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  1. Egalitarianism.Christopher Woodard - 2005 - Philosophical Books 46 (2):97-112.
    A survey of recent work on egalitarianism.
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  • Liberal Foundations of Democratic Authority.Andrew Lister - 2010 - Representation 46 (1):19-34.
    In Democratic Authority, David Estlund argues that decision-procedures are to be judged solely by their tendency to generate morally superior decisions, but that because any relationship of authority must be acceptable to all qualified moral points of view, the epistemic benefits of less equal procedures must be evident beyond qualified objection. If all doctrines involved in political justification must be qualifiedly acceptable, however, the qualified acceptability requirement must itself be acceptable to qualified points of view. This article provides reasons for (...)
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  • EQUALITY, COMMUNITY, AND THE SCOPE OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE: A PARTIAL DEFENSE OF COHEN's VISION.Dong-Ryul Choo - 2014 - Socialist Studies 10 (1):152-173.
    Luck egalitarians equalize the outcome enjoyed by people who exemplify the same degree of distributive desert by removing the influence of luck. They also try to calibrate differential rewards according to the pattern of distributive desert. This entails that they have to decide upon, among other things, the rate of reward, i.e., a principled way of distributing rewards to groups exercising different degrees of the relevant desert. However, the problem of the choice of reward principle is a relatively and undeservedly (...)
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  • Double Counting, Moral Rigorism, and Cohen’s Critique of Rawls: A Response to Alan Thomas.Brian Berkey - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):849-874.
    In a recent article in this journal, Alan Thomas presents a novel defence of what I call ‘Rawlsian Institutionalism about Justice’ against G. A. Cohen’s well-known critique. In this response I aim to defend Cohen’s rejection of Institutionalism against Thomas’s arguments. In part this defence requires clarifying precisely what is at issue between Institutionalists and their opponents. My primary focus, however, is on Thomas’s critical discussion of Cohen’s endorsement of an ethical prerogative, as well as his appeal to the institutional (...)
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  • Prerogatives, Incentives, and Institutionalism: A Reply to Brian Berkey.Alan Thomas - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):875-890.
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  • Rescuing Rawls’s Institutionalism and Incentives Inequality.Edward Greetis - 2019 - Res Publica 25 (4):571-590.
    G. A. Cohen argues that Rawls’s difference principle is incompatible with his endorsement of incentives inequality—higher pay for certain professions is just when that pay benefits everyone. Cohen concludes that Rawls must reject both incentives inequality and ‘institutionalism’—the view that egalitarian principles, including the difference principle, apply exclusively to social institutions. I argue that the premises of Cohen’s ‘internal criticism’ of Rawls require rejecting two important parts of his theory: a ‘subjective circumstance of justice’ and a ‘shared conception of justice’. (...)
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  • Political Quality.David Estlund - 2000 - Social Philosophy and Policy 17 (1):127.
    Political equality is in tension with political quality, and quality has recently been neglected. My thesis is that proper attention to the quality of democratic procedures and their outcomes requires that we accept substantive inequalities of political input in the interest of increasing input overall. Mainly, I hope to refute political egalitarianism, the view that justice or legitimacy requires substantive political equality, specifically equal availability of power or influence over collective choices that have legal force. I hope to show that (...)
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  • Incentives, Inequality and Self-Respect.Richard Penny - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (4):335-351.
    Rawls argues that ‘Parties in the original position would wish to avoid at almost any cost the social conditions that undermine self-respect’. But what are these social conditions that we should so urgently avoid? One evident candidate might be conditions of material inequality. Yet Rawls seems confident that his account of justice can endorse such inequalities without jeopardising citizens’ self-respect. In this article I argue that this confidence is misplaced. Unequalising incentives, I claim, jeopardise the self-respect of those least advantaged—at (...)
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  • G. A. Cohen’s Vision of Socialism.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2010 - The Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):185-216.
    This essay is an attempt to piece together the elements of G. A. Cohen's thought on the theory of socialism during his long intellectual voyage from Marxism to political philosophy. It begins from his theory of the maldistribution of freedom under capitalism, moves onto his critique of libertarian property rights, to his diagnosis of the “deep inegalitarian” structure of John Rawls' theory and concludes with his rejection of the “cheap” fraternity promulgated by liberal egalitarianism. The paper's exegetical contention is that (...)
