Results for 'privacy'

145 found
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  1. In the Privacy of Our Streets.Carissa Véliz - 2018 - In Bryce Newell, Tjerk Timan & Bert-Jaap Koops (eds.), Surveillance, Privacy and Public Space. pp. 16-32.
    If one lives in a city and wants to be by oneself or have a private conversation with someone else, there are two ways to set about it: either one finds a place of solitude, such as one’s bedroom, or one finds a place crowded enough, public enough, that attention to each person dilutes so much so as to resemble a deserted refuge. Often, one can get more privacy in public places than in the most private of spaces. The (...)
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  2.  81
    Privacy, Transparency, and Accountability in the NSA’s Bulk Metadata Program.Alan Rubel - 2015 - In Adam D. Moore (ed.), Privacy, Security, and Accountability: Ethics, Law, and Policy. London, UK: pp. 183-202.
    Disputes at the intersection of national security, surveillance, civil liberties, and transparency are nothing new, but they have become a particularly prominent part of public discourse in the years since the attacks on the World Trade Center in September 2001. This is in part due to the dramatic nature of those attacks, in part based on significant legal developments after the attacks (classifying persons as “enemy combatants” outside the scope of traditional Geneva protections, legal memos by White House counsel providing (...)
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  3. Privacy in Public and the Contextual Conditions of Agency.Maria Brincker - 2017 - In Tjerk Timan, Bert-Jaap Koops & Bryce Newell (eds.), Privacy in Public Space: Conceptual and Regulatory Challenges. Edward Elgar.
    Current technology and surveillance practices make behaviors traceable to persons in unprecedented ways. This causes a loss of anonymity and of many privacy measures relied on in the past. These de facto privacy losses are by many seen as problematic for individual psychology, intimate relations and democratic practices such as free speech and free assembly. I share most of these concerns but propose that an even more fundamental problem might be that our very ability to act as autonomous (...)
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  4. Neuroscience V. Privacy? : A Democratic Perspective.Annabelle Lever - 2012 - In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. pp. 205.
    Recent developments in neuroscience create new opportunities for understanding the human brain. The power to do good, however, is also the power to harm, so scientific advances inevitably foster as many dystopian fears as utopian hopes. For instance, neuroscience lends itself to the fear that people will be forced to reveal thoughts and feelings which they would not have chosen to reveal, and of which they may be unaware. It also lends itself to the worry that people will be encouraged (...)
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  5. Student Privacy in Learning Analytics: An Information Ethics Perspective.Alan Rubel & Kyle M. L. Jones - 2016 - The Information Society 32 (2):143-159.
    In recent years, educational institutions have started using the tools of commercial data analytics in higher education. By gathering information about students as they navigate campus information systems, learning analytics “uses analytic techniques to help target instructional, curricular, and support resources” to examine student learning behaviors and change students’ learning environments. As a result, the information educators and educational institutions have at their disposal is no longer demarcated by course content and assessments, and old boundaries between information used for assessment (...)
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  6. Privacy, Democracy and Freedom of Expression.Annabelle Lever - 2015 - In Beate Rossler & Dorota Mokrosinska (eds.), The Social Dimensions of Privacy. cambridge University Press.
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  7. Philosophical Theories of Privacy: Implications for an Adequate Online Privacy Policy.Herman T. Tavani - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (1):1–22.
    This essay critically examines some classic philosophical and legal theories of privacy, organized into four categories: the nonintrusion, seclusion, limitation, and control theories of privacy. Although each theory includes one or more important insights regarding the concept of privacy, I argue that each falls short of providing an adequate account of privacy. I then examine and defend a theory of privacy that incorporates elements of the classic theories into one unified theory: the Restricted Access/Limited Control (...)
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  8.  60
    Notice After Notice-and-Consent: Why Privacy Disclosures Are Valuable Even If Consent Frameworks Aren’T.Daniel Susser - 2019 - Journal of Information Policy 9:37-62.
    The dominant legal and regulatory approach to protecting information privacy is a form of mandated disclosure commonly known as “notice-and-consent.” Many have criticized this approach, arguing that privacy decisions are too complicated, and privacy disclosures too convoluted, for individuals to make meaningful consent decisions about privacy choices—decisions that often require us to waive important rights. While I agree with these criticisms, I argue that they only meaningfully call into question the “consent” part of notice-and-consent, and that (...)
