Results for 'traditions'

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  1. Tradition, Authority and Dialogue: Arendt and Alexander on Education.Itay Snir - 2018 - Foro de Educación 16 (24):21-40.
    In this paper I discuss two attempts to challenge mainstream liberal education, by Hannah Arendt and by contemporary Israeli philosopher Hanan Alexander. Arendt and Alexander both identify problems in liberal-secular modern politics and present alternatives based on reconnecting politics and education to tradition. I analyze their positions and bring them into a dialogue that suggests a complex conception of education that avoids many of the pitfalls of modern liberal thought. First, I outline Arendt and Alexander’s educational views and discuss their (...)
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  2. Tradition and Modernity: Philosophical Reflections on the African Experience.Kwame Gyekye - 1997 - Oup Usa.
    Kwame Gyekye offers a philosophical interpretation and critical analysis of the African cultural experience in modern times. Critically employing Western political and philosophical concepts to clear, comparative advantage, Gyekye addresses a wide range of concrete problems afflicting postcolonial African states, such as ethnicity and nation-building, the relationship of tradition to modernity, the nature of political authority and political legitimation, political corruption, and the threat to traditional moral and social values, practices, and institutions in the wake of rapid social change.
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  3. Traditions and True Successors.David-Hillel Ruben - 2013 - Social Epistemology 27 (1):32 - 46.
    What constitutes numerically one and the same tradition diachronically, at different times? This question is the focus of often violent dispute in societies. Is it capable of a rational resolution? Many accounts attempt that resolution with a diagnosis of ambiguity of the disputed concept-Islam, Marxism, or democracy for example. The diagnosis offered is in terms of vagueness, namely the vague criteria for sameness or similarity of central beliefs and practices.
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  4. When Traditional Essentialism Fails: Biological Natural Kinds.Robert A. Wilson, Matthew J. Barker & Ingo Brigandt - 2007 - Philosophical Topics 35 (1-2):189-215.
    Essentialism is widely regarded as a mistaken view of biological kinds, such as species. After recounting why (sections 2-3), we provide a brief survey of the chief responses to the “death of essentialism” in the philosophy of biology (section 4). We then develop one of these responses, the claim that biological kinds are homeostatic property clusters (sections 5-6) illustrating this view with several novel examples (section 7). Although this view was first expressed 20 years ago, and has received recent discussion (...)
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  5. Traditional and Experimental Approaches to Free Will and Moral Responsibility.Gunnar Björnsson & Derk Pereboom - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 142-57.
    Examines the relevance of empirical studies of responsibility judgments for traditional philosophical concerns about free will and moral responsibility. We argue that experimental philosophy is relevant to the traditional debates, but that setting up experiments and interpreting data in just the right way is no less difficult than negotiating traditional philosophical arguments. Both routes are valuable, but so far neither promises a way to secure significant agreement among the competing parties. To illustrate, we focus on three sorts of issues. For (...)
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  6. Traditional Islamic Exclusivism –A Critique.Imran Aijaz - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (2):185-209.
    In this paper, I give an account and critique of what I call ‘Traditional Islamic Exclusivism’ – a specific Islamic interpretation of religious exclusivism. This Islamic version of religious exclusivism rests on exclusivist attitudes towards truth, epistemic justification and salvation. After giving an account of Traditional Islamic Exclusivism by explaining its theological roots in the Qur’an and ahadith, I proceed to critique it. I do so by arguing that Islamic epistemic exclusivism, which forms the main core of Traditional Islamic Exclusivism, (...)
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  7. Traditional Compatibilism Reformulated and Defended.Markus E. Schlosser - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Research 42:277-300.
    Traditional compatibilism about free will is widely considered to be untenable. In particular, the conditional analysis of the ability to do otherwise appears to be subject to clear counterexamples. I will propose a new version of traditional compatibilism that provides a conditional account of both the ability to do otherwise and the ability to choose to do otherwise, and I will argue that this view withstands the standard objections to traditional compatibilism. For this, I will assume with incompatibilists that the (...)
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  8. The Archimedean Trap: Why Traditional Reinforcement Learning Will Probably Not Yield AGI.Samuel Allen Alexander - 2020 - Journal of Artificial General Intelligence 11 (1):70-85.
