Results for 'exploitation'

672 found
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  1. Epistemic Exploitation.Nora Berenstain - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3:569-590.
    Epistemic exploitation occurs when privileged persons compel marginalized persons to educate them about the nature of their oppression. I argue that epistemic exploitation is marked by unrecognized, uncompensated, emotionally taxing, coerced epistemic labor. The coercive and exploitative aspects of the phenomenon are exemplified by the unpaid nature of the educational labor and its associated opportunity costs, the double bind that marginalized persons must navigate when faced with the demand to educate, and the need for additional labor created by (...)
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  2. Epistemic exploitation in education.Alkis Kotsonis & Gerry Dunne - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 55 (3):343-355.
    ‘Epistemic exploitation occurs when privileged persons compel marginalised knowers to educate them [and others] about the nature of their oppression’ (Berenstain, 2016, p. 569). This paper scrutinizes some of the purported wrongs underpinning this practice, so that educators might be better equipped to understand and avoid or mitigate harms which may result from such interventions. First, building on the work of Berenstain and Davis (2016), we argue that when privileged persons (in this context, educators) repeatedly compel marginalised or oppressed (...)
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  3. Exploitation and Remedial Duties.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):55-72.
    The concept of exploitation and potentially exploitative real-world practices are the subject of increasing philosophical attention. However, while philosophers have extensively debated what exploitation is and what makes it wrong, they have said surprisingly little about what might be required to remediate it. By asking how the consequences of exploitation should be addressed, this article seeks to contribute to filling this gap. We raise two questions. First, what are the victims of exploitation owed by way of (...)
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  4. Exploitative Epistemic Trust.Katherine Dormandy - 2020 - In Trust in Epistemology. New York: Taylor & Francis. pp. 241-264.
    Where there is trust, there is also vulnerability, and vulnerability can be exploited. Epistemic trust is no exception. This chapter maps the phenomenon of the exploitation of epistemic trust. I start with a discussion of how trust in general can be exploited; a key observation is that trust incurs vulnerabilities not just for the party doing the trusting, but also for the trustee (after all, trust can be burdensome), so either party can exploit the other. I apply these considerations (...)
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  5. Exploitation and the Desirability of Unenforced Law.Robert C. Hughes - forthcoming - Business Ethics Quarterly:1-23.
    Many business transactions and employment contracts are wrongfully exploitative despite being consensual and beneficial to both parties, compared with a nontransaction baseline. This form of exploitation can present governments with a dilemma. Legally permitting exploitation may send the message that the public condones it. In some economic conditions, coercively enforced antiexploitation law may harm the people it is intended to help. Under these conditions, a way out of the dilemma is to enact laws with provisions that lack coercive (...)
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  6. Exploitation, Solidarity, and Dignity.Pablo Gilabert - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (4):465-494.
    This paper offers a normative exploration of what exploitation is and of what is wrong with it. The focus is on the critical assessment of the exploitation of workers in capitalist societies. Such exploitation is wrongful when it involves a contra-solidaristic use of power to benefit oneself at the expense of others. Wrongful exploitation consists in using your greater power, and sometimes even in making other less powerful than you, in order to get them to benefit (...)
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  7. Exploitation and Economic Justice in the Liberal Capitalist State.Mark R. Reiff - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Exploitation and Economic Justice in the Liberal Capitalist State offers the first new, liberal theory of economic justice to appear in more than 30 years. The theory presented is designed to offer an alternative to the most popular liberal egalitarian theories of today and aims to be acceptable to both right and left libertarians too.
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  8. Algorithm exploitation: humans are keen to exploit benevolent AI.Jurgis Karpus, Adrian Krüger, Julia Tovar Verba, Bahador Bahrami & Ophelia Deroy - 2021 - iScience 24 (6):102679.
    We cooperate with other people despite the risk of being exploited or hurt. If future artificial intelligence (AI) systems are benevolent and cooperative toward us, what will we do in return? Here we show that our cooperative dispositions are weaker when we interact with AI. In nine experiments, humans interacted with either another human or an AI agent in four classic social dilemma economic games and a newly designed game of Reciprocity that we introduce here. Contrary to the hypothesis that (...)
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  9. Vocations, Exploitation, and Professions in a Market Economy.Daniel Koltonski - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (3):323-347.