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  • G. A. Cohen’s Vision of Socialism.Nicholas Vrousalis - 2010 - Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):185-216.
    This essay is an attempt to piece together the elements of G. A. Cohen’s thought on the theory of socialism during his long intellectual voyage from Marxism to political philosophy. It begins from his theory of the maldistribution of freedom under capitalism, moves onto his critique of libertarian property rights, to his diagnosis of the “deep inegalitarian” structure of John Rawls’ theory and concludes with his rejection of the “cheap” fraternity promulgated by liberal egalitarianism. The paper’s exegetical contention is that (...)
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  • Feasibility and Stability in Normative Political Philosophy: The Case of Liberal Nationalism.Sune Lægaard - 2006 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (4):399-416.
    Arguments from stability for liberal nationalism rely on considerations about conditions for the feasibility or stability of liberal political ideals and factual claims about the circumstances under which these conditions are fulfilled in order to argue for nationalist conclusions. Such reliance on factual claims has been criticised by among others G. A. Cohen in other contexts as ideological reifications of social reality. In order to assess whether arguments from stability within liberal nationalism, especially as formulated by David Miller, are vulnerable (...)
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  • The Difference Principle at Work.Samuel Arnold - 2012 - Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (1):94-118.
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  • What Makes a Basic Structure Just?Miriam Ronzoni - 2008 - Res Publica 14 (3):203-218.
    In his multi-faceted attack on Rawls’s account of justice, G.A. Cohen has argued that the notion of basic structure is necessarily insensitive to the importance of informal social norms to social justice. The paper argues that the most plausible account of the basic structure is not blind to informal social norms in any meaningful sense. Whereas informal, non-legally coercive institutions are not part of the basic structure as such, their careful consideration is necessary for the assessment of whether the basic (...)
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  • Prerogatives to Depart From Equality.Michael Otsuka - 2006 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 58:95-112.
    Should egalitarian justice be qualified by an agent-relative prerogative to act on a preference for—and thereby in a manner that gives rise to or preserves a greater than equal share of the goods of life for—oneself, one's family, loved ones, or friends as compared with strangers? Although many would reply that the answer to this question must be ‘yes’, I shall argue here that the case for such a prerogative to depart from equality is much less far-reaching than one might (...)
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  • Social Trust and the Ethics of Immigration Policy &Ast.Ryan Pevnick - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2):146-167.
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  • Public Reason and the Exclusion of Oppressed Groups.Ben Cross - 2017 - Dialogue 56 (2):241-265.
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  • How Egalitarian is Rawls's Theory of Justice?Ian Hunt - 2010 - Philosophical Papers 39 (2):155-181.
    Gerald Cohen's critique of John Rawls's theory of justice is that it is concerned only with the justice of social institutions, and must thus arbitrarily draw a line between those inequalities excluded and those allowed by the basic structure. Cohen claims that a proper concern with the interests of the least advantaged would rule out 'incentives' for 'talented' individuals. I argue that Rawls's assumption that the subject of justice is the basic structure of society does not arbitrarily restrict the concerns (...)
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  • Occupational Choice and the Egalitarian Ethos.Paula Casal - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (1):3-20.
    G. A. Cohen proposes to eradicate inequality without loss of efficiency or freedom by relying on an egalitarian ethos requiring us to undertake socially useful occupations we would rather not take, and work hard at them, without requesting differential incentive payments. Since the ethos is not legally enforced, Cohen denies it threatens our occupational freedom. Drawing on the work of Joseph Raz, the paper argues that Cohen's proposal threatens our occupational autonomy even if it leaves our legal freedom intact. It (...)
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  • Incentive Inequalities and Freedom of Occupational Choice.Douglas Mackay - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (1):21-49.
    In Rescuing Justice and Equality, G.A. Cohen argues that the incentive inequalities permitted by John Rawls's difference principle are unjust since people cannot justify them to their fellow citizens. I argue that citizens of a Rawlsian society can justify their acceptance of a wide range of incentive inequalities to their fellow citizens. They can do so because they possess the right to freedom of occupational choice, and are permitted – as a matter of justice – to exercise this right by (...)
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  • Classical German Philosophy and Cohen's Critique of Rawls.Julius Sensat - 2003 - European Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):314–353.
