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  1. Significance Tests: Vitiated or Vindicated by the Replication Crisis in Psychology?Deborah G. Mayo - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-20.
    The crisis of replication has led many to blame statistical significance tests for making it too easy to find impressive looking effects that do not replicate. However, the very fact it becomes difficult to replicate effects when features of the tests are tied down actually serves to vindicate statistical significance tests. While statistical significance tests, used correctly, serve to bound the probabilities of erroneous interpretations of data, this error control is nullified by data-dredging, multiple testing, and other biasing selection effects. (...)
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  • Perceptions and Attitudes about Research Integrity and Misconduct: a Survey among Young Biomedical Researchers in Italy.Alex Mabou Tagne, Niccolò Cassina, Alessia Furgiuele, Elisa Storelli, Marco Cosentino & Franca Marino - 2020 - Journal of Academic Ethics 18 (2):193-205.
    Research misconduct is an alarming concern worldwide, and especially in Italy, where there is no formal training of young researchers in responsible research practices. The main aim of this study was to map the perceptions and attitudes about RM in a sample of young researchers attending a one-week intensive course on methodology, ethics and integrity in biomedical research, held at the University of Insubria. To this end, we administered the Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire to all attendees at the beginning of the (...)
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  • Mechanisms in Clinical Practice: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Jon Williamson - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):115-124.
    While the importance of mechanisms in determining causality in medicine is currently the subject of active debate, the role of mechanistic reasoning in clinical practice has received far less attention. In this paper we look at this question in the context of the treatment of a particular individual, and argue that evidence of mechanisms is indeed key to various aspects of clinical practice, including assessing population-level research reports, diagnostic as well as therapeutic decision making, and the assessment of treatment effects. (...)
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  • Do We Really Know How Many Clinical Trials Are Conducted Ethically? Why Research Ethics Committee Review Practices Need to Be Strengthened and Initial Steps We Could Take to Strengthen Them.Mark Yarborough - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2019-106014.
    Research Ethics Committees play a critical gatekeeping role in clinical trials. This role is meant to ensure that only those trials that meet certain ethical thresholds proceed through their gate. Two of these thresholds are that the potential benefits of trials are reasonable in relation to risks and that trials are capable of producing a requisite amount of social value. While one ought not expect perfect execution by RECs of their gatekeeping role, one should expect routine success in it. This (...)
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  • The Search for Clarity in Communicating Research Results to Study Participants.D. I. Shalowitz & F. G. Miller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e17-e17.
    Current guidelines on investigators' responsibilities to communicate research results to study participants may differ on whether investigators should proactively re-contact participants, the type of results to be offered, the need for clinical relevance before disclosure, and the stage of research at which results should be offered. Lack of consistency on these issues, however, does not undermine investigators' obligation to offer to disclose research results: an obligation rooted firmly in the principle of respect for research participants.
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  • What Can Philosophers Really Learn From Science Journals?Oliver M. Lean, Luca Rivelli & Charles H. Pence - manuscript
    Philosophers of science regularly use scientific publications in their research. To make their analyses of the literature more thorough, some have begun to use computational methods from the digital humanities. Yet this creates a tension: it’s become a truism in science studies that the contents of scientific publications do not accurately reflect the complex realities of scientific investigation. In this paper, we outline existing views on how scientific publications fit into the broader picture of science as a system of practices, (...)
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  • Why Not All Evidence is Scientific Evidence.Carlos Santana - 2018 - Episteme 15 (2):209-227.
    Data which constitute satisfactory evidence in other contexts are sometimes not treated as valid evidence in the context of scientic conrmation. I give a justicatory explanation of this fact, appealing to the incentives, biases, and social situatedness of scientists.
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  • Do Political Attitudes Matter for Epistemic Decisions of Scientists?Vlasta Sikimić, Tijana Nikitović, Miljan Vasić & Vanja Subotić - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-27.
    The epistemic attitudes of scientists, such as epistemic tolerance and authoritarianism, play important roles in the discourse about rivaling theories. Epistemic tolerance stands for the mental attitude of an epistemic agent, e.g., a scientist, who is open to opposing views, while epistemic authoritarianism represents the tendency to uncritically accept views of authorities. Another relevant epistemic factor when it comes to the epistemic decisions of scientists is the skepticism towards the scientific method. However, the question is whether these epistemic attitudes are (...)
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  • Source Related Argumentation Found in Science Websites.Ralph Barnes, Zoë Neumann & Samuel Draznin-Nagy - 2020 - Informal Logic 40 (3):443-473.
