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  1. مزرعة البشر ... أزمة كورونا من السيمياء إلى عصر العبيد الرقمي.Salah Osman - manuscript
    وفقًا لأحدث التقارير، هناك أكثر من مائة وأربعين تركيبة كيميائية تخضع الآن للتجارب على مستويات مختلفة، كما استثمرت الحكومات والمؤسسات الكبرى مثل مؤسسة «بيل وميليندا جيتس» مليارات الدولارات لتمويل البحث عن «الرصاصة الفضية» Silver Bullet السحرية التي من شأنها القضاء على الفيروس العنيف والمُراوغ. وما زالت كثرة من البروتوكولات المتعلقة بتطوير اللقاح المُنتظر – ونتائج تجاربها على البشر – مُحاطة بالسرية في ظل التنافس المحموم على أخذ زمام المبادرة.
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  2. An ethical analysis of vaccinating children against COVID-19: benefits, risks, and issues of global health equity [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  3. Clinical ethics: Consent for vaccination in children.Dominic Wilkinson & Antonia McBride - forthcoming - Archives of Disease in Childhood.
    The prospect of vaccinating children and young people (CYP) against COVID raises questions that apply more widely to vaccination in children. When can CYP consent, on their own, for vaccination? What should happen if children and their parents disagree about the desirability of a vaccine? When, if ever, should vaccination proceed despite a child’s dissent or apparent refusal? A range of ethical dilemmas may arise. (Box 1) In this article, we will address general ethical issues relating to consent for vaccination, (...)
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  4. Key Ethical Issues Related to Covid 19 Vaccination: Personal Choice Vs. Greater Public Welfare and Informed Consent (2nd edition).Akram Almatarneh - 2023 - Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues 27 (2):1-13.
    Vaccination against various diseases has been widely practised for more than a century and on a more limited scale its use in a variety of forms stretches back far longer. During earlier eras disease spread more slowly along shipping lanes on water and traditional transport routes on land. Today, in an era of air transport, contagion spreads far more rapidly. Travelling far more rapidly (indeed instantaneously) is the spread of misinformation that hinders vaccination which can, in the instance of Covid-19, (...)
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  5. Non-Consensual Vaccination and Medical Harassment: Giving Vaccine Refusers Their Due.Mihnea D. I. Capraru - 2023 - Journal of Controversial Ideas 3 (1):1-8.
    This article argues that non-consensual vaccination is morally impermissible, for the same reasons for which sexual assault is not permissible. Likewise, mandatory vaccination is morally akin to sexual harassment, and therefore is not to be allowed.
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  6. A Gadamerian Approach to Epistemic Injustice: Bearing Witness to the Vaccine Injured.Alexander Crist - 2023 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 15 (2):387-414.
    In a recent article, ―The Lacuna of Hermeneutics: Notes on the Freedom of Thought, Marcia Sá Cavalcante Schuback raises an important question regarding the limitations of philosophical hermeneutics to be critical and attentive to the reality of current, concrete socio-political issues. In response, I claim that Gadamerian hermeneutics is well positioned to address current and controversial instances of epistemic injustice. In this article, I focus on the contemporary and controversial example of testimony of those who have been injured by the (...)
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  7. Cocuklarda Covid-19 Asisinin Etik Acidan Incelenmesi.Ayşenur Daldaban Berberoğlu & Orhan Onder - 2023 - In Arın Namal, M. Kemal Temel, Ayşegül Erdemir, Bozena Plonka-Syroka & Fahrunnisa Kazan (eds.), Uluslararası Etik, Hukuk ve Medya Bakışıyla Salgınlar. Platanus Publishing. pp. 320-329.
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  8. On the Concept and Ethics of Vaccination for the Sake of Others.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2023 - Dissertation, Wageningen University and Research
    This dissertation explores the idea and ethics of vaccination for the sake of others. It conceptually distinguishes four different kinds of vaccination—self-protective, paternalistic, altruistic, and indirect—based on who receives the primary benefits of vaccination and who ultimately makes the vaccination decision. It describes the results of focus group studies that were conducted to investigate what people who might get vaccinated altruistically think of this idea. It also applies the different kinds of vaccination to ethical issues surrounding COVID-19, such as lockdown (...)
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  9. Uncertainty, Vaccination, and the Duties of Liberal States.Pei-Hua Huang - 2022 - In Matthew James Dennis, Georgy Ishmaev, Steven Umbrello & Jeroen van den Hoven (eds.), Values for a Post-Pandemic Future. Cham: Springer. pp. 97-110.
