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  1. Do Political Attitudes Matter for Epistemic Decisions of Scientists?Vlasta Sikimić, Tijana Nikitović, Miljan Vasić & Vanja Subotić - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (4):775-801.
    The epistemic attitudes of scientists, such as epistemic tolerance and authoritarianism, play important roles in the discourse about rivaling theories. Epistemic tolerance stands for the mental attitude of an epistemic agent, e.g., a scientist, who is open to opposing views, while epistemic authoritarianism represents the tendency to uncritically accept views of authorities. Another relevant epistemic factor when it comes to the epistemic decisions of scientists is the skepticism towards the scientific method. However, the question is whether these epistemic attitudes are (...)
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  • The Problem of New Evidence: P-Hacking and Pre-Analysis Plans.Zoe Hitzig & Jacob Stegenga - 2020 - Diametros 17 (66):10-33.
    We provide a novel articulation of the epistemic peril of p-hacking using three resources from philosophy: predictivism, Bayesian confirmation theory, and model selection theory. We defend a nuanced position on p-hacking: p-hacking is sometimes, but not always, epistemically pernicious. Our argument requires a novel understanding of Bayesianism, since a standard criticism of Bayesian confirmation theory is that it cannot represent the influence of biased methods. We then turn to pre-analysis plans, a methodological device used to mitigate p-hacking. Some say that (...)
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  • Source Related Argumentation Found in Science Websites.Ralph Barnes, Zoë Neumann & Samuel Draznin-Nagy - 2020 - Informal Logic 40 (3):443-473.
    In this paper, we consider the way that web documents seeking to persuade readers of certain science claims provide information about the sources of the arguments. Our quantitative analysis reveals that web documents in our sample include hundreds of examples in which the reader is provided information regarding the trustworthiness of sources. The web documents also contain a large number of examples in which the reader is provided with information about how many individuals hold a particular belief. We discuss ad (...)
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  • Psychedelic Research and the Need for Transparency: Polishing Alice’s Looking Glass.Rotem Petranker, Thomas Anderson & Norman Farb - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • What Can Philosophers Really Learn From Science Journals?Oliver M. Lean, Luca Rivelli & Charles H. Pence - manuscript
    Philosophers of science regularly use scientific publications in their research. To make their analyses of the literature more thorough, some have begun to use computational methods from the digital humanities. Yet this creates a tension: it’s become a truism in science studies that the contents of scientific publications do not accurately reflect the complex realities of scientific investigation. In this paper, we outline existing views on how scientific publications fit into the broader picture of science as a system of practices, (...)
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  • Gentle Medicine.Bert Gordijn & Henk ten Have - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):471-473.
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  • The Need for “Gentle Medicine” in a Post Covid-19 World. [REVIEW]Gabriel Andrade & Maria Campo Redondo - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (4):475-486.
    As it has historically been the case with many pandemics, the Covid-19 experience will induce many philosophers to reconsider the value of medical practice. This should be a good opportunity to critically scrutinize the way medical research and medical interventions are carried out. For much of its history, medicine has been very inefficient. But, even in its contemporary forms, a review of common protocols in medical research and medical interventions reveal many shortcomings, especially related to methodological flaws, and more importantly, (...)
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  • Optimizing Peer Review to Minimize the Risk of Retracting COVID-19-Related Literature.Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti & Panagiotis Tsigaris - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 24 (1):21-26.
    Retractions of COVID-19 literature in both preprints and the peer-reviewed literature serve as a reminder that there are still challenging issues underlying the integrity of the biomedical literature. The risks to academia become larger when such retractions take place in high-ranking biomedical journals. In some cases, retractions result from unreliable or nonexistent data, an issue that could easily be avoided by having open data policies, but there have also been retractions due to oversight in peer review and editorial verification. As (...)
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  • Mechanisms in Clinical Practice: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Jon Williamson - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):115-124.