    After generalizing the Archimedean property of real numbers in such a way as to make it adaptable to non-numeric structures, we demonstrate that the real numbers cannot be used to accurately measure non-Archimedean structures. We argue that, since an agent with Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) should have no problem engaging in tasks that inherently involve non-Archimedean rewards, and since traditional reinforcement learning rewards are real numbers, therefore traditional reinforcement learning probably will not lead to AGI. We indicate two possible ways (...)
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  9. Hume, the Philosophy of Science and the Scientific Tradition.Matias Slavov - 2018 - In Angela Coventry & Alex Sager (eds.), The Humean Mind. New York: pp. 388-402.
    Although the main focus of Hume’s career was in the humanities, his work also has an observable role in the historical development of natural sciences after his time. To show this, I shall center on the relation between Hume and two major figures in the history of the natural sciences: Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and Albert Einstein (1879–1955). Both of these scientists read Hume. They also found parts of Hume’s work useful to their sciences. Inquiring into the relations between Hume and (...)
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  10.  54
    Pemali Tradition in Indonesia Archipelago: People’s Perception, Attitude and Obedience.Andi Kaharuddin - 2021 - Linguistica Antverpiensia 1:2104 - 2119.
    As a cultural heritage containing traditional teachings, Pemali has been since long time practiced by the local people of Indonesia in almost all parts of the archipelago. The traditional teachings are nowadays potential of conflicting with the current life style of people due to a number of factors. This study aims at providing data and information about perception, attitude, and obedience of Indonesian people toward the pemali by investigating four independent variables i.e. ethnic group, sex, age, and education of the (...)
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  11. Traditional Logic and the Early History of Sets, 1854-1908.J. Ferreiros - 1996 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 50:5-71.
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  12.  54
    Moral Traditions, Critical Reflection, and Education in a Liberal-Democratic Society.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2012 - In Asger Sørensen & Peter Kemp (eds.), Politics in Education. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 169-182.
    I argue that, in the second half of the second Millennium, three parallel processes took place. First, normative ethics, or natural morality, that had been a distinct subject in the education of European elites from the Renaissance times to the end of the eighteenth century, disappeared as such, being partly allotted to the Churches via the teaching of religion in State School, and partly absorbed by the study of history and literature, assumed to be channels for imbibing younger generations with (...)
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  13. The Traditions of Fideism.Thomas D. Carroll - 2008 - Religious Studies 44 (1):1-22.
    Philosophers and theologians acknowledge that "fideism" is difficult to define but rarely agree on what the best characterization of the term is. In this article, I investigate the history of use of "fideism" to explore why its meaning has been so contested and thus why it has not always been helpful for resolving philosophical problems. I trace the use of the term from its origins in French theology to its current uses in philosophy and theology, concluding that "fideism" is helpful (...)
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  14. Feminism and Tradition in Aesthetics "Introduction".Carolyn Korsmeyer (ed.) - 1995 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Feminism and Tradition in Aesthetics takes a fresh look at the history of aesthetics and at current debates within the philosophy of art by exploring the ways in which gender informs notions of art and creativity, evaluation and interpretation, and concepts of aesthetic value. Multiple intellectual traditions have formed this field, and the discussions herein range from consideration of eighteenth century legacies of ideas about taste, beauty, and sublimity to debates about the relevance of postmodern analyses for feminist aesthetics. (...)
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  15. Three Rival Views of Tradition (Arendt, Oakeshott and MacIntyre).James Alexander - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):20-43.
    If we define tradition too hastily we leave to one side the question of what the relevance of tradition is for us. Here the concept of tradition is opened up by considering the different views of it taken by Hannah Arendt, Michael Oakeshott and Alasdair MacIntyre. We see that each has put tradition into a fully developed picture of what our predicament is in modernity; and that each has differed in their assessment of what our relation to tradition is or (...)
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  16. Traditional Morality and Sacred Values.David McPherson - 2017 - Analyse & Kritik 39 (1):41-62.