    In a market economy, members of professions—or at least those for whom their profession is a vocation—are vulnerable to a distinctive kind of objectionable exploitation, namely the exploitation of their vocational commitment. That they are vulnerable in this way arises out of central features both of professions and of a market economy. And, for certain professions—the care professions—this exploitation is particularly objectionable, since, for these professions, the exploitation at issue is not only exploitation of the (...)
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  10. Wage Exploitation as Disequilibrium Price.Stanislas Richard - 2023 - Business Ethics Quarterly 33 (2):327-351.
    There are two opposing views concerning intuitive cases of wage exploitation. The first denies that they are cases of exploitation at all. It is based on the nonworseness claim: there is nothing wrong with a discretionary mutually beneficial employment relationship. The second is the reasonable view: some employment relationships can be exploitative even if employers have no duty towards their employees. This article argues that the reasonable view does not completely defeat defences of wage exploitation, because these (...)
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  11. Exploitation and Effective Altruism.Daniel Muñoz - 2021 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 20 (4):409-423.
    How could it be wrong to exploit—say, by paying sweatshop wages—if the exploited party benefits? How could it be wrong to do something gratuitously bad—like giving to a wasteful charity—if that is better than permissibly doing nothing? Joe Horton argues that these puzzles, known as the Exploitation Problem and All or Nothing Problem, have no unified answer. I propose one and pose a challenge for Horton’s take on the Exploitation Problem.
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  12. Exploitation, Deontological Constraints, and Shareholder Theory.Robert C. Hughes - 2019 - Georgetown Journal of Law and Public Policy 17:1007-1026.
    One of the central controversies in normative business ethics is the question whether transactions and economic relationships can be wrongfully exploitative despite being mutually beneficial and consensual. This article argues that anyone who accepts a shareholder theory of business ethics should accept deontological constraints on mutually beneficial, consensual exploitation.
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  13. Exploitation et obligation de travailler.Pierre-Étienne Vandamme - 2014 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 9 (2):29-49.
    Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté), et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes). Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en (...)
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  14. Exploitation of values by our Academics.Ammar Younas - manuscript
    When we talk about Human Rights or Democracy, we see that people are not agreeing on a single definition of these terminologies. Everyone has a different interpretation and their own versions. Very basic values are being exploited in our educational institutions. For example, Beauty is exploited on the name of abstract art. No one is teaching, what is beauty itself? But they have given a standard instead of outlining the parameters of beauty. Beauty is value and abstract art may be (...)
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  15. What's wrong with exploitation?Justin Schwartz - 1995 - Noûs 29 (2):158-188.
    Marx thinks that capitalism is exploitative, and that is a major basis for his objections to it. But what's wrong with exploitation, as Marx sees it? (The paper is exegetical in character: my object is to understand what Marx believed,) The received view, held by Norman Geras, G.A. Cohen, and others, is that Marx thought that capitalism was unjust, because in the crudest sense, capitalists robbed labor of property that was rightfully the workers' because the workers and not the (...)
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  16. Exploitation and Friendship.George Tsai - 2022 - In Diane Jeske (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Friendship. New York, NY: Routledge.
    This paper examines the nature of friendship and the nature of exploitation, and the intersection of the two phenomena. It argues that because vulnerability is an essential aspect of friendship, the possibility of exploitation is ineliminable in friendship. Considers how we might, nonetheless, reduce our exposure to unfair treatment in friendships.
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  17. Non-identity, Sufficiency and Exploitation.Matthew Rendall - 2010 - Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (2):229-247.
    This paper argues that we hold two key duties to future people: to leave them enough in an absolute sense, and to leave them their fair share. Even if we benefit people by bringing them into existence, we can wrongly exploit our position to take more than our share of benefits. As in paradigm cases of exploitation, just because future people might agree to the ‘bargain’, this does not mean that they receive enough.
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  18. Diachronic exploitation of landscape resources - tangible and intangible industrial heritage and their synthesis suspended step.Georgia Zacharopoulou - 2015 - Https://Ticcih-2015.Sciencesconf.Org/.
    It is expected that industrial heritage actually tells the story of the emerging capitalism highlighting the dynamic social relationship between the “workers” and the owners of the “production means”. In current times of economic crisis, it may even involve a painful past with lost social, civil, gender and/or class struggles, a depressing present with abandoned, fragmented, degraded landscapes and ravaged factories, and a hopeless future for the former workers of the local (not only) society; or just a conquerable ground for (...)