    While the importance of mechanisms in determining causality in medicine is currently the subject of active debate, the role of mechanistic reasoning in clinical practice has received far less attention. In this paper we look at this question in the context of the treatment of a particular individual, and argue that evidence of mechanisms is indeed key to various aspects of clinical practice, including assessing population-level research reports, diagnostic as well as therapeutic decision making, and the assessment of treatment effects. (...)
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  • Three Stages of Modern Science.Henry Bauer - 2013 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 27 (3).
    The common view of science is a misunderstanding of today's science that does not recognize how "modern" science has changed since its inception in the 16th to 17th centuries. Science is generally taken to be objectively reliable because it uses "the scientific method" and because scientists work disinterestedly, publish openly, and keep one another honest through peer review. That common view was not too unrealistic in the early days and the glory days of modern science, but it is quite wrong (...)
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  • Western Skeptic Vs Indian Realist. Cross-Cultural Differences in Zebra Case Intuitions.Krzysztof Sękowski, Adrian Ziółkowski & Maciej Tarnowski - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-23.
    The cross-cultural differences in epistemic intuitions reported by Weinberg, Nichols and Stich (2001; hereafter: WNS) laid the ground for the negative program of experimental philosophy. However, most of WNS’s findings were not corroborated in further studies. The exception here is the study concerning purported differences between Westerners and Indians in knowledge ascriptions concerning the Zebra Case, which was never properly replicated. Our study replicates the above-mentioned experiment on a considerably larger sample of Westerners (n = 211) and Indians (n = (...)
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  • Inner Experience – Direct Access to Reality: A Complementarist Ontology and Dual Aspect Monism Support a Broader Epistemology.Harald Walach - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Scientific Ignorance: Probing the Limits of Scientific Research and Knowledge Production.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2019 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 34 (2):195.
    The aim of the paper is to clarify the concept of scientific ignorance: what is it, what are its sources, and when is it epistemically detrimental for science. I present a taxonomy of scientific ignorance, distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic sources. I argue that the latter can create a detrimental epistemic gap, which have significant epistemic and social consequences. I provide three examples from medical research to illustrate this point. To conclude, I claim that while some types of scientific ignorance (...)
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  • Rich or Thin?Susanna Siegel & Alex Byrne - 2017 - In Bence Nanay (ed.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Perception. New York, USA: Routledge.
    Siegel and Byrne debate whether perceptual experiences present rich properties or exclusively thin properties.
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  • A Pragmatist Theory of Evidence.Julian Reiss - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):341-362.
    Two approaches to evidential reasoning compete in the biomedical and social sciences: the experimental and the pragmatist. Whereas experimentalism has received considerable philosophical analysis and support since the times of Bacon and Mill, pragmatism about evidence has been neither articulated nor defended. The overall aim is to fill this gap and develop a theory that articulates the latter. The main ideas of the theory will be illustrated and supported by a case study on the smoking/lung cancer controversy in the 1950s.
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  • From Big Data to Important Information.Yaneer Bar-Yam - 2016 - Complexity 21 (S2):73-98.
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  • The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate.Brent Mittelstadt, Patrick Allo, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Sandra Wachter & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Big Data and Society 3 (2).
    In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, and how we perceive, understand, and interact among ourselves and with the environment. Gaps between the design and operation of algorithms and our understanding of their ethical implications can have severe consequences (...)
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  • Context of Communication: What Philosophers Can Contribute.Wayne C. Myrvold - unknown
    Once an experiment is done, the observations have been made and the data have been analyzed, what should scientists communicate to the world at large, and how should they do it? This, I will argue, is an intricate question, and one that philosophers can make a contribution to. I will illustrate these points by reference to the debate between Fisher and Neyman & Pearson in the 1950s, which I take to be, at heart, a debate about norms of scientific communication. (...)
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • Evaluation of Research(Ers) and its Threat to Epistemic Pluralisms.Marco Viola - 2017 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 13 (2):55-78.