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  9. Bodily Privacy, Toilets, and Sex Discrimination: The Problem of "Manhood" in a Women's Prison.Jami L. Anderson - 2009 - In Olga Gershenson Barbara Penner (ed.), Ladies and Gents. pp. 90.
    Unjustifiable assumptions about sex and gender roles, the untamable potency of maleness, and gynophobic notions about women's bodies inform and influence a broad range of policy-making institutions in this society. In December 2004, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit continued this ignoble cultural pastime when they decided Everson v. Michigan Department of Corrections. In this decision, the Everson Court accepted the Michigan Department of Correction's claim that “the very manhood” of male prison guards both threatens the safety (...)
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  10. Privacy and Punishment.Mark Tunick - 2013 - Social Theory and Practice 39 (4):643-668.
    Philosophers have focused on why privacy is of value to innocent people with nothing to hide. I argue that for people who do have something to hide, such as a past crime, or bad behavior in a public place, informational privacy can be important for avoiding undeserved or disproportionate non-legal punishment. Against the objection that one cannot expect privacy in public facts, I argue that I might have a legitimate privacy interest in public facts that are (...)
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  11. The Epistemic Account of Privacy.Martijn Blaauw - 2013 - Episteme 10 (2):167-177.
    Privacy is valued by many. But what it means to have privacy remains less than clear. In this paper, I argue that the notion of privacy should be understood in epistemic terms. What it means to have (some degree of) privacy is that other persons do not stand in significant epistemic relations to those truths one wishes to keep private.
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  12.  11
    The Internet and Privacy.Carissa Véliz - 2019 - In David Edmonds (ed.), Ethics and the Contemporary World. Abingdon, UK: pp. 149-159.
    In this chapter I give a brief explanation of what privacy is, argue that protecting privacy is important because violations of the right to privacy can harm us individually and collectively, and offer some advice as to how to protect our privacy online.
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  13. Anti-Doping, Purported Rights to Privacy and WADA's Whereabouts Requirements: A Legal Analysis.Oskar MacGregor, Richard Griffith, Daniele Ruggiu & Mike McNamee - 2013 - Fair Play 1 (2):13-38.
    Recent discussions among lawyers, philosophers, policy researchers and athletes have focused on the potential threat to privacy posed by the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) whereabouts requirements. These requirements demand, among other things, that all elite athletes file their whereabouts information for the subsequent quarter on a quarterly basis and comprise data for one hour of each day when the athlete will be available and accessible for no advance notice testing at a specified location of their choosing. Failure to file (...)
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  14.  92
    Why Data Privacy is Key To a Smart Energy Future.Carissa Véliz & Philipp Grunewald - 2018 - Nature Energy 3:702-704.
    The ability to collect fine-grained energy data from smart meters has benefits for utilities and consumers. However, a proactive approach to data privacy is necessary to maximize the potential of these data to support low-carbon energy systems, and innovative business models.
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  15.  45
    A Framework for Analyzing and Comparing Privacy States.Alan Rubel & Ryan Biava - 2014 - JASIST: The Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 65 (12):2422-2431.
    This article develops a framework for analyzing and comparing privacy and privacy protections across (inter alia) time, place, and polity and for examining factors that affect privacy and privacy protection. This framework provides a method to describe precisely aspects of privacy and context and a flexible vocabulary and notation for such descriptions and comparisons. Moreover, it links philosophical and conceptual work on privacy to social science and policy work and accommodates different conceptions of the (...)
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  16.  52
    Privacy and Democracy: What the Secret Ballot Reveals.Annabelle Lever - forthcoming - Law, Culture and the Humanities.
    : Does the rejection of pure proceduralism show that we should adopt Brettschneider’s value theory of democracy? The answer, this paper suggests, is ‘no’. There are a potentially infinite number of incompatible ways to understand democracy, of which the value theory is, at best, only one. The paper illustrates and substantiates its claims by looking at what the secret ballot shows us about the importance of privacy and democracy. Drawing on the reasons to reject Mill’s arguments for open voting, (...)