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  19. Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.Danielle M. Wenner - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):36-44.
    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both (...)
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  20. Exploiting errors.Giora Hon - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (3):465-480.
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  21. Sexual Exploitation and the Social Contract.Ruth Sample - 2002 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 32:189-217.
    Nearly everyone agrees that sexual exploitation occurs and that, when it does, it is morally wrong. However, there is substantial disagreement over what constitutes sexual exploitation and why it is wrong. Is sex between freely consenting adults ever exploitative? Is prostitution always exploitative? What features of sexually exploitative interactions lead us to regard them as morally wrong? And if sexual exploitation is morally wrong, what should be done about it?These are not new questions for the social philosopher. (...)
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  22. Avoiding exploitation in multinational covid-19 vaccine trials.Alexander A. Iyer, Joseph Millum, Christine Grady & David Wendler - 2021 - The BMJ 372:n541.
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  23. In defence of exploitation.Justin Schwartz - 1995 - Economics and Philosophy 11 (2):275--307.
    Roemer's attempt to undermine the normative reasons that Marxists have thought exploitation important (domination, alienation, and inequality) is vitiated by several crucial errors. First, Roemer ignores the dimension of freedom which is Marx's main concern and replaces it with an interest in justice, which Marx rejected. This leads him to misconstrue the nature of exploitation as Marx understands it. Second, his procedure for disconnecting these evils from exploitation, or denying their importance, involves the methodological assumption that (...) must strictly imply these evils. He thus fails to see that exploitation may 'cause' domination, alienation, and inequality; this assumption and the focus on justice also lead him to overlook the sort of alienation that is most important to Marx and the way exploitation, as Marx understands it, does imply coercion. Roemer's alternative conception of exploitation thus fails to capture basic Marxist normative and explanatory concerns. But Roemer's insistence on the importance of justice and the need for an articulated alternative to capitalism are a necessary supplement to a Marxist account. (shrink)
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  24. Vampires, Werewolves, and Economic Exploitation.George E. Panichas - 1981 - Social Theory and Practice 7 (2):223-242.
    For Marx, capitalism depends upon and perpetuates a system of relationships whereby members of one class of persons, capitalists, enjoys extensive and pervasive social and economic advantages over others. But on Marx’s analysis, this system of being-taken-advantage-of—this system of economic exploitation—is not to be understood by appeal to discrete incidents of fraud, bad deals, theft, or under-remuneration. Rather, the central contention of Marx’s analysis, the contention analyzed, developed, and evaluated here, is that economic exploitation is class exploitation, (...)
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  25.  14
    Robustness, exploitable relations and history: assessing varitel semantics as a hybrid theory of representation.Nicolás Sebastián Sánchez - forthcoming - Critica.
    A constitutive theory of representation must address two challenges. The content determination challenge requires specifying why a particular state has a given content. The job description challenge requires spelling out the explanatory role that representational notions play in that theory. Recently, Nicholas Shea has advanced *varitel semantics* as a hybrid approach to representation to answer those challenges, supplementing teleosemantics with non-historical features –namely, exploitable relations and robustness. In this paper, I critically assess the hybrid theory’s answers to both challenges, arguing (...)
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  26. Exploitation and Joint Action.Erik Malmqvist & András Szigeti - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (3):280-300.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  27. Paying for Plasma: Commodification, Exploitation, and Canada's Plasma Shortage.Vida Panitch & Lendell Chad Horne - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 2 (2):1-10.
    A private, for-profit company has recently opened a pair of plasma donation centres in Canada, at which donors can be compensated up to $50 for their plasma. This has sparked a nation-wide debate around the ethics of paying plasma donors. Our aim in this paper is to shift the terms of the current debate away from the question of whether plasma donors should be paid and toward the question of who should be paying them. We consider arguments against paying plasma (...)
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  28. Exploration and exploitation of Victorian science in Darwin’s reading notebooks.Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen & Simon DeDeo - 2017 - Cognition 159 (C):117-126.
    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his (...)
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  29. Sweatshops, Harm and Exploitation: A Proposal to Operationalise the Model of Structural Injustice.Fausto Corvino - 2020 - Conatus 5 (2):9-23.