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  • Putting Story‐Reading to Bed: A Reply to Segall.Andrew Mason - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (1):81-88.
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  • One Kiss Too Many? Giving, Luck Egalitarianism and Other-Affecting Choice.Hugh Lazenby - 2010 - Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (3):271-286.
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  • Can We Use Social Policy to Enhance Compliance with Moral Obligations to Animals?John Basl & Gina Schouten - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):629-647.
    Those who wish to abolish or restrict the use of non-human animals in so-called factory farming and/or experimentation often argue that these animal use practices are incommensurate with animals’ moral status. If sound, these arguments would establish that, as a matter of ethics or justice, we should voluntarily abstain from the immoral animal use practices in question. But these arguments can’t and shouldn’t be taken to establish a related conclusion: that the moral status of animals justifies political intervention to disallow (...)
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  • If You’Re a Luck Egalitarian, How Come You Read Bedtime Stories to Your Children?Shlomi Segall - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (1):23-40.
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  • Rawlsian Liberalism, Justice for the Worst Off, and the Limited Capacity of Political Institutions.Ben Cross - 2016 - Sophia 55 (2):215-236.
    This article argues that Rawlsian liberal political institutions are incapable of ensuring that the basic welfare needs of the worst off are met. This argument consists of two steps. First, I show that institutions are incapable of ensuring that the basic needs of the worst off are met without pursuing certain non-taxation-based courses of action that are designed to alter the work choices of citizens. Second, I argue that such actions are not permissible for Rawlsian institutions. It follows that a (...)
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  • Social Class, Merit and Equality of Opportunity in Education.Gideon Elford - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (3):267-284.
    The paper offers to substantiate a claim about the so-called Meritocratic Conception of how educational opportunities ought to be distributed. Such a conception holds an individual’s prospects for educational achievement may be a function of that individual’s talent or effort levels but should not be influenced by their social class background. The paper highlights the internal tension in the Meritocratic Conception between on the one hand a prohibition on the influence of social class on educational opportunities and on the other (...)
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  • The Inegalitarian Ethos: Incentives, Respect, and Self-Respect.E. McTernan - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (1):93-111.
    In Cohen’s vision of the just society, there would be no need for unequalizing incentives so as to benefit the least well-off; instead, people would be motivated by an egalitarian ethos to work hard and in the most socially productive jobs. As such, Cohen appears to offer a way to mitigate the trade-off of equality for efficiency that often characterizes theorizing about distributive justice. This article presents an egalitarian challenge to Cohen’s vision of the just society. I argue that a (...)
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  • The Pervasive Structure of Society.Tim Syme - 2017 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 44 (8):888-924.
    What does it mean to say that the demands of justice are institutional rather than individual? Justice is often thought to be directly concerned only with governmental institutions rather than individuals’ everyday, legally permissible actions. This approach has been criticized for ignoring the relevance to justice of informal social norms. This paper defends the idea that justice is distinctively institutional but rejects the primacy of governmental institutions. I argue that the ‘pervasive structure of society’ is the site of justice and (...)
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  • Ethos and Institution: On the Site of Distributive Justice.Kenneth Baynes - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (2):182-196.
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  • Classical German Philosophy and Cohen's Critique of Rawls.Julius Sensat - 2003 - European Journal of Philosophy 11 (3):314-353.
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  • Incentives, Offers, and Community.Harrison P. Frye - 2017 - Economics and Philosophy 33 (3):367-390.
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  • Taking People as They Are?Joshua Cohen - 2001 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 30 (4):363-386.
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  • On the Site of Distributive Justice: Reflections on Cohen and Murphy.Thomas W. Pogge - 2000 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (2):137-169.
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  • Power in Social Organization as the Subject of Justice.Aaron James - 2005 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):25–49.
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  • Ethos and Institution: On the Site of Distributive Justice.Kenneth Baynes - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (2):182–196.
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  • Luck, Equality and Responsibility.Keith Dowding - 2010 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (1):71-92.
    Egalitarians claim that inequality in society is only justified to the extent that it results from choices freely and responsibly made. Inequality resulting from brute bad luck is not justified. I argue that luck, and therefore responsibility, are defined in terms of the reward structure. Luck and responsibility are epiphenomena of the incentives that people have to choose from the opportunity sets available. To that end egalitarians should look more directly at the degree of inequality that is acceptable and examine (...)
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