**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**571

# Search results for: minimal spanning tree

##### 571 Spanning Tree Transformation of Connected Graphs into Single-Row Networks

**Authors:**
S.L. Loh,
S. Salleh,
N.H. Sarmin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Graph theory,
simulated annealing,
single-rowrouting and spanning tree.

##### 570 Minimal Spanning Tree based Fuzzy Clustering

**Authors:**
Ágnes Vathy-Fogarassy,
Balázs Feil,
János Abonyi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Clustering,
fuzzy clustering,
minimal spanning tree,
cluster validity,
fuzzy similarity.

##### 569 Geometric Data Structures and Their Selected Applications

**Authors:**
Miloš Šeda

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
motion planning,
spanning tree,
Steiner tree,
Delaunay triangulation,
Voronoi diagram.

##### 568 Implementation of Heuristics for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem Using Nearest Neighbour and Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms

**Authors:**
Fatma A. Karkory,
Ali A. Abudalmola

**Abstract:**

The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial optimization problem in which the goal is to find the shortest path between different cities that the salesman takes. In other words, the problem deals with finding a route covering all cities so that total distance and execution time is minimized. This paper adopts the nearest neighbor and minimum spanning tree algorithm to solve the well-known travelling salesman problem. The algorithms were implemented using java programming language. The approach is tested on three graphs that making a TSP tour instance of 5-city, 10 –city, and 229–city. The computation results validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Heuristics,
minimum spanning tree algorithm,
Nearest Neighbor,
Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP).

##### 567 Applying Spanning Tree Graph Theory for Automatic Database Normalization

**Authors:**
Chetneti Srisa-an

**Abstract:**

In Knowledge and Data Engineering field, relational database is the best repository to store data in a real world. It has been using around the world more than eight decades. Normalization is the most important process for the analysis and design of relational databases. It aims at creating a set of relational tables with minimum data redundancy that preserve consistency and facilitate correct insertion, deletion, and modification. Normalization is a major task in the design of relational databases. Despite its importance, very few algorithms have been developed to be used in the design of commercial automatic normalization tools. It is also rare technique to do it automatically rather manually. Moreover, for a large and complex database as of now, it make even harder to do it manually. This paper presents a new complete automated relational database normalization method. It produces the directed graph and spanning tree, first. It then proceeds with generating the 2NF, 3NF and also BCNF normal forms. The benefit of this new algorithm is that it can cope with a large set of complex function dependencies.

**Keywords:**
Relational Database,
Functional Dependency,
Automatic Normalization,
Primary Key,
Spanning tree.

##### 566 A Minimum Spanning Tree-Based Method for Initializing the K-Means Clustering Algorithm

**Authors:**
J. Yang,
Y. Ma,
X. Zhang,
S. Li,
Y. Zhang

**Abstract:**

The traditional k-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the algorithm often converges to local minima for the reason that it is sensitive to the initial cluster centers. In this paper, an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers on the basis of minimum spanning tree (MST) is presented. The set of vertices in MST with same degree are regarded as a whole which is used to find the skeleton data points. Furthermore, a distance measure between the skeleton data points with consideration of degree and Euclidean distance is presented. Finally, MST-based initialization method for the k-means algorithm is presented, and the corresponding time complexity is analyzed as well. The presented algorithm is tested on five data sets from the UCI Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm compared to three existing initialization methods.

**Keywords:**
Degree,
initial cluster center,
k-means,
minimum spanning tree.

##### 565 A Preemptive Link State Spanning Tree Source Routing Scheme for Opportunistic Data Forwarding in MANET

**Authors:**
R. Poonkuzhali,
M. Y. Sanavullah,
A. Sabari

**Abstract:**

Opportunistic Data Forwarding (ODF) has drawn much attention in mobile adhoc networking research in recent years. The effectiveness of ODF in MANET depends on a suitable routing protocol which provides a powerful source routing services. PLSR is featured by source routing, loop free and small routing overhead. The update messages in PLSR are integrated into a tree structure and no need to time stamp routing updates which reduces the routing overhead.

**Keywords:**
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET),
Opportunistic data forwarding (ODF),
Preemptive link state spanning tree routing (PLSR),
Depth First Search (DFS).

##### 564 A Spanning Tree for Enhanced Cluster Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

**Authors:**
M. Saravanan,
M. Madheswaran

**Abstract:**

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) clustering architecture enables features like network scalability, communication overhead reduction, and fault tolerance. After clustering, aggregated data is transferred to data sink and reducing unnecessary, redundant data transfer. It reduces nodes transmitting, and so saves energy consumption. Also, it allows scalability for many nodes, reduces communication overhead, and allows efficient use of WSN resources. Clustering based routing methods manage network energy consumption efficiently. Building spanning trees for data collection rooted at a sink node is a fundamental data aggregation method in sensor networks. The problem of determining Cluster Head (CH) optimal number is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, we combine cluster based routing features for cluster formation and CH selection and use Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) for intra-cluster communication. The proposed method is based on optimizing MST using Simulated Annealing (SA). In this work, normalized values of mobility, delay, and remaining energy are considered for finding optimal MST. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the packet delivery ratio and reducing the end to end delay.