    It is widely accepted that a liberal state has a general duty to protect its people from undue health risks. However, the unprecedented emergent measures against the COVID-19 pandemic taken by governments worldwide give rise to questions regarding the extent to which this duty may be used to justify suspending a vaccine rollout on marginal safety grounds. -/- In this chapter, I use the case of vaccination to argue that while a liberal state has a general duty to protect its (...)
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  10. Uncertainty, Vaccination, and the Duties of Liberal States.Pei-Hua Huang - 2022 - In Matthew James Dennis, Georgy Ishmaev, Steven Umbrello & Jeroen van den Hoven (eds.), Values for a Post-Pandemic Future. Cham: Springer. pp. 97-110.
    It is widely accepted that a liberal state has a general duty to protect its people from undue health risks. However, the unprecedented emergent measures against the COVID-19 pandemic taken by governments worldwide give rise to questions regarding the extent to which this duty may be used to justify suspending a vaccine rollout on marginal safety grounds. -/- In this chapter, I use the case of vaccination to argue that while a liberal state has a general duty to protect its (...)
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  11. Alternative Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Vaccine Production and Use under Covid-19.Ling Jin - 2022 - Journal of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences 1 (1):147-153.
    For the past three years, Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19) has become one of the major global health problems. Unlike any previous virus in the past decades, Covid-19 has shown its unprecedented spreading speed, infection rate, fatality rate, etc. Under this urgent disease outbursting event, scientists around the globe, through the myriad of research and experiments, successfully developed effective vaccines. However, like many other medical innovations, Covid-19 vaccines are categorized as intellectual properties and a scarce resource. As a consequence, the citizens of developed (...)
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  12. Listening to vaccine refusers.Kaisa Kärki - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):3-9.
    In bioethics vaccine refusal is often discussed as an instance of free riding on the herd immunity of an infectious disease. However, the social science of vaccine refusal suggests that the reasoning behind refusal to vaccinate more often stems from previous negative experiences in healthcare practice as well as deeply felt distrust of healthcare institutions. Moreover, vaccine refusal often acts like an exit mechanism. Whilst free riding is often met with sanctions, exit, according to Albert Hirschman’s theory of exit and (...)
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  13. The Ethical Significance of Post-Vaccination COVID-19 Transmission Dynamics.Steven R. Kraaijeveld - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 20 (1):21-29.
    The potential for vaccines to prevent the spread of infectious diseases is crucial for vaccination policy and ethics. In this paper, I discuss recent evidence that the current COVID-19 vaccines have only a modest and short-lived effect on reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and argue that this has at least four important ethical implications. First, getting vaccinated against COVID-19 should be seen primarily as a self-protective choice for individuals. Second, moral condemnation of unvaccinated people for causing direct harm to others is unjustified. (...)
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  14. Against COVID‐19 vaccination of healthy children.Steven R. Kraaijeveld, Rachel Gur-Arie & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (6):687-698.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 6, Page 687-698, July 2022.
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  15. Altruistic Vaccination: Insights from Two Focus Group Studies.Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Bob C. Mulder - 2022 - Health Care Analysis 30 (3):275-295.
    Vaccination can protect vaccinated individuals and often also prevent them from spreading disease to other people. This opens up the possibility of getting vaccinated for the sake of others. In fact, altruistic vaccination has recently been conceptualized as a kind of vaccination that is undertaken primary for the benefit of others. In order to better understand the potential role of altruistic motives in people’s vaccination decisions, we conducted two focus group studies with a total of 37 participants. Study 1 included (...)
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  16. Reserve system design for allocation of scarce medical resources in a pandemic: some perspectives from the field.Parag Pathak, Govind Persad, Tayfun Sönmez & M. Utku Unver - 2022 - Oxford Review of Economic Policy 38 (4):924–940.
    Reserve systems are a tool to allocate scarce resources when stakeholders do not have a single objective. This paper introduces some basic concepts about reserve systems for pandemic medical resource allocation. At the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, we proposed that reserve systems can help practitioners arrive at compromises between competing stakeholders. More than a dozen states and local jurisdictions adopted reserve systems in initial phases of vaccine distribution. We highlight several design issues arising in some of these implementations. We (...)
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  17. COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal and Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.Govind Persad & Emily A. Largent - 2022 - JAMA Health Forum 3 (4):e220356.
