedly been reconceptualised by new communities. Conceived in 1947 as a means of improving electron microscopy, holography was revitalized in the early 1960s by engineer-scientists at classified laboratories. The invention promoted the transformation of a would-be discipline (optical engineering) and spawned limited artist-scientist collaborations. However, a separate artisanal community promoted a distinct countercultural form of holography via a revolutionary technology: the sandbox optical table. Their tools, sponsorship, products, literature and engagement with wider culture (...)
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  50. Circles of Scientific Practice: Regressus, Mathēsis, Denkstil.Jeff Kochan - 2015 - In Dimitri Ginev (ed.), Critical Science Studies after Ludwik Fleck. St. Kliment Ohridski University Press. pp. 83-99.
    Hermeneutic studies of science locate a circle at the heart of scientific practice: scientists only gain knowledge of what they, in some sense, already know. This may seem to threaten the rational validity of science, but one can argue that this circle is a virtuous rather than a vicious one. A virtuous circle is one in which research conclusions are already present in the premises, but only in an indeterminate and underdeveloped way. In order to defend the validity of science, (...)
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