**Keywords:**
Wireless sensor network,
clustering,
minimum spanning tree,
genetic algorithm,
low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy,
simulated annealing.

##### 563 Clustering in WSN Based on Minimum Spanning Tree Using Divide and Conquer Approach

**Authors:**
Uttam Vijay,
Nitin Gupta

**Abstract:**

Due to heavy energy constraints in WSNs clustering is an efficient way to manage the energy in sensors. There are many methods already proposed in the area of clustering and research is still going on to make clustering more energy efficient. In our paper we are proposing a minimum spanning tree based clustering using divide and conquer approach. The MST based clustering was first proposed in 1970’s for large databases. Here we are taking divide and conquer approach and implementing it for wireless sensor networks with the constraints attached to the sensor networks. This Divide and conquer approach is implemented in a way that we don’t have to construct the whole MST before clustering but we just find the edge which will be the part of the MST to a corresponding graph and divide the graph in clusters there itself if that edge from the graph can be removed judging on certain constraints and hence saving lot of computation.

**Keywords:**
Algorithm,
Clustering,
Edge-Weighted Graph,
Weighted-LEACH.

##### 562 N-Sun Decomposition of Complete Graphs and Complete Bipartite Graphs

**Authors:**
R. Anitha,
R. S. Lekshmi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hamilton cycle,
n-sun decomposition,
perfectmatching,
spanning tree.

##### 561 Consensus of Multi-Agent Systems under the Special Consensus Protocols

**Authors:**
Konghe Xie

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Consensus,
multi-agent systems,
directed spanning
tree,
the Laplacian matrix.

##### 560 Distributed 2-Vertex Connectivity Test of Graphs Using Local Knowledge

**Authors:**
Brahim Hamid,
Bertrand Le Saec,
Mohamed Mosbah

**Abstract:**

The vertex connectivity of a graph is the smallest number of vertices whose deletion separates the graph or makes it trivial. This work is devoted to the problem of vertex connectivity test of graphs in a distributed environment based on a general and a constructive approach. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, using a preconstructed spanning tree of the considered graph, we present a protocol to test whether a given graph is 2-connected using only local knowledge. Second, we present an encoding of this protocol using graph relabeling systems. The last contribution is the implementation of this protocol in the message passing model. For a given graph G, where M is the number of its edges, N the number of its nodes and Δ is its degree, our algorithms need the following requirements: The first one uses O(Δ×N2) steps and O(Δ×logΔ) bits per node. The second one uses O(Δ×N2) messages, O(N2) time and O(Δ × logΔ) bits per node. Furthermore, the studied network is semi-anonymous: Only the root of the pre-constructed spanning tree needs to be identified.

**Keywords:**
Distributed computing,
fault-tolerance,
graph relabeling systems,
local computations,
local knowledge,
message passing system,
networks,
vertex connectivity.

##### 559 Independent Spanning Trees on Systems-on-chip Hypercubes Routing

**Authors:**
Eduardo Sant'Ana da Silva,
Andre Luiz Pires Guedes,
Eduardo Todt

**Abstract:**

Independent spanning trees (ISTs) provide a number of advantages in data broadcasting. One can cite the use in fault tolerance network protocols for distributed computing and bandwidth. However, the problem of constructing multiple ISTs is considered hard for arbitrary graphs. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm to construct ISTs on hypercubes that requires minimum resources to be performed.

**Keywords:**
Hypercube,
Independent Spanning Trees,
Networks
On Chip,
Systems On Chip.

##### 558 Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing

**Authors:**
Farshad Ghassemi Toosi,
Nikola S. Nikolov

**Abstract:**

We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.

**Keywords:**
Radial Tree Drawing,
Real-Time Visualization,
Angular Coordinates,
Large Trees.

##### 557 Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

**Authors:**
Deepali Virmani ,
Satbir Jain

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
branch energy,
decentralized,
energy level ,
lifetime,
tree energy,
wireless sensor networks.

##### 556 Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis

**Authors:**
Amitava Chakraborty,
Sudip Kumar De,
Ranjan Dasgupta

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Algorithm,
Height balanced tree,
Point patternanalysis,
Point quad tree.

##### 555 Weakly Generalized Closed Map

**Authors:**
R. Parimelazhagan,
N. Nagaveni

**Abstract:**

In this paper we introduce a new class of mg-continuous mapping and studied some of its basic properties.We obtain some characterizations of such functions. Moreover we define sub minimal structure and further study certain properties of mg-closed sets.