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  17.  47
    Libraries, Electronic Resources, and Privacy: The Case for Positive Intellectual Freedom.Alan Rubel - 2014 - Library Quarterly 84 (2):183-208.
    Public and research libraries have long provided resources in electronic formats, and the tension between providing electronic resources and patron privacy is widely recognized. But assessing trade-offs between privacy and access to electronic resources remains difficult. One reason is a conceptual problem regarding intellectual freedom. Traditionally, the LIS literature has plausibly understood privacy as a facet of intellectual freedom. However, while certain types of electronic resource use may diminish patron privacy, thereby diminishing intellectual freedom, the opportunities (...)
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  18.  43
    Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America – By Amy L. Fairchild, Ronald Bayer, and James Colgrove. [REVIEW]Alan Rubel - 2009 - Review of Policy Research 26:633-634.
    Review of Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America – By Amy L. Fairchild, Ronald Bayer, and James Colgrove.
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  19.  45
    Four Facets of Privacy and Intellectual Freedom in Licensing Contracts for Electronic Journals.Alan Rubel & Mei Zhang - 2015 - College and Research Libraries 4 (76):427-449.
    This is a study of the treatment of library patron privacy in licenses for electronic journals in academic libraries. We begin by distinguishing four facets of privacy and intellectual freedom based on the LIS and philosophical literature. Next, we perform a content analysis of 42 license agreements for electronic journals, focusing on terms for enforcing authorized use and collection and sharing of user data. We compare our findings to model licenses, to recommendations proposed in a recent treatise on (...)
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  20. Feminism, Democracy and the Right to Privacy.Annabelle Lever - 2005 - Minerva 2005 (nov):1-31.
    This article argues that people have legitimate interests in privacy that deserve legal protection on democratic principles. It describes the right to privacy as a bundle of rights of personal choice, association and expression and shows that, so described, people have legitimate political interests in privacy. These interests reflect the ways that privacy rights can supplement the protection for people’s freedom and equality provided by rights of political choice, association and expression, and can help to make (...)
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  21. 'Privacy, Private Property and Collective Property'.Annabelle Lever - 2012 - The Good Society 21 (1):47-60.
    This article is part of a symposium on property-owning democracy. In A Theory of Justice John Rawls argued that people in a just society would have rights to some forms of personal property, whatever the best way to organise the economy. Without being explicit about it, he also seems to have believed that protection for at least some forms of privacy are included in the Basic Liberties, to which all are entitled. Thus, Rawls assumes that people are entitled to (...)
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  22. Would You Mind Being Watched by Machines? Privacy Concerns in Data Mining.Vincent C. Müller - 2009 - AI and Society 23 (4):529-544.
    "Data mining is not an invasion of privacy because access to data is only by machines, not by people": this is the argument that is investigated here. The current importance of this problem is developed in a case study of data mining in the USA for counterterrorism and other surveillance purposes. After a clarification of the relevant nature of privacy, it is argued that access by machines cannot warrant the access to further information, since the analysis will have (...)
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  23.  92
    The Particularized Judgment Account of Privacy.Alan Rubel - 2011 - Res Publica 17 (3):275-290.
    Questions of privacy have become particularly salient in recent years due, in part, to information-gathering initiatives precipitated by the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, increasing power of surveillance and computing technologies, and massive data collection about individuals for commercial purposes. While privacy is not new to the philosophical and legal literature, there is much to say about the nature and value of privacy. My focus here is on the nature of informational privacy. I argue that the (...)
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  24. Physicalism and the Privacy of Conscious Experience.Miklós Márton & János Tőzsér - 2016 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 4 (1):73-88.
    The aim of the paper is to show that the privacy of conscious experience is inconsistent with any kind of physicalism. That is, if you are a physicalist, then you have to deny that more than one subject cannot undergo the very same conscious experience. In the first part of the paper we define the concepts of privacy and physicalism. In the second part we delineate two thought experiments in which two subjects undergo the same kind of conscious (...)
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  25.  7
    Review of Graeme Laurie, Genetic Privacy[REVIEW]Donna Dickenson - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29:271-374.
    Review of Graeme Laurie, Genetic Privacy: A Challenge to Medico-Legal Norms.