    This essay gives an account of how traditional morality is best understood and also why it is worth defending (even if some reform is needed) and how this might be done. Traditional morality is first contrasted with supposedly more enlightened forms of morality, such as utilitarianism and liberal Kantianism (i.e., autonomy-centered ethics). The focus here is on certain sacred values that are central to traditional morality and which highlight this contrast and bring out the attractions of traditional morality. Next, this (...)
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  17. The Ἐξαίφνης in the Platonic Tradition: From Kinematics to Dynamics.Florian Marion - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to provide some acquaintance with the exegetical history of ἐξαίφνης inside the Platonic Tradition, from Plato to Marsilio Ficino, by way of Middle Platonism and Greek Neoplatonism. (Since this is only a draft, several modifications should be made later, notably in order to improve the English.) Some part has been presented in Los Angeles: “Damascius’ Theodicy: Psychic Input of Disorder and Evil into the World”, 16th Annual ISNS (International Society for Neoplatonic Studies) Conference, Loyola (...)
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  18.  7
    Review of Spiritual Traditions and the Virtues, by Mark R. Wynn. [REVIEW]Donald Bungum - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion.
    This perceptive and engaging work proposes a new approach to philosophical theology. Rather than beginning with the metaphysics or epistemology of religion, Wynn proposes to begin with the nature of spiritual goods and the ways in which they are pursued, understood, and handed on within spiritual traditions. Wynn advances his discussion while relying heavily on Aquinas’s Thomistic notion of infused virtue. The result is a fresh take on the “hybrid” nature of spiritual goods, which order human beings to both (...)
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  19. Acquiring Universal Values Through a Particular Tradition: A Perspective on Judaism and Modern Pluralism.Jacobs Jonathan - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 5 (2):1--22.
    Religious traditions can be sources of values and attitudes supporting the liberal polity in ways that political theorizing and conceptions of public reason often fail to recognize. moreover, religious traditions can give support through the ways reason is crucial to their self-understanding. one understanding of Judaism is examined as an example. Also, the particularism of traditions can encourage commitment to universally valid values and ideals. reason’s role in Judaism and other religious traditions makes possible constructive interaction (...)
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  20. Sexuality and Christian Tradition.David Newheiser - 2015 - Journal of Religious Ethics 43 (1):122-145.
    This essay aims to clarify the debate over same-sex unions by comparing it to the fourth-century conflict concerning the nature of Jesus Christ. Although some suppose that the council of Nicaea reiterated what Christians had always believed, the Nicene theology championed by Athanasius was a dramatic innovation that only won out through protracted struggle. Similarly, despite the widespread assumption that Christian tradition univocally condemns homosexuality, the concept of sexuality is a nineteenth-century invention with no exact analogue in the ancient world. (...)
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  21.  42
    TRADITIONAL AND MODERN SOCIETY: AN ANALYTICAL EXPLORATION.Mudasir Ahmad Tantray & Hilal Ahmad Mir - 2021 - Journal of Oriental Research Madras 92 (29):93-101.
    This paper clarifies the significance of philosophy for traditional societies and modern societies and their evolution. In this paper ethics is the mainstream philosophy which studies and analyses the values of both the traditional societies and modern ones. This paper is only the ethical study of the traditional values and modern values. There are three ways to philosophize societies as traditional and modern: Ethical perspective, economical and theological, but this paper deals only with the ethical approach. Philosophers from ancient to (...)
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  22. Efik Traditional Marriage Rites- A Gender Perspective.E. Y. O. Ubong Ekpenyong - 2016 - Religions: Journal of the Nigerian Association 26 (1).
    This paper investigated Efik marriage rites from a gender perspective. Marriage in Africa is a union between a man and a woman (monogamy) or mainly between a man and women (polygyny), or between a woman and men (polyandry), though this is very rare. In some cases it may be serial polygyny or polyandry, i.e. the case of marrying more than one wife or husband, but always after divorce. Marriage just like other institutions in Africa has rites of passage in which (...)
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  23. Evaluation of Conflicting Traditions about the Holy Prophet’s Meeting with the Jinn.Mahmut Yazıcı - 2018 - Tasavvur - Tekirdag Theology Journal 4 (2):784 - 825.