**Keywords:**
M-structure,
mg-continuous mapping,
minimal structure,
mg T2 space,
sub minimal structure,
T12 space,
mg-compact set.

##### 554 An Attribute-Centre Based Decision Tree Classification Algorithm

**Authors:**
Gökhan Silahtaroğlu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Classification,
decision tree,
split,
pruning,
entropy,
gini.

##### 553 Some New Bounds for a Real Power of the Normalized Laplacian Eigenvalues

**Authors:**
Ayşe Dilek Maden

**Abstract:**

For a given a simple connected graph, we present some new bounds via a new approach for a special topological index given by the sum of the real number power of the non-zero normalized Laplacian eigenvalues. To use this approach presents an advantage not only to derive old and new bounds on this topic but also gives an idea how some previous results in similar area can be developed.

**Keywords:**
Degree Kirchhoff index,
normalized Laplacian
eigenvalue,
spanning tree.

##### 552 Optimal Criteria for Non-Minimal Phase Plants

**Authors:**
Z. Nemec,
R. Matousek

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
control design,
non-minimal phase system,
optimalcriteria,
power plant,
heating plant,
water turbine,
Matlab,
Simulink.

##### 551 Improving Fault Resilience and Reconstruction of Overlay Multicast Tree Using Leaving Time of Participants

**Authors:**
Bhed Bahadur Bista

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Network layer multicast,
Fault Resilience,
IP multicast

##### 550 Minimal Residual Method for Adaptive Filtering with Finite Termination

**Authors:**
Noor Atinah Ahmad,
Shazia Javed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Adaptive filtering,
minimal residual method,
projection
method.

##### 549 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

**Authors:**
Wan Chian Li,
Justie Su-Tzu Juan,
Yi-Chun Wang,
Shu-Chuan Chen

**Abstract:**

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

**Keywords:**
evolutionary tree,
mixture tree,
mutated site,
distance.

##### 548 Improved C-Fuzzy Decision Tree for Intrusion Detection

**Authors:**
Krishnamoorthi Makkithaya,
N. V. Subba Reddy,
U. Dinesh Acharya

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Data mining,
Decision tree,
Feature selection,
Fuzzyc- means clustering,
Intrusion detection.

##### 547 Visualising Energy Efficiency Landscape

**Authors:**
Hairulliza M. Judi,
Soon Y. Chee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Tree planting,
tree shading,
energy efficiency,
visualization.

##### 546 Minimal Critical Sets of Inertias for Irreducible Zero-nonzero Patterns of Order 3

**Authors:**
Ber-Lin Yu,
Ting-Zhu Huang

**Abstract:**

If there exists a nonempty, proper subset S of the set of all (n + 1)(n + 2)/2 inertias such that S Ôèå i(A) is sufficient for any n × n zero-nonzero pattern A to be inertially arbitrary, then S is called a critical set of inertias for zero-nonzero patterns of order n. If no proper subset of S is a critical set, then S is called a minimal critical set of inertias. In [3], Kim, Olesky and Driessche identified all minimal critical sets of inertias for 2 × 2 zero-nonzero patterns. Identifying all minimal critical sets of inertias for n × n zero-nonzero patterns with n ≥ 3 is posed as an open question in [3]. In this paper, all minimal critical sets of inertias for 3 × 3 zero-nonzero patterns are identified. It is shown that the sets {(0, 0, 3), (3, 0, 0)}, {(0, 0, 3), (0, 3, 0)}, {(0, 0, 3), (0, 1, 2)}, {(0, 0, 3), (1, 0, 2)}, {(0, 0, 3), (2, 0, 1)} and {(0, 0, 3), (0, 2, 1)} are the only minimal critical sets of inertias for 3 × 3 irreducible zerononzero patterns.

**Keywords:**
Permutation digraph,
zero-nonzero pattern,
irreducible pattern,
critical set of inertias,
inertially arbitrary.

##### 545 The Leaves of a Tree

**Authors:**
Zhu Jiaming,
Yu Mengna

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Leaf shape; Mass; Fuzzy cluster; Regression analysis;
Eviews; Matlab

##### 544 Constructing a Simple Polygonalizations

**Authors:**
V. Tereshchenko,
V. Muravitskiy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
simple polygon,
approximate algorithm,
minimal
area polygon,
polygonalizations

##### 543 Balancing Neural Trees to Improve Classification Performance

**Authors:**
Asha Rani,
Christian Micheloni,
Gian Luca Foresti

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Neural Tree,
Pattern Classification,
Perceptron,
Splitting
Nodes.

##### 542 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

**Authors:**
Kiyoshi Sawada,
Takashi Mitsuishi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complete K-ary tree,
organization structure,
shortest path