    While some form of evaluation has always been employed in science (e.g. peer review, hiring), formal systems of evaluation of research and researchers have recently come to play a more prominent role in many countries because of the adoption of new models of governance. According to such models, the quality of the output of both researchers and their institutions is measured, and issues such as eligibility for tenure or the allocation of public funding to research institutions crucially depends on the (...)
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  • Reporting of Informed Consent, Standard of Care and Post-Trial Obligations in Global Randomized Intervention Trials: A Systematic Survey of Registered Trials.Emma R. M. Cohen, Jennifer M. O'neill, Michel Joffres, Ross E. G. Upshur & Edward Mills - 2009 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (2):74-80.
    Objective: Ethical guidelines are designed to ensure benefits, protection and respect of participants in clinical research. Clinical trials must now be registered on open-access databases and provide details on ethical considerations. This systematic survey aimed to determine the extent to which recently registered clinical trials report the use of standard of care and post-trial obligations in trial registries, and whether trial characteristics vary according to setting. Methods: We selected global randomized trials registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://www.controlled-trials.com. We searched for intervention (...)
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  • Interpretation of Tests of Heterogeneity and Bias in Meta‐Analysis.John P. A. Ioannidis - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):951-957.
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  • Contribution of Treatment Acceptability to Acceptance of Randomization: An Exploration.Souraya Sidani, Mary Fox & Dana R. Epstein - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (1):14-20.
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  • Animal Models in Translational Research: Rosetta Stone or Stumbling Block?Jessica A. Bolker - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (12):1700089.
    Leading animal models are powerful tools for translational research, but they also present obstacles. Poorly conducted preclinical research in animals is a common cause of translational failure, but even when such research is well-designed and carefully executed, challenges remain. In particular, dominant models may bias research directions, elide essential aspects of human disease, omit important context, or subtly shift research targets. Recognizing these stumbling blocks can help us find ways to avoid them: employing a wider range of models, incorporating more (...)
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  • How Universities Can Help Create a Wiser World: The Urgent Need for an Academic Revolution by N. Maxwell. Imprint Academic, Exeter, UK, 2014, $18, 156 Pp. ISBN 978 1 845 40573 1. [REVIEW]Timothy Kenealy - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):535-537.
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  • Response to Comment on “Chemosignalling Effects of Human Tears Revisited: Does Exposure to Female Tears Decrease Males’ Perception of Female Sexual Attractiveness?”.Asmir Gračanin, Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets & Marcel A. L. M. van Assen - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (1):158-159.
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  • Cognitive Enhancement: Methods, Ethics, Regulatory Challenges. [REVIEW]Nick Bostrom - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):311-341.
    Cognitive enhancement takes many and diverse forms. Various methods of cognitive enhancement have implications for the near future. At the same time, these technologies raise a range of ethical issues. For example, they interact with notions of authenticity, the good life, and the role of medicine in our lives. Present and anticipated methods for cognitive enhancement also create challenges for public policy and regulation.
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  • Creating Falseness-How to Establish Statistical Evidence of the Untrue.Per Lytsy - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (5):923-927.
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  • Bias in Peer Review.Carole J. Lee, Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Guo Zhang & Blaise Cronin - 2013 - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64 (1):2-17.
    Research on bias in peer review examines scholarly communication and funding processes to assess the epistemic and social legitimacy of the mechanisms by which knowledge communities vet and self-regulate their work. Despite vocal concerns, a closer look at the empirical and methodological limitations of research on bias raises questions about the existence and extent of many hypothesized forms of bias. In addition, the notion of bias is predicated on an implicit ideal that, once articulated, raises questions about the normative implications (...)
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  • The Last Scientific Revolution.Andrei Kirilyuk - 2008 - In Martín López Corredoira & Carlos Castro Perelman (eds.), Against the Tide: A Critical Review by Scientists of How Physics and Astronomy Get Done. Boca Raton: Universal Publishers. pp. 179-217.