    The Jinn, which is regarded as the third kind of entity apart from the angel and the human being, has been the subject matter of several separate works written by both Muslims and non-Muslims in the past and present. In short, such works deal with the nature of jinns and their characteristics, and they cover matters such as the beliefs about jinns in several religions and cultures and their relationship with human beings. Apart from the fact that the primary source (...)
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  24.  19
    Traditions as Configurations of Values.Chenyang Li - 2006 - In Dimitri Spivak & Evgeniy Lunyaev (eds.), Dynamics of Values in Contemporary Culture. St. Petersburg: Broadview Press. pp. 33-53.
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  25. Traditional Christian Theism and Truthmaker Maximalism.Timothy Pawl - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):197-218.
    I argue that Traditional Christian Theism is inconsistent with Truthmaker Maximalism, the thesis that all truths have truthmakers. Though this original formulation requires extensive revision, the gist of the argument is as follows. Suppose for reductio Traditional Christian Theism and the sort of Truthmaker Theory that embraces Truthmaker Maximalism are both true. By Traditional Christian Theism, there is a world in which God, and only God, exists. There are no animals in such a world. Thus, it is true in such (...)
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  26. Reappraising the Manual Tradition.Brian Besong - 2015 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 89 (4):557-584.
    Following the Second Vatican Council, the predominant trend in Catholic moral theology has been decidedly antagonistic toward the tradition that dominated moral theology before the Council, namely the use and formulation of ecclesiastically-approved “manuals” or “handbooks” of moral theology, the contents of which chiefly involved general precepts of morally good and bad behavior as well as the extension of those precepts to particular cases. In this paper, I will oppose the dominant anti-manual trend. More particularly, I will first sketch what (...)
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  27.  32
    Alternative Assessment or Traditional Testing: How Do Iranian EFL Teachers Respond?Enayat A. Shabani - 2013 - Teaching English Language 2 (7):151-190.
    Introducing alternative modes of assessment is but one response to the recent call for democratic and ethical language assessment. Yet, despite the recent emphasis in the discourse community and the rise in publication on alternative assessment, these new forms of assessment still need to be explored further. This study is a two-fold attempt: first, to investigate teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about different aspects of traditional testing and alternative assessment, and second to delve into their ethical orientation and to examine views (...)
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  28. Dynamic Traditions: Why Globalization Does Not Mean Homogenization.Richard Volkman - 2006 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 4 (3):145-154.
    In light of the relation between culture and markets, an analysis of cultural evolution reveals that globalization will not lead to the homogenization of world cultures.
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  29. Traditional Literary Interpretation Versus Subversive Interpretation.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I present some objections to traditional literary interpretation and consider subversive interpretation as a solution to these problems. Subversive interpretation may seem more scientific and more democratic than traditional interpretation, but it is open to doubt that it is more democratic.
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  30.  78
    Traditional Catholic Philosophy: Baby and Bathwater.James Franklin - 2006 - In Michael Whelan (ed.), Issues for Church and Society in Australia. Sydney, Australia: St Pauls. pp. 15-32.
    The teaching of the Aquinas Academy in its first thirty years was based on the scholastic philosophy of Thomas Aquinas, then regarded as the official philosophy of the Catholic Church. That philosophy has not been so much heard of in the last thirty years, but it has a strong presence below the surface. Its natural law theory of ethics, especially, still informs Vatican pronouncements on moral topics such as contraception and euthanasia. It has also been important in Australia in the (...)
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  31.  31
    Traditions and Philosophical Renewals. [REVIEW]Hasmatuchi Gabriel - 2020 - Annals of Philosophy, Social and Human Disciplines 2:81-86.
    Ana PASCARU (Scientific coordinator) Integrarea tradițiilor filosofice în societatea bazată pe cunoaștere [Integrating philosophical traditions in the knowledge-based society]. (2019): Kishinev. Institute of History, Philosophy Department – Chișinău [Kishinev], “Artpoligraf” Printing House.
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  32. Tradition and Practical Knowledge.Kristof Nyiri - 1988 - In Kristof Nyiri & Barry Smith (eds.), Practical Knowledge: Outlines of a Theory of Traditions and Skills. London/New York/Sydney: Croom Helm. pp. 17-52.