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  26. Does Privacy Undermine Community.Mark Tunick - 2001 - Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (4):517-534.
    Does privacy--the condition of being invisible to public scrutiny--in so emphasizing individual rights, undermine community? One objection to privacy is that it is a license to engage in antisocial activity that undermines social norms. Another objection is that privacy encourages isolation and anonymity, also undermining community. Drawing on the political theory of Hegel, I argue that privacy can promote community. Some invasions of privacy can undermine a sort of autonomy essential for maintaining a community. I (...)
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  27.  78
    Privacy as an Asset.Jarek Gryz - 2017 - In Marcellus Mindel, Kelly Lyons & Joe Wigglesworth (eds.), Proceedings of the 27th CASCON Conference. Markham, Canada: IBM/ACM. pp. 266-271.
    Many attempts to define privacy have been made over the last century. Early definitions and theories of privacy had little to do with the concept of information and, when they did, only in an informal sense. With the advent of information technology, the question of a precise and universally acceptable definition of privacy in this new domain became an urgent issue as legal and business problems regarding privacy started to accrue. In this paper, I propose a (...)
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  28. Pictures, Privacy, Augustine, and the Mind.Derek A. McDougall - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Research 33:33-72.
    This paper weaves together a number of separate strands each relating to an aspect of Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations. The first strand introduces his radical and incoherent idea of a private object. Wittgenstein in § 258 and related passages is not investigating a perfectly ordinary notion of first person privacy; but his critics have treated his question, whether a private language is possible, solely in terms of their quite separate question of how our ordinary sensation terms can be understood, in (...)
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  29. Privacy in Public Places: Do GPS and Video Surveillance Provide Plain Views?Mark Tunick - 2009 - Social Theory and Practice 35 (4):597-622.
    New technologies of surveillance such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly used as convenient substitutes for conventional means of observation. Recent court decisions hold that the government may, without a warrant, use a GPS to track a vehicle’s movements in public places without violating the 4th Amendment, as the vehicle is in plain view and no reasonable expectation of privacy is violated. This emerging consensus of opinions fails to distinguish the unreasonable expectation that we not be seen in (...)
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  30. Must Privacy and Sexual Equality Conflict? A Philosophical Examination of Some Legal Evidence.Annabelle Lever - 2001 - Social Research 67 (4):1137-1171.
    Are rights to privacy consistent with sexual equality? In a brief, but influential, article Catherine MacKinnon trenchantly laid out feminist criticisms of the right to privacy. In “Privacy v. Equality: Beyond Roe v. Wade” she linked familiar objections to the right to privacy and connected them to the fate of abortion rights in the U.S.A. (MacKinnon, 1983, 93-102). For many feminists, the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade (1973) had suggested that, notwithstanding a dubious past, (...)
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  31. Privacy, Democracy, and Security.Annabelle Lever - 2013 - The Philosophers' Magazine 63:99-105.
    It is especially hard, at present, to read the newspapers without emitting a howl of anguish and outrage. Philosophy can heal some wounds but, in this case, political action may prove a better remedy than philosophy. It can therefore feel odd trying to think philosophically about surveillance at a time like this, rather than joining with like-minded people to protest the erosion of our civil liberties, the duplicity of our governments, and the failings in our political institutions - including our (...)
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  32.  32
    Privacy.Edmund Byrne - 1998 - In Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 649-659.
    Privacy involves a zone of inaccessibility in a particular context. In social discourse it pertains to activities that are not public, the latter being by definition knowable by outsiders. The public domain so called is the opposite of secrecy and somewhat less so of confidentiality. The private sphere is respected in law and morality, now in terms of a right to privacy. In law some violations of privacy are torts. Philosophers tend to associate privacy with personhood. (...)
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  33. Privacy: Restrictions and Decisions.Annabelle Lever - 2013 - In Steven Scalet and Christopher Griffin (ed.), APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Law. pp. 1-6.
    This article forms part of a tribute to Anita L. Allen by the APA newletter on Philosophy and Law. It celebrates Allen's work, but also explains why her conception of privacy is philosophically inadequate. It then uses basic democratic principles and the example of the secret ballot to suggest how we might develop a more philosophically persuasive version of Allen's ideas.