    In this paper, we consider the way that web documents seeking to persuade readers of certain science claims provide information about the sources of the arguments. Our quantitative analysis reveals that web documents in our sample include hundreds of examples in which the reader is provided information regarding the trustworthiness of sources. The web documents also contain a large number of examples in which the reader is provided with information about how many individuals hold a particular belief. We discuss ad (...)
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  • The Synthetic Thesis of Truth Helps Mitigate the Reproducibility Crisis and is an Inspiration for Predictive Ecology.Luis Marone, Javier Lopez de Casenave & Rafael González del Solar - 2019 - Humanities Journal of Valparaiso 14:363-376.
    There are currently serious concerns that published scientific findings often fail to be reproducible, and that some solutions may be gleaned by attending the several methodological and sociological recommendations that could be found in the literature. However, researchers would also arrive at some answers by considering the advice of the philosophy of science, particularly semantics, about theses on truth related to scientific realism. Sometimes scientists understand the correspondence thesis of truth as asserting that the next unique empirical confirmation of a (...)
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  • Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.Vance W. Berger - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (4):857-874.
    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, (...)
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  • Scientific Data Science and the Case for Open Access.Gopal P. Sarma - forthcoming - Arxiv Preprint Arxiv:1611.00097.
    “Open access” has become a central theme of journal reform in academic publishing. In this article, I examine the consequences of an important technological loophole in which publishers can claim to be adhering to the principles of open access by releasing articles in proprietary or “locked” formats that cannot be processed by automated tools, whereby even simple copy and pasting of text is disabled. These restrictions will prevent the development of an important infrastructural element of a modern research enterprise, namely, (...)
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  • Doing Things Twice: Strategies to Identify Studies for Targeted Validation.Gopal P. Sarma - forthcoming - Arxiv Preprint Arxiv:1703.01601.
    The “reproducibility crisis” has been a highly visible source of scientific controversy and dispute. Here, I propose and review several avenues for identifying and prioritizing research studies for the purpose of targeted validation. Of the various proposals discussed, I identify scientific data science as being a strategy that merits greater attention among those interested in reproducibility. I argue that the tremendous potential of scientific data science for uncovering high-value research studies is a significant and rarely discussed benefit of the transition (...)
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  • Life Sciences for Philosophers and Philosophy for Life Scientists: What Should We Teach?Giovanni Boniolo & Raffaella Campaner - 2020 - Biological Theory 15 (1):1-11.
    Following recent debate on the relations between philosophy of science and the sciences, we wish to draw attention to some actual ways of training both young philosophers of science and young life scientists and clinicians. First, we recall a successful case of training philosophers of the life sciences in a strictly scientific environment. Second, after a brief review of the reasons why life scientists and clinicians are currently asking for more ethics, more methodology of science, and more philosophy of science (...)
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  • Academic Plagiarism at the Faculty Level: Legal Versus Ethical Issues and a Case Study.Matthew C. Sonfield - 2014 - Journal of Academic Ethics 12 (2):75-87.
    Plagiarism by college and university faculty members has become a growing issue and concern in academia. This paper presents a case study of an extreme and clear case of such plagiarism. Yet an analysis of the legal and ethical contexts of such plagiarism, and the specific chronicle of this case, illustrate the complexities and difficulties in dealing with such situations. Implications for researchers, for colleges and universities, and for academic publishers and journals are offered.
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  • Institutional Approaches to Research Integrity in Ghana.Amos K. Laar, Barbara K. Redman, Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    Research misconduct remains an important problem in health research despite decades of local, national, regional, and international efforts to eliminate it. The ultimate goal of every health research project, irrespective of setting, is to produce trustworthy findings to address local as well as global health issues. To be able to lead or participate meaningfully in international research collaborations, individual and institutional capacities for research integrity are paramount. Accordingly, this paper concerns itself not only with individuals’ research skills but also with (...)
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  • Misalignment Between Research Hypotheses and Statistical Hypotheses: A Threat to Evidence-Based Medicine?Insa Lawler & Georg Zimmermann - forthcoming - Topoi.
    Evidence-based medicine frequently uses statistical hypothesis testing. In this paradigm, data can only disconfirm a research hypothesis’ competitors: One tests the negation of a statistical hypothesis that is supposed to correspond to the research hypothesis. In practice, these hypotheses are often misaligned. For instance, directional research hypotheses are often paired with non-directional statistical hypotheses. Prima facie, one cannot gain proper evidence for one’s research hypothesis employing a misaligned statistical hypothesis. This paper sheds lights on the nature of and the reasons (...)