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  33. Boethius und die Tradition.Erwin Sonderegger - 1994 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 48 (4):558–571.
    In the past Boethius was primarily considered to be the author of the Consolatio, or a theologician or logician. But as a philosopher he was the first to reflect on the concept of person, while Augustinus and others only made use of this concept. It is the purpose of this article to show that it was exactly Boethius’ situation in the late antiquity with its many differing traditions that urged and enabled him to ask himself what person essentially is. (...)
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  34.  54
    Glaring Omissions in Traditional Theories of Art.Peg Zeglin Brand - 1999 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 4:177-186.
    I investigate the role of feminist theorizing in relation to traditionally-based aesthetics. Feminist artworks have arisen within the context of a patriarchal Artworld dominated for thousands of years by male artists, critics, theorists, and philosophers. I look at the history of that context as it impacts philosophical theorizing by pinpointing the narrow range of the paradigms used in defining “art.” I test the plausibility of Danto’s After the End of Art vision of a post-historical, pluralistic future in which “anything goes,” (...)
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  35. The Illuminationist Tradition.Hossein Ziai - 1995 - In Seyyed Hossein Nasr & Oliver Leaman (eds.), History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 465--496.
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  36. Deleuze and the Liberal Tradition: Normativity, Freedom and Judgement.Daniel W. Smith - 2003 - Economy and Society 32 (2):299-324.
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  37. Tradition and Prudence in Locke's Exceptions to Toleration.David J. Lorenzo - 2003 - American Journal of Political Science 47 (2):248-58.
    Why did Locke exclude Catholics and atheists from toleration? Not, I contend, because he was trapped by his context, but because his prudential approach and practica ljudgments led him to traditiona ltexts. I make this argumentfirst by outlining the connections among prudential exceptionality, practical judgments, and traditional texts. I then describe important continuities betweenc onventional English understandings of the relationship between state and religion and Locke's writings on toleration, discuss Locke's conception of rights, and illustrate his use of prudential exceptions (...)
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  38. Drawing on Many Traditions: An Ecumenical Kenotic Christology.Thomas Senor - 2011 - In Anna Marmodoro & Jonathan Hill (eds.), The Metaphysics of the Incarnation. Oxford University Press.
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  39. Glaring Omissions in Traditional Theories of Art.Peg Zeglin Brand Weiser - 2003 - In Steven Cahn (ed.), Philosophy for the 21st Century: A Comprehensive Reader. Oxford University Press. pp. 779-813.
    I investigate the role of feminist theorizing in relation to traditionally-based aesthetics. Feminist artworks have arisen within the context of a patriarchal Artworld dominated for thousands of years by male artists, critics, theorists, and philosophers. I look at the history of that context as it impacts philosophical theorizing by pinpointing the narrow range of the paradigms used in defining “art.” I test the plausibility of Danto’s After the End of Art vision of a post-historical, pluralistic future in which “anything goes,” (...)
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  40. Feminist Epistemologies, Rhetorical Traditions, and the Ad Hominem.Marianne Janack & John Charles Adams - 1999 - In Christine Mason Sutherland & Rebecca Sutcliffe (eds.), The Changing Tradition: Women in the History of Rhetoric. University of Calgary Press.
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  41. Contemporary Metaphysicians and Their Traditions.Daniel Nolan - 2007 - Philosophical Topics 35 (1-2):1-18.
    When invited to consider the methodology of contemporary metaphysics, quite a number of procedures spring to mind as part of the metaphysician's toolkit. These include: eliciting and relying on intuitions; solving location problems and using “conceptual analysis”; inference to the best theory, both on internal metaphysical grounds and drawing from the theoretical reaches of the sciences; working on topics clearly close to, or even overlapping, those of other areas of inquiry using techniques of those other areas; achieving coherence with other (...)
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  42. Defending the Traditional Interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature.Samuel J. M. Kahn - 2019 - Theoria 66 (158):76-102.
    In this paper I defend the traditional interpretations of Kant’s Formula of a Law of Nature from recent attacks leveled by Faviola Rivera-Castro, James Furner, Ido Geiger, Pauline Kleingeld and Sven Nyholm. After a short introduction, the paper is divided into four main sections. In the first, I set out the basics of the three traditional interpretations, the Logical Contradiction Interpretation, the Practical Contradiction Interpretation and the Teleological Contradiction Interpretation. In the second, I examine the work of Geiger, Kleingeld and (...)