    In this article, I firstly discuss the person-affecting view of harm, distinguishing between the liability and the structural models of responsibility, and also explaining why it is unsatisfactory, from a moral point of view, to interpret a given harm as a loss with respect to a diachronic baseline. Then, I take sweatshops as an example and I entertain two further issues that are related to the assessment of harm and that are necessary for operationalising a comprehensive model of responsibility, that (...)
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  30. Held Hostage: The Use of Noncompete Clauses to Exploit Workers and a Statutory Framework to Protect Them.Linda Ficht & Chris Tweedt - 2023 - Journal of Law, Business, and Ethics 29 (Winter):77-96.
    Noncompete agreements are among the most commonly used methods to restrict employment. Upwards of 38% of American workers, many of which are low-wage workers, have signed noncompete agreements. These agreements effectively hold those workers hostage to their current employer. This project analyzes the use of noncompete clauses in employment contracts with low-wage workers. We show that noncompetes with low-wage workers are not enforceable in the U.S.; employers nevertheless continue to include noncompete clauses in employment contracts with low-wage workers. We survey (...)
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  31. Exploitation in a disruptive and unjust gig-economy.Muhammad Rashid - 2020 - Journal of Economics Bibliography 7 (3):163-169.
    The purpose of this report is an appraisal of the gig economy; educating and informing an academic audience of the faults that exist and how these faults lead to exploitation and unjustness in the gig economy. During the writing process, I researched the academic articles and books related to the gig economy and exploitation, enabling myself to form a solid foundation from which to conduct further research. In addition, work was conducted to synthesize the journal articles, online resources (...)
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  32. Exploration and Exploitation in Scientific Inquiry: Towards a Society of Explorers.Roope Oskari Kaaronen - unknown
    This essay argues that scientific systems have two main functions typical to self-organising adaptive and complex systems: Exploration for and exploitation of information. The self-organising nature, or spontaneous order, of scientific systems was prominently conceived by polymath Michael Polanyi. Revisiting Polanyi’s philosophy of science reveals why scientific freedom is still today as important a value as ever, even though the notion of “freedom” itself must be revised. Namely, freedom of inquiry should serve to maintain a diverse and adaptive balance (...)
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  33.  50
    Recognizing Exploitation and Rejecting Analogy: An Analysis of the Meat-Commodity.Teddy Duncan Jr - 2024 - Between the Species 27 (1):126-149.
    This paper is a two-part project. First, I reject the analogous relationship between the Holocaust and slaughterhouses (found in the anti-meat novel The Lives of Animals) and cross-species analogical thinking entirely; instead, I opt for modes of analysis that can examine the specific circumstances of animals within slaughterhouses. Secondly, I assert that a socio-economic Marxist analysis is the best prism in which to recognize the suffering of pre-slaughter animals and the causation of their suffering (the ostensibly necessary circulation and production (...)
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  34. The moment of microaggression: The experience of acts of oppression, dehumanization and exploitation.Michael A. Dover - 2016 - Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 27 (7-8):575-586.
    After a brief introduction and review of recent literature on microaggressions, a theoretical typology of three sources of social injustice (oppression, dehumanization, and exploitation) contributes to the theorization of the sources of microaggressions. A selected compendium of words and affective phrases generated in classroom exercises illustrates the nature of the experience of the moment of microaggression. Future research on microaggressions as well as evaluation of practice should examine the experience of microaggression, including being subjected to microaggression, initiating such acts, (...)
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  35. Online Misinformation and “Phantom Patterns”: Epistemic Exploitation in the Era of Big Data.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - 2021 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):57-87.
    In this paper, we examine how the availability of massive quantities of data i.e., the “Big Data” phenomenon, contributes to the creation, spread, and harms of online misinformation. Specifically, we argue that a factor in the problem of online misinformation is the evolved human instinct to recognize patterns. While the pattern-recognition instinct is a crucial evolutionary adaptation, we argue that in the age of Big Data, these capacities have, unfortunately, rendered us vulnerable. Given the ways in which online media outlets (...)
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  36. Trade-offs in exploiting body morphology for control: From simple bodies and model-based control to complex ones with model-free distributed control schemes.Matej Hoffmann & Vincent C. Müller - 2014 - In Helmut Hauser, Rudolf M. Füchslin & Rolf Pfeifer (eds.), Opinions and Outlooks on Morphological Computation. E-Book. pp. 185-194.