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  • The Scientific Hypothesis is Here to Stay.Noah N. N. Van Dongen - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
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  • Evaluation of Research(Ers) and its Threat to Epistemic Pluralisms.Marco Viola - 2017 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 13 (2):55-78.
    While some form of evaluation has always been employed in science (e.g. peer review, hiring), formal systems of evaluation of research and researchers have recently come to play a more prominent role in many countries because of the adoption of new models of governance. According to such models, the quality of the output of both researchers and their institutions is measured, and issues such as eligibility for tenure or the allocation of public funding to research institutions crucially depends on the (...)
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  • From P Robability to B Elievability.Joachim P. Sturmberg - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (4):1081-1086.
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  • Does Consent Bias Research?Mark A. Rothstein & Abigail B. Shoben - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (4):27 - 37.
    Researchers increasingly rely on large data sets of health information, often linked with biological specimens. In recent years, the argument has been made that obtaining informed consent for conducting records-based research is unduly burdensome and results in ?consent bias.? As a type of selection bias, consent bias is said to exist when the group giving researchers access to their data differs from the group denying access. Therefore, to promote socially beneficial research, it is argued that consent should be unnecessary. After (...)
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  • Reproducibility in Cognitive Hearing Research: Theoretical Considerations and Their Practical Application in Multi-Lab Studies.Antje Heinrich & Sarah Knight - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Unfolding the Black Box of Questionable Research Practices: Where Is the Line Between Acceptable and Unacceptable Practices?Christian Linder & Siavash Farahbakhsh - 2020 - Business Ethics Quarterly 30 (3):335-360.
    ABSTRACTDespite the extensive literature on what questionable research practices are and how to measure them, the normative underpinnings of such practices have remained less explored. QRPs often fall into a grey area of justifiable and unjustifiable practices. Where to precisely draw the line between such practices challenges individual scholars and this harms science. We investigate QRPs from a normative perspective using the theory of communicative action. We highlight the role of the collective in assessing individual behaviours. Our contribution is a (...)
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  • Psychedelic Research and the Need for Transparency: Polishing Alice’s Looking Glass.Rotem Petranker, Thomas Anderson & Norman Farb - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Research Integrity and Everyday Practice of Science.Frederick Grinnell - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):685-701.
    Science traditionally is taught as a linear process based on logic and carried out by objective researchers following the scientific method. Practice of science is a far more nuanced enterprise, one in which intuition and passion become just as important as objectivity and logic. Whether the activity is committing to study a particular research problem, drawing conclusions about a hypothesis under investigation, choosing whether to count results as data or experimental noise, or deciding what information to present in a research (...)
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  • The Implementation Chasm Hindering Genome-Informed Health Care.Kevin B. Johnson, Ellen Wright Clayton, Justin Starren & Josh Peterson - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (1):119-125.
    The promises of precision medicine are often heralded in the medical and lay literature, but routine integration of genomics in clinical practice is still limited. While the “last mile’ infrastructure to bring genomics to the bedside has been demonstrated in some healthcare settings, a number of challenges remain — both in the receptivity of today's health system and in its technical and educational readiness to respond to this evolution in care. To improve the impact of genomics on health and disease (...)
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  • Rescuing Informed Consent: How the New “Key Information” and “Reasonable Person” Provisions in the Revised U.S. Common Rule Open the Door to Long Overdue Informed Consent Disclosure Improvements and Why We Need to Walk Through That Door.Mark Yarborough - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1423-1443.
    There is substantial published evidence showing that countless people enroll each year in ethically deficient clinical trials. Many of the trials are problematic because the quality of the science used to justify their launch may not be sufficiently vetted while many other trials may lack requisite social value. This poses the question: why do people volunteer for them? The answer resides in large part in the fact that informed consent practices have historically masked, rather than disclosed, the information that would (...)
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  • Prospective Statistical Power: Sample Size Recommendations for the Investigation of the Main Parapsychological Phenomena.Patrizio E. Tressoldi - 2016 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 30 (1).
    The aim of this paper is to offer a practical guideline for researchers investigating parapsychological phenomena or phenomena to choose appropriate sample sizes to achieve a statistical power equal or above 0.80. The availability of different meta-analyses related to different parapsychological phenomena, offer a sufficient estimation of the expected effect size, usually in the range of small to very small. With these measures, we estimated the numerosity of sample sizes necessary to achieve a level of statistical power that can facilitate (...)
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  • The Review Reviewed: Stop Publication Bias.Jacob Alexander de Ru, John C. M. J. de Groot & Jan-Willem M. Elshof - 2012 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 26 (3).