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  34.  21
    Privacy in the Face of New Technologies of Surveillance.Mark Tunick - 2000 - Public Affairs Quarterly 14 (3):259-277.
    This article addresses the question of whether an expectation of privacy is reasonable in the face of new technologies of surveillance, by developing a principle that best fits our intuitions. A "no sense enhancement" principle which would rule out searches using technologically sophisticated devices is rejected. The paper instead argues for the "mischance principle," which proscribes uses of technology that reveal what could not plausibly be discovered accidentally without the technology, subject to the proviso that searches that serve a (...)
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  35.  37
    Brain Privacy and the Case of Cannibal Cop.Mark Tunick - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (2):179-196.
    In light of technology that may reveal the content of a person’s innermost thoughts, I address the question of whether there is a right to ‘brain privacy’—a right not to have one’s inner thoughts revealed to others–even if exposing these thoughts might be beneficial to society. I draw on a conception of privacy as the ability to control who has access to information about oneself and to an account that connects one’s interest in privacy to one’s interests (...)
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  36.  20
    Technology and Privacy.Edmund Byrne - 1991 - In The Technology of Discovery and the Discovery of Technology. Blacksburg, VA: Society for Philosophy and Technology. pp. 379-390.
    Emergent technologies are undermining both decisional privacy (intimacy) and informational privacy. Regarding the former consider, e.g., technical intrusions on burglar alarms and telephone calls. Regarding the latter consider how routinely technologies enable intrusion into electronic data processing (EDP) in spite of government efforts to maintain control. These efforts are uneven among nations thus inviting selective choice of a data storage country. Deregulation of telecommunications and assigning operators First Amendment rights invites multiple efforts to profit from preferential treatment of (...)
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  37.  43
    Justifying Public Health Surveillance: Basic Interests, Unreasonable Exercise, and Privacy.Alan Rubel - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (1):1-33.
    Surveillance plays a crucial role in public health, and for obvious reasons conflicts with individual privacy. This paper argues that the predominant approach to the conflict is problematic, and then offers an alternative. It outlines a Basic Interests Approach to public health measures, and the Unreasonable Exercise Argument, which sets forth conditions under which individuals may justifiably exercise individual privacy claims that conflict with public health goals. The view articulated is compatible with a broad range conceptions of the (...)
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  38.  22
    PHIL*4230 Photocopy Packet Privacy (Edited by V. I. Burke).Victoria I. Burke - 2014 - Guelph, Canada: University of Guelph.
    This out-of-print collection in the area of the history, politics, ethics, and theory of privacy includes selections from Peter Gay, Alan Westin, Walter Benjamin, Catharine MacKinnon, Seyla Benhabib, Anita Allen, Ann Jennings, Charles Taylor, Richard Sennett, Mark Wicclair, Martha Nussbaum, and Robert Nozick.
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  39. Digital Alienation as the Foundation of Online Privacy Concerns.Brandt Dainow - 2015 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 45 (3):109-117.
    The term ‘digital alienation’ is used in critical IS research to refer to manifestations of alienation online. This paper explores the difficulties of using a traditional Marxist analysis to account for digital alienation. The problem is that the activity people undertake online does not look coerced or estranged from the creator’s individuality, both of which are typically seen as necessary for the production of alienation. As a result of this apparent difficulty, much of the research has focused on the relationship (...)
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  40.  7
    What to Do When Privacy Is Gone.James Brusseau - 2019 - In Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings. Norfolk, VA, USA: pp. 1 - 8.
    Today’s ethics of privacy is largely dedicated to defending personal information from big data technologies. This essay goes in the other direction; it considers the struggle to be lost, and explores two strategies for living after privacy is gone. First, total exposure embraces privacy’s decline, and then contributes to the process with transparency. All personal information is shared without reservation. The resulting ethics is explored through a big data version of Robert Nozick’s Experience Machine thought experiment. Second, (...)
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  41. Publicity, Privacy, and Religious Toleration in Hobbes's Leviathan.Arash Abizadeh - 2013 - Modern Intellectual History 10 (2):261-291.