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  43. Self-Responsibility, Tradition, and the Apparent Good.Molly Brigid Flynn - 2011 - Studia Phaenomenologica 11:55-76.
    The crucial distinction for ethics is between the good and the apparent good, between being and seeming. Tradition is useful for developing our ability to make this distinction and to live ethically or in self-responsibility, but it is also threatening to this ability. The phenomenology of Husserl and of others in the Husserlian tradition, especially Robert Sokolowski, are helpful in spelling out how tradition works; how the difference between the apparent good and the good is bridged in the experience of (...)
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  44.  95
    Suppressed Subjectivity and Truncated Tradition: A Reply to Pablo Schyfter.Jeff Kochan - 2018 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7 (12):15-21.
    Author's response to: Pablo Schyfter, 'Inaccurate Ambitions and Missing Methodologies: Thoughts on Jeff Kochan and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge,' Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7, no. 8 (2018): 8-14. -- Part of a book-review symposium on: Jeff Kochan (2017), Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (Cambridge UK: Open Book Publishers).
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  45.  25
    A Revived Sāṃkhyayoga Tradition in Modern India.Marzenna Jakubczak - 2020 - Studia Religiologica 53 (2):105-118.
    This paper discusses the phenomenon of Kāpil Maṭh (Madhupur, India), a Sāṃkhyayoga āśrama founded in the early twentieth century by the charismatic Bengali scholar-monk Swāmi Hariharānanda Ᾱraṇya (1869–1947). While referring to Hariharānanda’s writings I will consider the idea of the re-establishment of an extinct spiritual lineage. I shall specify the criteria for identity of this revived Sāṃkhyayoga tradition by explaining why and on what assumptions the modern reinterpretation of this school can be perceived as continuation of the thought of Patañjali (...)
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  46. Tradition as Transmission: A Partial Defence.John Schwenkler - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (4):121--131.
    This paper is part of a symposium on Linda Zagzebski's EPISTEMIC AUTHORITY (OUP, 2012). It focuses on Zagzebski's argument that the transmission of information through a chain of testimony weakens its evidential value. This argument is shown to rest on an overly simplistic model of testimonial transmission that does not apply to religious traditions. The real problem with modeling religious traditions just as transmitters of information is that this assumes a conception of religious knowledge that is too "insular" (...)
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  47.  99
    Universal—A Continent Beyond Tradition.Mihai Nadin - 1998 - Dialogue and Universalism 8 (11):109-119.
    The global scale of contemporary human life and activity places us in a generic conflict between our identity as individuals and our awareness of the individual's global responsibilities. We face a conflict between the reassuring condition of living according to tradition and the unsettling condition of living in the "new continent" where human self-constitution has global implications. The cohesive set of shared traditional values and ideals is effectively overwritten by the possibility and necessity of innovation in response to global demands. (...)
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  48. The Analytic Tradition, Radical (Feminist) Interpretation, and the Hygiene Hypothesis.Sharyn Clough - 2012 - Out of the Shadows.
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  49. The Cosmopolitan Tradition: A Noble but Flawed Ideal. [REVIEW]Warren J. von Eschenbach - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (280):660-663.
    Book Review of The Cosmopolitan Tradition: A Noble but Flawed Ideal. By Nussbaum Martha C..
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  50.  71
    Thinking About Justice: A Traditional Philosophical Framework.Simon Rippon, Miklos Zala, Tom Theuns, Sem de Maagt & Bert van den Brink - 2020 - In Trudie Knijn & Dorota Lepianka (eds.), Justice and Vulnerability in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 16-36.
    This chapter describes a philosophical approach to theorizing justice, mapping out some main strands of the tradition leading up to contemporary political philosophy. We first briefly discuss what distinguishes a philosophical approach to justice from other possible approaches to justice, by explaining the normative focus of philosophical theories of justice – that is, a focus on questions not about how things actually are, but about how things ought to be. Next, we explain what sorts of methods philosophers use to justify (...)
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