    This manuscript describes our past experiences with reviewers and the review procedures that are currently used in the medical sciences. We conclude that reviewers all too often are biased, whereas scientific discussion should be based on substantive comments and without prejudice. In our opinion, subjective arguments for rejection of manuscripts constitute a serious threat to evidence-based medicine. Since peer review should aim to facilitate the introduction into medicine of improved ways of curing, relieving, and comforting patients, a more objective review (...)
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  • Three Stages of Modern Science.Henry H. Bauer - 2013 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 27 (3).
    The common view of science is a misunderstanding of today's science that does not recognize how "modern" science has changed since its inception in the 16th to 17th centuries. Science is generally taken to be objectively reliable because it uses "the scientific method" and because scientists work disinterestedly, publish openly, and keep one another honest through peer review. That common view was not too unrealistic in the early days and the glory days of modern science, but it is quite wrong (...)
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  • Research Grants: Conform and Be Funded by Joshua M. Nicholson and John P. A. Ioannidis.Henry H. Bauer - 2013 - Journal of Scientific Exploration 27 (1).
    The article's subtitle tells it all: "Too many US authors of the most innovative and influential papers in the life sciences do not receive NIH funding... " This fits in a little-remarked genre: evidence that contemporary science is very different from the popular view of it as behaving objectively by virtue of the scientific method and peer review. Even as many such articles document flaws in clinical trials, statistical incompetence in much of the medical literature, and failures of peer review, (...)
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  • How to Do Digital Philosophy of Science.Charles Pence & Grant Ramsey - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):930-941.
    Philosophy of science is beginning to be expanded via the introduction of new digital resources—both data and tools for its analysis. The data comprise digitized published books and journal articles, as well as heretofore unpublished and recently digitized material, such as images, archival text, notebooks, meeting notes, and programs. This growing bounty of data would be of little use, however, without quality tools with which to analyze it. Fortunately, the growth in available data is matched by the extensive development of (...)
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  • Is Peer Review a Good Idea?Remco Heesen & Liam Kofi Bright - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz029.
    Prepublication peer review should be abolished. We consider the effects that such a change will have on the social structure of science, paying particular attention to the changed incentive structure and the likely effects on the behaviour of individual scientists. We evaluate these changes from the perspective of epistemic consequentialism. We find that where the effects of abolishing prepublication peer review can be evaluated with a reasonable level of confidence based on presently available evidence, they are either positive or neutral. (...)
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  • Madness in the Method: Fatal Flaws in Recent Mediumship Experiments.Christian Battista, Nicolas Gauvrit & Etienne LeBel - 2015 - In Keith Augustine & Michael Martin (eds.), The Myth of an Afterlife: The Case against Life After Death. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 615-630.
    This paper reviews one of the most methodologically rigorous studies of mediumship conducted to date. On the surface, the statistical procedures used by Julie Beischel and Gary E. Schwartz in the study seem to support the existence of anomalous information reception (AIR), but in fact have been misapplied. Other methodological flaws are fatal, including unaccounted for researcher degrees of freedom, which completely calls into question Beischel and Schwartz’s conclusion regarding AIR. We conclude by proposing an experimental design more appropriate for (...)
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  • Debunking the Myth of Value-Neutral Virginity: Toward Truth in Scientific Advertising.David R. Mandel & Philip E. Tetlock - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Reevaluating Benefits in the Moral Justification of Animal Research: A Comment on “Necessary Conditions for Morally Responsible Animal Research”.Matthias Eggel, Carolyn P. Neuhaus & Herwig Grimm - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):131-143.
    :In a recent paper in Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics on the necessary conditions for morally responsible animal research David DeGrazia and Jeff Sebo claim that the key requirements for morally responsible animal research are an assertion of sufficient net benefit, a worthwhile-life condition, and a no-unnecessary-harm condition. With regards to the assertion of sufficient net benefit, the authors claim that morally responsible research offers unique benefits to humans that outweigh the costs and harms to humans and animals. In this (...)
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  • Inner Experience – Direct Access to Reality: A Complementarist Ontology and Dual Aspect Monism Support a Broader Epistemology.Harald Walach - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Modeling in Biology: Looking Backward and Looking Forward.Steven Hecht Orzack & Brian McLoone - 2019 - Studia Metodologiczne 39.
    Understanding modeling in biology requires understanding how biology is organized as a discipline and how this organization influences the research practices of biologists. Biology includes a wide range of sub-disciplines, such as cell biology, population biology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, and systems biology among others. Biologists in sub-disciplines such as cell, molecular, and systems biology believe that the use of a few experimental models allows them to discover biological universals, whereas biologists in sub-disciplines such as ecology and evolutionary biology believe (...)