    What motivated an absolutist Erastian who rejected religious freedom, defended uniform public worship, and deemed the public expression of disagreement a catalyst for war to endorse a movement known to history as the champion of toleration, no coercion in religion, and separation of church and state? At least three factors motivated Hobbes’s 1651 endorsement of Independency: the Erastianism of Cromwellian Independency, the influence of the politique tradition, and, paradoxically, the contribution of early-modern practices of toleration to maintaining the public sphere’s (...)
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  42. Co osobie po prywatności? [What's the Use of Privacy?].Marek Piechowiak - 2009 - In Barbara Chyrowicz (ed.), Prywatność w dobie globalizacji. Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL. pp. 33-69.
    Celem opracowania jest dookreślenie tego, czym jest prywatność. Interesuje mnie prywatność w aspekcie nor¬matywnym, jako coś, co uważamy za nasze dobro; coś, czego się domagamy, co jest naszym prawem, i to nie tylko w sensie moralnym, ale także chronionym prawem pozytywnym. Prywatność jest czymś relacyjnym, i to przynajmniej w dwojakim znaczeniu. Po pierwsze, konstytuowana jest poprzez relację oddzielenia od czegoś - państwa, zakładu pracy (pracodawcy), rozmaitych instytucji. Po drugie, to, co prywatne z punktu widzenia jednych relacji - np. relacji jednostki (...)
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  43. Sven Ove Hansson and Elin Palm, Eds., The Ethics of Workplace Privacy Reviewed By.Annabelle Lever - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (5):348-350.
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  44.  91
    Anita L. Allen, Why Privacy Isn't Everything: Feminist Reflections on Personal Accountability Reviewed By.Annabelle Lever - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (1):1-3.
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  45.  11
    What to Do When Privacy Is Gone.James Brusseau - 2019 - In D. E. Wittkower (ed.), Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings. Norfolk, VA, USA: Old Dominion. pp. 2-8.
    Today’s ethics of privacy is largely dedicated to defending personal information from big data technologies. This essay goes in the other direction; it considers the struggle to be lost, and explores two strategies for living after privacy is gone. First, total exposure embraces privacy’s decline, and then contributes to the process with transparency. All personal information is shared without reservation. The resulting ethics is explored through a big data version of Robert Nozick’s Experience Machine thought experiment. Second, (...)
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  46.  29
    On the Need for a Right to Cognitive Privacy.Kyle Slominski - 2018 - Oxford Philosophical Society Annual Review 40:43-45.
    This paper argues that legal privacy should be afforded to the content of the mind, comparing cognitive privacy to other protected forms of privacy and briefly addressing the potential pitfalls of compulsory neuroimaging.
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  47. Government Surveillance and Why Defining Privacy Matters in a Post‐Snowden World.Kevin Macnish - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy (2).
    There is a long-running debate as to whether privacy is a matter of control or access. This has become more important following revelations made by Edward Snowden in 2013 regarding the collection of vast swathes of data from the Internet by signals intelligence agencies such as NSA and GCHQ. The nature of this collection is such that if the control account is correct then there has been a significant invasion of people's privacy. If, though, the access account is (...)
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  48.  58
    Genetic Privacy: A Challenge to Medico-Legal Norms: G Laurie. Cambridge University Press, 2002, 50.00 (Hbk), Pp 335. ISBN 0521660270. [REVIEW]D. Dickenson - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (6):373-374.
    Review of Graeme Laurie, Genetic Privacy.
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  49.  79
    Privacy and the USA Patriot Act: Rights, the Value of Rights, and Autonomy.Alan Rubel - 2007 - Law and Philosophy 26 (2):119-159.
    Civil liberty and privacy advocates have criticized the USA PATRIOT Act (Act) on numerous grounds since it was passed in the wake of the World Trade Center attacks in 2001. Two of the primary targets of those criticisms are the Act’s sneak-and-peek search provision, which allows law enforcement agents to conduct searches without informing the search’s subjects, and the business records provision, which allows agents to secretly subpoena a variety of information – most notoriously, library borrowing records. Without attending (...)
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  50.  53
    Assuming Identities: Media, Security and Personal Privacy.Steven DeCaroli - 2003 - In Reason and Insight. pp. 421-430.
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