    When hospitals face surges of patients with COVID-19, fair allocation of scarce medical resources remains a challenge. Scarcity has at times encompassed not only hospital and intensive care unit beds—often reflecting staffing shortages—but also therapies and intensive treatments. Safe, highly effective COVID-19 vaccines have been free and widely available since mid-2021, yet many Americans remain unvaccinated by choice. Should their decision to forgo vaccination be considered when allocating scarce resources? Some have suggested it should, while others disagree. We offer a (...)
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  18. COVID-19 vaccine boosters for all adults: An optimal U.s. approach?Ameet Sarpatwari, Ankur Pandya, Emily P. Hyle & Govind Persad - 2022 - Annals of Internal Medicine 175 (2):280-282.
    By 20 October 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had amended its Emergency Use Authorizations for immunocompetent adults who previously received the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines. For the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, the FDA permitted a single booster dose for adults aged 65 years or older and adults aged 18 to 64 years at high-risk for severe COVID-19 or at high risk for occupational or institutional COVID-19 exposure. For the single-dose Johnson & Johnson (...)
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  19. Dose optimisation and scarce resource allocation: two sides of the same coin.Garth Strohbehn, Govind Persad, William F. Parker & Srinivas Murthy - 2022 - BMJ Open 12 (10):e063436.
    Objective: A deep understanding of the relationship between a scarce drug's dose and clinical response is necessary to appropriately distribute a supply-constrained drug along these lines. Summary of key data: The vast majority of drug development and repurposing during the COVID-19 pandemic – an event that has made clear the ever-present scarcity in healthcare systems –has been ignorant of scarcity and dose optimisation's ability to help address it. Conclusions: Future pandemic clinical trials systems should obtain dose optimisation data, as these (...)
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  20. Value choices in European COVID-19 vaccination schedules: how vaccination prioritization differs from other forms of priority setting.Karolina Wiśniowska, Tomasz Żuradzki & Wojciech Ciszewski - 2022 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences 9 (2):lsac026.
    With the limited initial availability of COVID-19 vaccines in the first months of 2021, decision-makers had to determine the order in which different groups were prioritized. Our aim was to find out what normative approaches to the allocation of scarce preventive resources were embedded in the national COVID-19 vaccination schedules. We systematically reviewed and compared prioritization regulations in 27 members of the European Union, the United Kingdom, and Israel. We differentiated between two types of priority categories: groups that have increased (...)
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  21. Phantom premise and a shape-shifting ism: reply to Hassoun.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (11).
    In ‘Against vaccine nationalism’, Nicole Hassoun misrepresents our argument, distorts our position and ignores crucial distinctions we present in our article, ‘Love thy neighbor? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations’. She has created a strawman that does not resemble our position. In this reply, we address two features of ‘Against vaccine nationalism’. First, we address a phantom premise. Hassoun misattributes to us a thesis, according to which citizen-directed duties are stronger than noncitizen-directed duties. This thesis is a figment (...)
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  22. Love thy neighbour? Allocating vaccines in a world of competing obligations.Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e20-e20.
    Although a safe, effective, and licensed coronavirus vaccine does not yet exist, there is already controversy over how it ought to be allocated. Justice is clearly at stake, but it is unclear what justice requires in the international distribution of a scarce vaccine during a pandemic. Many are condemning ‘vaccine nationalism’ as an obstacle to equitable global distribution. We argue that limited national partiality in allocating vaccines will be a component of justice rather than an obstacle to it. For there (...)
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  23. Eating Meat and Not Vaccinating: In Defense of the Analogy.Ben Jones - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (2):135-142.
    The devastating impact of the COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic is prompting renewed scrutiny of practices that heighten the risk of infectious disease. One such practice is refusing available vaccines known to be effective at preventing dangerous communicable diseases. For reasons of preventing individual harm, avoiding complicity in collective harm, and fairness, there is a growing consensus among ethicists that individuals have a duty to get vaccinated. I argue that these same grounds establish an analogous duty to avoid buying and (...)
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  24. Ethics of vaccine refusal.Michael Kowalik - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (4):240-243.
    Proponents of vaccine mandates typically claim that everyone who can be vaccinated has a moral or ethical obligation to do so for the sake of those who cannot be vaccinated, or in the interest of public health. I evaluate several previously undertheorised premises implicit to the ‘obligation to vaccinate’ type of arguments and show that the general conclusion is false: there is neither a moral obligation to vaccinate nor a sound ethical basis to mandate vaccination under any circumstances, even for (...)
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  25. Would a 'vaccine passport' work in the Philippines?Joefer Maninang - 2021 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (31):341-347.
