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William O. Stephens
Creighton University
William Stephens
Creighton University
  1. The Stoics and Their Philosophical System.William O. Stephens - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 22-34.
    An overview of the ancient philosophers and their philosophical system (divided into the fields of logic, physics, and ethics) comprising the living, organic, enduring, and evolving body of interrelated ideas identifiable as the Stoic perspective.
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  2. Fake Meat.William O. Stephens - 2018 - Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
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  3. Epictetus on How the Stoic Sage Loves.William O. Stephens - 1996 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:193-210.
    I show that in Epictetus’ view (1) the wise man genuinely loves (στέργειv) and is affectionate (φιλόστoργoς) to his family and friends; (2) only the Stoic wise man is, properly speaking, capable of loving—that is, he alone actually has the power to love; and (3) the Stoic wise man loves in a robustly rational way which excludes passionate, sexual, ‘erotic’ love (’έρως). In condemning all ’έρως as objectionable πάθoς Epictetus stands with Cicero and with the other Roman Stoics, Seneca and (...)
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  4.  39
    Stoicism and Food Ethics.William O. Stephens - 2022 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 9 (1):105-124.
    The norms of simplicity, convenience, unfussiness, and self-control guide Diogenes the Cynic, Zeno of Citium, Chrysippus, Seneca, Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius in approaching food. These norms generate the precept that meat and dainties are luxuries, so Stoics should eschew them. Considerations of justice, environmental harm, anthropogenic global climate change, sustainability, food security, feminism, harm to animals, personal health, and public health lead contemporary Stoics to condemn the meat industrial complex, debunk carnism, and select low input, plant-based foods.
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  5.  84
    Stoicism and Food.William O. Stephens - 2018 - Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
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  6.  63
    Refugees, Exiles, and Stoic Cosmopolitanism.William O. Stephens - 2018 - Journal of Religion and Society 16:73-91.
    The Roman imperial Stoics were familiar with exile. This paper argues that the Stoics’ view of being a refugee differed sharply from their view of what is owed to refugees. A Stoic adopts the perspective of a cosmopolitēs, a “citizen of the world,” a rational being everywhere at home in the universe. Virtue can be cultivated and practiced in any locale, so being a refugee is an “indifferent” that poses no obstacle to happiness. Other people are our fellow cosmic citizens, (...)
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  7.  11
    Jack Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology[REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):690-692.
    This provocative study presents philological, philosophical, and historical arguments that with the Greek term καθῆκον and its Latin equivalent officium the ancient Stoics invented a new concept that anticipated the modern notion of moral duty, for example, Pflicht in Kant. Scholars began to shift from translating kathēkon as "duty" to translating it as "appropriate or fitting action" in the late 1800s, according to Visnjic. The usage of the verb kathēkein in Greek literature prior to the Stoics suggests to him that (...)
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  8.  58
    Epictetus and Prayer - (K.M.) Landefeld Die Gebetslehre Epiktets. Form, Inhalt Und Funktionen der Gebete Epiktets Im Kontext der Antiken Gebetstradition. (Orbis Antiquus 54.) Pp. VIII + 224. Münster: Aschendorff, 2020. Paper, €36. Isbn: 978-3-402-14463-3. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2021 - The Classical Review 71 (1):72-74.
    Landefeld need not be faulted for not cobbling together a unified doctrine of prayer compatible with Stoic physics and logic where none exists in Epictetus. Perhaps this ex-slave fervently needed to unseat contempt for and defiance in the faces of his cruel, abusive human masters with praise of and obedient devotion to a maximally beneficent and providential divine master.
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  9. How to Think Like a Roman Emperor: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius, by Donald Robertson. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (2):516-519.
    A review of Donald Robertson, How to Think Like a Roman Emperor: The Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius. St. Martin's Press, 2019.
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  10.  7
    Introduction.Scott Aikin & William O. Stephens - 2022 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 9 (1):7-10.
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  11. Refugees, Stoicism, and Cosmic Citizenship.William O. Stephens - 2020 - Pallas: Revue d'Etudes Antiques 112:289-307.
    The Roman imperial Stoics were familiar with exile. I argue that the Stoics’ view of being a refugee differed sharply from their view of what is owed to refugees. A Stoic adopts the perspective of a cosmopolitēs, a ‘citizen of the world’, a rational being everywhere at home in the universe. Virtue can be cultivated and practiced in any locale, so being a refugee is an ‘indifferent’ that poses no obstacle to happiness. But other people are our fellow cosmic citizens (...)
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  12. One True Life: The Stoics and Early Christians as Rival Traditions. By C. Kavin Rowe. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2018 - Ancient Philosophy 38 (2):477-481.
    A sloppy, smug, conceptually muddled, and tendentious Christian apologist's comparison of narrowly selected texts from Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Paul, Luke, and Justin Martyr. Following Alasdair MacIntyre, Rowe defends the traditionist view according to which Spirit-enhanced ‘supernatural’ discourse is intelligible only to those on the inside of Christian faith. Rowe argues that morality and religion are abstractions. Rowe presents his translations of Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus, Paul, Luke, and Justin into modern English while also being committed to the traditionist view that (...)
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  13. Die Funktion der Dialogstruktur in Epiktets Diatriben, by Barbara Wehner; Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life, by A.A. Long. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Ancient Philosophy 23 (2):472.
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  14. Real Men Are Stoics: An Interpretation of Tom Wolfe's A Man in Full.William O. Stephens - 2000 - Stoic Voice Journal 1 (3).