    Tailoring the design of robot bodies for control purposes is implicitly performed by engineers, however, a methodology or set of tools is largely absent and optimization of morphology (shape, material properties of robot bodies, etc.) is lag- ging behind the development of controllers. This has become even more prominent with the advent of compliant, deformable or "soft" bodies. These carry substantial potential regarding their exploitation for control – sometimes referred to as "mor- phological computation" in the sense of offloading (...)
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  37. Adjuncts Are Exploited.Scott Hill & Justin Klocksiem - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (3):1153-1173.
    Jason Brennan and Phillip Magness (2018) and (2020) argue that adjuncts are not exploited. We are sympathetic to some of their points. We agree, for example, that certain ways in which adjuncts are compared to sweatshop workers are offensive. For, as Brennan and Magness point out, there are many respects in which adjuncts are much better off than sweatshop workers. However, we show that the core insights of their paper are compatible with the view that adjuncts are exploited. Furthermore, their (...)
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  38. Rethinking unity as a "working hypothesis" for philosophy: How archaeologists exploit the disunities of science.Alison Wylie - 1999 - Perspectives on Science 7 (3):293-317.
    As a working hypothesis for philosophy of science, the unity of science thesis has been decisively challenged in all its standard formulations; it cannot be assumed that the sciences presuppose an orderly world, that they are united by the goal of systematically describing and explaining this order, or that they rely on distinctively scientific methodologies which, properly applied, produce domain-specific results that converge on a single coherent and comprehensive system of knowledge. I first delineate the scope of arguments against global (...)
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  39.  20
    Class, Surplus and Exploitation. The Laclau- Mouffean Interpretation of Marxism.Yankel Peralta-García - 2022 - Pléyade 1 (29):107-125.
    The post-Marxist stance against class politics unearths significant political demands often neglected by Marxism. However, in Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s approach, this step forward is followed by two steps back. They deny that class struggle against capitalist exploitation has any political significance for the masses or any essential link with the socialist-democratic project. But they do so at the cost of misrepresenting Marxian theory and underestimating the global phenomenon of labour exploitation. This faux pas is due to (...)
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  40. Medical Brain Drain: Free-Riding, Exploitation, and Global Justice.Merten Reglitz - 2016 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 3 (1): 67-81.
    In her debate with Michael Blake, Gillian Brock sets out to justify emigration restrictions on medical workers from poor states on the basis of their free-riding on the public investment that their states have made in them in form of a publicly funded education. For this purpose, Brock aims to isolate the question of emigration restrictions from the larger question of responsibilities for remedying global inequalities. I argue that this approach is misguided because it is blind to decisive factors at (...)
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  41. Hidden Costs of Inquiry: Exploitation, World-Travelling and Marginalized Lives.Audrey Yap - 2021 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 31 (2):153-173.
    There are many good reasons to learn about the lives of people who have less social privilege than we do. We might want to understand their circumstances in order to have informed opinions on social policy, or to make our institutions more inclusive. We might also want to cultivate empathy for its own sake. Much of this knowledge is gained through social scientific or humanistic research into others' lives. The entitlement to theorize about or study the lives of marginalized others (...)
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  42.  96
    We Have Met the Grey Zone and He is Us: How Grey Zone Warfare Exploits Our Undecidedness about What Matters to Us.Duncan MacIntosh - 2024 - In Mitt Regan & Aurel Sari (eds.), Hybrid Threats and Grey Zone Conflict: The Challenge to Liberal Democracies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 61-85.
    Grey zone attacks tend to paralyze response for two reasons. First, they present us with choice scenarios of inherently dilemmatic structure, e.g., Prisoners’ Dilemmas and games of chicken, complicated by difficult conditions of choice, such as choice under risk or amid vagueness. Second, they exploit our uncertainty about how much we do or should care about the things under attack¬—each attack is small in effect, but their effects accumulate: how should we decide whether to treat a given attack as something (...)
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  43. The Neglected Legacy and Harms of Epistemic Colonising: Linguicism, Epistemic Exploitation, and Ontic Burnout Gerry Dunne.Gerry Dunne - forthcoming - Philosophy and Theory of Higher.