    Critically growing problems of fundamental science organisation and content are analysed with examples from physics and emerging interdisciplinary fields. Their origin is specified and new science structure (organisation and content) is proposed as a unified solution.
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  • Debunking the Myth of Value-Neutral Virginity: Toward Truth in Scientific Advertising.David R. Mandel & Philip E. Tetlock - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • To Read More Papers, or to Read Papers Better? A Crucial Point for the Reproducibility Crisis.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800206.
    The overflow of scientific literature stimulates poor reading habits which can aggravate science's reproducibility crisis. Thus, solving the reproducibility crisis demands not only methodological changes, but also changes in our relationship with the scientific literature, especially our reading habits. Importantly, this does not mean reading more, it means reading better.
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  • Global and Local Pessimistic Meta-Inductions.Samuel Ruhmkorff - 2013 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):409-428.
    The global pessimistic meta-induction argues from the falsity of scientific theories accepted in the past to the likely falsity of currently accepted scientific theories. I contend that this argument commits a statistical error previously unmentioned in the literature and is self-undermining. I then compare the global pessimistic meta-induction to a local pessimistic meta-induction based on recent negative assessments of the reliability of medical research. If there is any future in drawing pessimistic conclusions from the history of science, it lies in (...)
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  • Going From Evidence to Recommendations: Can GRADE Get Us There?Mathew Mercuri, Brian Baigrie & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1232-1239.
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  • What Confidence Should We Have in GRADE?Mathew Mercuri & Brian S. Baigrie - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1240-1246.
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  • A Battle in the Statistics Wars: A Simulation-Based Comparison of Bayesian, Frequentist and Williamsonian Methodologies.Mantas Radzvilas, William Peden & Francesco De Pretis - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):13689-13748.
    The debates between Bayesian, frequentist, and other methodologies of statistics have tended to focus on conceptual justifications, sociological arguments, or mathematical proofs of their long run properties. Both Bayesian statistics and frequentist (“classical”) statistics have strong cases on these grounds. In this article, we instead approach the debates in the “Statistics Wars” from a largely unexplored angle: simulations of different methodologies’ performance in the short to medium run. We conducted a large number of simulations using a straightforward decision problem based (...)
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  • For a Critical Appraisal of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare: The Problem of Bias in mHealth.Nicolas Brault & Mohit Saxena - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 27 (3):513-519.
    Rationale, aims and objectives: Artificial intelligence and big data are more and more used in medicine, either in prevention, diagnosis or treatment, and are clearly modifying the way medicine is thought and practiced. Some authors argue that the use of artificial intelligence techniques to analyze big data would even constitute a scientific revolution, in medicine as much as in other scientific disciplines. Moreover, artificial intelligence techniques, coupled with mobile health technologies, could furnish a personalized medicine, adapted to the individuality of (...)
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  • Gildi vísinda og gildin í vísindum - á tímum heimsfaraldurs [English title: "The Value of Science and the Values in Science - in Pandemic Times"].Finnur Dellsén - 2020 - Skírnir 194:251-273.
    English summary: This paper uses research on the COVID-19 pandemic as the backdrop for an accessible discussion of the value and status of science, and of the role of valuesin science. In particular, the paper seeks to debunk three common myths or dogmas about scientific research: (i) that there is such a thing as 'scientific proof' of a theory or hypothesis, (ii) that disagreement is necessarily unhealthy or unnatural in science, (iii) and that personal values play no role in scientific (...)
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  • Philosophical Error and the Economics of Belief Formation.Matthew Skene - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (4-5):638-656.
    Recent work has demonstrated that academic research faces serious challenges. Incentives to defend publishable ideas often lead researchers astray. Despite their tendency to produce error, efforts to publish erroneous results typically help a researcher's career. In addition, errors often arise from seemingly innocent methodological assumptions that allow researchers to believe their research is sound. This article discusses this research, as well as research into difficulties facing epistemic rationality caused by nonepistemic incentives. It then applies the lessons of this research to (...)