    Charlie Croker, a self-made real estate tycoon, ex-Georgia Tech football star, horseback rider, quail-hunter, snakecatcher, and good old boy from Baker county Georgia, is the protagonist in Tom Wolfe’s latest novel, the deliciously provocative A Man in Full (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998).  In this article I examine the evolving conception of manhood in Wolfe’s novel.  Two different models of manliness will be delineated and compared. The first model—represented by Charlie Croker—gradually weakens and is replaced by the (...)
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  15.  30
    The Simile of the Talus in Cicero De Finibus 3.54.William O. Stephens & Brian S. Hook - 1996 - Classical Philology 91 (1):59-61.
    Two principal questions are addressed: In De Finibus 3.54 what position does Cicero imagine the talus to fall and lie? How does this talus simile shed light on the problematic relationship between the Stoics’ doctrine of ‘preferred indifferents’ and their definition of the Good as virtue?
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  16. Food for Thought: The Debate Over Eating Meat. Edited by S. F. Sapontzis. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy Science and Law 6 (1):1-4.
    Are animals our domestic companions, fellow citizens of the ecosystems we inhabit, mobile meals and resources for us, or some combination thereof? This well chosen collection of essays written by recognized scholars addresses many of the intriguing aspects concerning the controversy over meat consumption. These aspects include not only eating meat, but also hunting animals, breeding, feeding, killing, and shredding them for our use, buying meat, the economics of the meat industry, the understanding of predation and food webs in ecology, (...)
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  17. Forgiveness and Revenge. By Trudy Govier. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Essays in Philosophy 4 (2).
    Govier conceives of forgiveness as “a process of overcoming attitudes of resentment and anger that may persist when one has been injured by wrongdoing” (viii). She offers an account of bilateral, unilateral, and mutual forgiveness. Her work has pronounced political import in that she argues that attitudes and dispositions can be attributed to groups, that groups can suffer harm, and that groups can be responsible agents of wrongdoing. As a consequence, Govier contends that groups can forgive. Her method is to (...)
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  18.  64
    The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet. By John L. Hill. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (2):221-224.
    Hill explains that this book “is written both for non-philosophers and for students of philosophy. It is intended to say something both about philosophy, particularly applied moral philosophy, and about the argument for vegetarianism” (p. xiv). Since vegetarianism is an important topic in applied ethics, I had high expectations of this work. However, although the writing is commendably clear, and despite the fact that it is to be welcomed as the first book to bring together and discuss at some length (...)
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  19.  81
    Logic and the Imperial Stoa. By Jonathan Barnes. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 1999 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (2):357-359.
    The author’s aim in this quirky monograph is not to reconstruct all that can be surmised about Stoic logic in the first two centuries A.D. of the Roman empire, but rather to concentrate on the three Stoic authors whose extant texts contain remarks on logic. These imperial Stoics, Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, are known for their emphasis on ethics and not for their contributions in either logic or physics. So it comes as some surprise that Barnes can find much (...)
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  20.  74
    To Eat Flesh They Are Willing, Are Their Spirits Weak? Vegetarians Who Return to Meat. By Kristin Aronson. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2002 - Between the Species 13 (2).
    In this interesting book Aronson discusses lapsed vegetarians, which she dubs lapsos. She argues that lapsos struggle with the implications of eating meat, and in so doing their spirits are strengthened. She offers the book not as a polemic, but rather a peace offering to soften the debate over meat eating, trace ambiguity and nuance, and suggest that being a vegetarian should not be so easy.
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  21.  70
    Don’T Worry, Be Stoic: Ancient Wisdom for Troubled Times, by Peter J. Vernezze. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2007 - Ancient Philosophy 27 (2):452-456.
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  22.  68
    Die Funktion der Dialogstruktur in Epiktets Diatriben. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Ancient Philosophy 23 (2):472-481.
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  23.  37
    The Roman Stoics: Self, Responsibility, and Affection. By Gretchen Reydams-Schils. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2006 - Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):438-443.
    This is a study of Roman adaptations of Stoic doctrine that seeks to portray a model of the self functioning as a mediator between philosophical and traditional values (1). The author’s aim is ‘to let the Roman Stoics’ self arise out of a comprehensive analysis of their extant philosophical work and to conduct that analysis from the vantage point of the specific question of social embeddedness. Such an approach yields a Stoic self that is constituted by the encounter between challenges (...)
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  24.  30
    Introducing New Gods: The Politics of Athenian Religion. By Robert Garland. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 1995 - Ancient Philosophy 15 (2):598-601.
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  25. Stoic Lessons in Liberation: Epictetus as Educator.William O. Stephens - manuscript
    My project examines the pedagogical approach of the Stoic Epictetus by focusing on seven vital lessons he imparts. This study will deepen our understanding of his vocation as a Stoic educator striving to free his students from the fears and foolishness that hold happiness hostage. These lessons are (1) how freedom, integrity, self-respect, and happiness interrelate; (2) real versus fake tragedy and real versus fake heroism; (3) the instructive roles that various animals play in Stoic education; (4) athleticism, sport, and (...)
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  26.  28
    Lukrez, der Kepos Und Die Stoiker: Untersuchungen Zur Schule Epikurs Und Zu den Quellen von De Rerum Natura. By Jurgen Schmidt. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (2):461-463.
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  27.  29
    The Roman Stoics: Self, Responsibility and Affection. By Gretchen Reydams-Schils. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2006 - Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):438-443.
    This is a study of Roman adaptations of Stoic doctrine that seeks to portray a model of the self functioning as a mediator between philosophical and traditional values (1). The author’s aim is ‘to let the Roman Stoics’ self arise out of a comprehensive analysis of their extant philosophical work and to conduct that analysis from the vantage point of the specific question of social embeddedness. Such an approach yields a Stoic self that is constituted by the encounter between challenges (...)
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