    A novel coronavirus in 2019 took the life of ‘patient zero’ and then millions of others alerting nation states to protect and secure the lives of their citizens. The coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 caused the ‘COVID-19’ disease which had governments impose restrictions on the freedom of movement or the right to travel in the form of ‘community quarantines.’ The serious adverse effects of these on the world and national economies moved the governments to loosen the quarantines and implement versions of (...)
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  26. Ethical considerations of offering benefits to COVID-19 vaccine recipients.Govind Persad & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2021 - JAMA 326 (3):221-222.
    We argue that the ethical case for instituting vaccine benefit programs is justified by 2 widely recognized values: (1) reducing overall harm from COVID-19 and (2) protecting disadvantaged individuals. We then explain why they do not coerce, exploit, wrongfully distort decision-making, corrupt vaccination's moral significance, wrong those who have already been vaccinated, or destroy willingness to become vaccinated. However, their cost impacts and their effects on public perception of vaccines should be evaluated.
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  27. Off-Label Prescription of COVID-19 Vaccines in Children: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Issues.Govind Persad, Holly Fernandez Lynch & Patricia J. Zettler - 2021 - Pediatrics 2021:e2021054578.
    We argue that the universal recommendations against “off-label” pediatric use of approved COVID-19 issued by the FDA, CDC, and AAP are overbroad. Especially for higher-risk children, vaccination can be ethically justified even before FDA authorization or approval – and similar reasoning is relevant for even younger patients. Legal risks can also be managed, although the FDA, CDC, and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) should move quickly to provide clarity.
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  28. Making Better Informed, More Confident COVID-19 Decisions: Vaccine Hesitancy, Its Barriers and Impact Studies: Taking Bayelsa State as an Example.Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Emeka Chisom Lucky, Ebikapaye Okoyen, Angalabiri Clement, Christopher Ogbointuwei & Atoyebi Babatunde - 2021 - International Journal of Vaccines and Immunization 5 (1):1-13.
    Background: Health care practitioners are recognized to have a large influence in shaping uptake of vaccine in new borns, children, adolescents, as well as adults. Parents remain more secure in their decisions when health care practitioners communicate successfully with them about vaccine dangers and benefits, the value as well as necessity for vaccinations, as well as vaccine safety. Thus, immunization remain the foundation of the primary health care system, an indisputable human right as well as a global health and development (...)
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  29. Can One Both Contribute to and Benefit from Herd Immunity?Lucie White - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (2).
    In a recent article, Ethan Bradley and Mark Navin (2021) argue that vaccine refusal is not akin to free riding. Here, I defend one connection between vaccine refusal and free riding and suggest that, when viewed in conjunction with their other arguments, this might constitute a reason to mandate Covid-19 vaccination.
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  30. Risk of Disease and Willingness to Vaccinate in the United State: A Population-Based Survey.Bert Baumgaertner, Benjamin J. Ridenhour, Florian Justwan, Juliet E. Carlisle & Craig R. Miller - 2020 - Plos Medicine 10 (17).
    Vaccination complacency occurs when perceived risks of vaccine-preventable diseases are sufficiently low so that vaccination is no longer perceived as a necessary precaution. Disease outbreaks can once again increase perceptions of risk, thereby decrease vaccine complacency, and in turn decrease vaccine hesitancy. It is not well understood, however, how change in perceived risk translates into change in vaccine hesitancy. -/- We advance the concept of vaccine propensity, which relates a change in willingness to vaccinate with a change in perceived risk (...)
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  31. An ethical framework for global vaccine allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  32. Reasons to Accept Vaccine Refusers in Primary Care.Mark Christopher Navin, Jason Adam Wasserman & Douglas Opel - 2020 - Pediatrics 146 (6):e20201801.
    Vaccine refusal forces us to confront tensions between many values, including scientific expertise, parental rights, children’s best interests, social responsibility, public trust, and community health. Recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable and emerging infectious diseases have amplified these issues. The prospect of a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine signals even more friction on the horizon. In this contentious sociopolitical landscape, it is therefore more important than ever for clinicians to identify ethically justified responses to vaccine refusal.
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  33. Trust in health care and vaccine hesitancy.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 68:105-122.
    Health care systems can positively influence our personal decision-making and health-related behavior only if we trust them. I propose a conceptual analysis of the trust relation between the public and a healthcare system, drawing from healthcare studies and philosophical proposals. In my account, the trust relation is based on an epistemic component, epistemic authority, and on a value component, the benevolence of the healthcare system. I argue that it is also modified by the vulnerability of the public on healthcare matters, (...)
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