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  • Misinformation in the Medical Literature: What Role Do Error and Fraud Play?R. G. Steen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (8):498-503.
    Media attention to retracted research suggests that a substantial number of papers are corrupted by misinformation. In reality, every paper contains misinformation; at issue is whether the balance of correct versus incorrect information is acceptable. This paper postulates that analysis of retracted research papers can provide insight into medical misinformation, although retracted papers are not a random sample of incorrect papers. Error is the most common reason for retraction and error may be the principal cause of misinformation as well. Still, (...)
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  • Clinical Judgement in the Era of Big Data and Predictive Analytics.Benjamin Chin-Yee & Ross Upshur - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (3):638-645.
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  • Current Perspectives in Philosophy of Biology.Joaquin Suarez Ruiz & Rodrigo A. Lopez Orellana - 2019 - Humanities Journal of Valparaiso 14:7-426.
    Current Perspectives in Philosophy of Biology.
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  • The Synthetic Thesis of Truth Helps Mitigate the Reproducibility Crisis and is an Inspiration for Predictive Ecology.Luis Marone, Javier Lopez de Casenave & Rafael González del Solar - 2019 - Humanities Journal of Valparaiso 14:363-376.
    There are currently serious concerns that published scientific findings often fail to be reproducible, and that some solutions may be gleaned by attending the several methodological and sociological recommendations that could be found in the literature. However, researchers would also arrive at some answers by considering the advice of the philosophy of science, particularly semantics, about theses on truth related to scientific realism. Sometimes scientists understand the correspondence thesis of truth as asserting that the next unique empirical confirmation of a (...)
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  • Mario Bunge’s Systemic Thesis of Truth: Implications for Research Practice and the “Reproducibility Crisis”.Luis Marone, Javier Lopez de Casenave & Rafael González del Solar - 2019 - Humanities Journal of Valparaiso 14:363-376.
    There are currently serious concerns that published scientific findings often fail to be reproducible, and that some solutions may be gleaned by attending the several methodological and sociological recommendations that could be found in the literature. However, researchers would also arrive at some answers by considering the advice of the philosophy of science, particularly semantics, about theses on truth related to scientific realism. Sometimes scientists understand the correspondence thesis of truth as asserting that the next unique empirical confirmation of a (...)
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  • Much Ado About Omics: Welcome to ‘the Permutome’.Spencer G. Livingstone, Maxwell J. Smith, Diego S. Silva & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):1018-1021.
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  • The Market for Scientific Lemons, and the Marketization of Science.Jesús Zamora Bonilla - 2019 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 34 (1):133-145.
    Scientific research is based on the division of cognitive labour: every scientist has to trust that other colleagues have checked whether the items that are taken as knowledge, and she cannot check by herself, are reliable enough. I apply ideas from the field known as ‘information economics’ to analyse the scientists’ incentives to produce items of knowledge of an ‘adequate’ quality, under the assumption that a big part of what one observes in her empirical research is not available for the (...)
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  • Analysis of Scientific Truth Status in Controlled Rehabilitation Trials.Roger Kerry, Aurélien Madouasse, Antony Arthur & Stephen D. Mumford - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):617-625.
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  • Identifying Spin in Health Management Evaluations.Ariel Linden - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (6):1223-1230.
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  • A Critical Realist Approach to Knowledge: Implications for Evidence-Based Practice in and Beyond Nursing.Stuart Nairn - 2012 - Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):6-17.
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  • Core Intuitions About Persons Coexist and Interfere With Acquired Christian Beliefs About God.Barlev Michael, Mermelstein Spencer & C. German Tamsin - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent or inconsistent. Participants were less accurate and slower to respond to inconsistent versus consistent (...)
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