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  • Current Perspectives in Philosophy of Biology.Joaquin Suarez Ruiz & Rodrigo A. Lopez Orellana - 2019 - Humanities Journal of Valparaiso 14:7-426.
    Current Perspectives in Philosophy of Biology.
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  • Mario Bunge’s Systemic Thesis of Truth: Implications for Research Practice and the “Reproducibility Crisis”.Luis Marone, Javier Lopez de Casenave & Rafael González del Solar - 2019 - Humanities Journal of Valparaiso 14:363-376.
    There are currently serious concerns that published scientific findings often fail to be reproducible, and that some solutions may be gleaned by attending the several methodological and sociological recommendations that could be found in the literature. However, researchers would also arrive at some answers by considering the advice of the philosophy of science, particularly semantics, about theses on truth related to scientific realism. Sometimes scientists understand the correspondence thesis of truth as asserting that the next unique empirical confirmation of a (...)
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  • Editorial.Simon Rogerson - 2019 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (4):373-374.
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  • When Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Is Unsuitable for Research: A Reassessment.Denes Szucs & John P. A. Ioannidis - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
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  • Scientific Ignorance: Probing the Limits of Scientific Research and Knowledge Production.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2019 - Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 34 (2):195.
    The aim of the paper is to clarify the concept of scientific ignorance: what is it, what are its sources, and when is it epistemically detrimental for science. I present a taxonomy of scientific ignorance, distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic sources. I argue that the latter can create a detrimental epistemic gap, which have significant epistemic and social consequences. I provide three examples from medical research to illustrate this point. To conclude, I claim that while some types of scientific ignorance (...)
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  • Philosophy of Science and the Replicability Crisis.Felipe Romero - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11).
    Replicability is widely taken to ground the epistemic authority of science. However, in recent years, important published findings in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences have failed to replicate, suggesting that these fields are facing a “replicability crisis.” For philosophers, the crisis should not be taken as bad news but as an opportunity to do work on several fronts, including conceptual analysis, history and philosophy of science, research ethics, and social epistemology. This article introduces philosophers to these discussions. First, I (...)
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  • Rich or Thin?Susanna Siegel & Alex Byrne - 2017 - In Bence Nanay (ed.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Perception. New York, USA: Routledge.
    Siegel and Byrne debate whether perceptual experiences present rich properties or exclusively thin properties.
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  • Why Science's Crisis Should Not Become a Political Battling Ground.Andrea Saltelli - 2018 - Futures 104:85-90.
    A science war is in full swing which has taken science's reproducibility crisis as a battleground. While conservatives and corporate interests use the crisis to weaken regulations, their opponent deny the existence of a science's crisis altogether. Thus, for the conservative National Association of Scholars NAS the crisis is real and due to the progressive assault on higher education with ideologies such as neo-Marxism, radical feminism, historicism, post-colonialism, deconstructionism, post-modernism, liberation theology. In the opposite field, some commentators claim that there (...)
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  • Two Approaches to Reasoning From Evidence or What Econometrics Can Learn From Biomedical Research.Julian Reiss - 2015 - Journal of Economic Methodology 22 (3):373-390.
    This paper looks at an appeal to the authority of biomedical research that has recently been used by empirical economists to motivate and justify their methods. I argue that those who make this appeal mistake the nature of biomedical research. Randomised trials, which are said to have revolutionised biomedical research, are a central methodology, but according to only one paradigm. There is another paradigm at work in biomedical research, the inferentialist paradigm, in which randomised trials play no special role. I (...)
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  • A Pragmatist Theory of Evidence.Julian Reiss - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):341-362.
    Two approaches to evidential reasoning compete in the biomedical and social sciences: the experimental and the pragmatist. Whereas experimentalism has received considerable philosophical analysis and support since the times of Bacon and Mill, pragmatism about evidence has been neither articulated nor defended. The overall aim is to fill this gap and develop a theory that articulates the latter. The main ideas of the theory will be illustrated and supported by a case study on the smoking/lung cancer controversy in the 1950s.
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  • Eliciting Big Data From Small, Young, or Non-Standard Languages: 10 Experimental Challenges.Evelina Leivada, Roberta D’Alessandro & Kleanthes K. Grohmann - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Brain Neural Activity Patterns Yielding Numbers Are Operators, Not Representations.Walter J. Freeman & Robert Kozma - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (3-4):336.
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