    This paper sets out to accomplish two goals. First, drawing on the Irish perspective, it reconceptualises one of the enduring legacy-based harms of epistemic colonisation, in this case, ‘linguicism’, in terms of ‘hermeneutical injustice’. Second, it argues that otherwise well-meaning attempts to combat epistemic colonisation through the inclusion of marginalised testimony can, in certain circumstances, lead to cases of ‘epistemic exploitation’, which, in turn, can result in ‘ontic burnout’. Both linguicism and epistemic exploitation, this paper theorizes, have the (...)
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  44. On the Spiritual Exploitation of the Poor.Nathan Jun - 2017 - In Michael Truscello & Ajamu Nangwaya (eds.), Why Don't the Poor Rise Up? Organizing the Twenty-First Century Resistance. AK Press. pp. 133-144.
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  45. What does it take to establish that a world is uninhabited prior to exploitation? – A question of ethics as well as science.Erik Persson - 2014 - Challenges 5:224-238.
    If we find life on another world, it will be an extremely important discovery and we will have to take great care not to do anything that might endanger that life. If the life we find is sentient we will have moral obligations to that life. Whether it is sentient or not, we have a duty to ourselves to preserve it as a study object, and also because it would be commonly seen as valuable in its own right. In addition (...)
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  46. Simple or complex bodies? Trade-offs in exploiting body morphology for control.Matej Hoffmann & Vincent C. Müller - 2017 - In Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (eds.), Representation of Reality: Humans, Other Living Organism and Intelligent Machines. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 335-345.
    Engineers fine-tune the design of robot bodies for control purposes, however, a methodology or set of tools is largely absent, and optimization of morphology (shape, material properties of robot bodies, etc.) is lagging behind the development of controllers. This has become even more prominent with the advent of compliant, deformable or ”soft” bodies. These carry substantial potential regarding their exploitation for control—sometimes referred to as ”morphological computation”. In this article, we briefly review different notions of computation by physical systems (...)
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  47. A Needs-Based Partial Theory of Human Injustice: Oppression, Dehumanization, Exploitation, and Systematic Inequality in Opportunities to Address Human Needs.Michael Alan Dover - 2019 - Humanity and Society 43 (4):442-483.
    The article presents an original needs-based partial theory of human injustice and shows its relationship to existing theories of human need and human liberation. The theory is based on an original typology of three social structural sources of human injustice, a partial theorization of the mechanisms of human injustice, and a needs-based theorization of the nature of human injustice, as experienced by individuals. The article makes a sociological contribution to normative social theory by clarifying the relationship of human injustice to (...)
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  48. THE INVOLVEMENT OF ENTREPRENER's NETWORKS IN OPPORTUNITIES EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF INTERNATIONAL NEW VENTURES.Mai Phuong Ha - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Vaasa
    The role and importance of entrepreneur’s network for International New Ventures (INVs) are highlighted in much research. However, there is a lack of more profound studies on how different perspectives of network influence INVs. Therefore, this thesis aims to develop a deeper understanding of the multiple aspects of entrepreneurs’ networks involvement in INVs with regard to opportunity development process. Theoretical framework constitutes of three aspects of entrepreneur’s networks: type, strength and functions of relationships, put in the context of entrepreneurial opportunity’s (...)
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  49. The individual in the gig society: is the gig economy exploitative of the informal economy, or a means of empowerment? (2nd edition).Danelle Fourie - 2023 - Acta Academica 55 (2):154-169.
    This article argues that the gig economy is an exploitative extension of the informal economy. With its decentralised promise of individual entrepreneurship, I will argue that it places undue burdens on the worker as an ‘independent contractor’ that would otherwise be upheld by the employer. I will do so by applying a Marcusian analysis of the gig economy, highlighting two primary concerns. First, Marcuse’s critique of ‘industrial rationality’ explains how industrial rationality creates the framework for – and justification of – (...)
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  50. Why Is Modern Science Technologically Exploitable?Paul Hoyningen-Huene - 2019 - Journal of Ethics and Legal Technologies 1 (1):2-23.
    This paper deals with the following question: What features of modern natural science are responsible for the fact that, of all forms of science, this form is technologically exploitable? The three notions: concept of nature, epistemic ideal, and experiment, suggest the most important components of my answer. I will argue, first, that only the peculiar interplay of the modern concept of nature with an epistemic ideal attuned to it can cast experiment in the specific, highly central role it plays in (...)
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