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  1. Usos Discursivos de la Forma Verbal Doxástica Creo En la Interacción Oral En Español: Discursive Uses of Doxastic Verbal Form Creo in Spanish Oral Interactions.Amparo M. Soler Bonafont - 2020 - Pragmática Sociocultural 8 (2):204-231.
    The present paper describes the main discursive uses of creo, a performative form of doxastic verb creer, in oral Spanish interaction, specifically those in which the verbal form shows attenuation or intensification. To that end, this paper performs a thorough analysis of creo instances across conversational corpora and parliamentary debates corpora, with a combined 700 000 words collated as the sample. A preliminary qualitative and quantitative investigation was carried out in which the goals were twofold: First, to isolate the features (...)
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  • Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation.Joshua Knobe, Sandeep Prasada & George E. Newman - 2013 - Cognition 127 (2):242-257.
    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of ‘dual character concepts.’ Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for category membership. Experiment 1 provides support for the notion that dual character concepts have two bases for evaluation. Experiments 2-4 explore the claim that dual character concepts (...)
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  • The Manipulation of Images to Handle Indeterminacy in Spatial Reasoning.Thomas R. Ioerger - 1994 - Cognitive Science 18 (4):551-593.
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  • Combining Prototypes: A Selective Modification Model.Edward E. Smith, Daniel N. Osherson, Lance J. Rips & Margaret Keane - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (4):485-527.
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  • Typicality, Graded Membership, and Vagueness.James A. Hampton - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (3):355-384.
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  • Models of Concepts.Benjamin Cohen & Gregory L. Murphy - 1984 - Cognitive Science 8 (1):27-58.
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  • Alternative Conceptions of Semantic Theory.Arnold L. Glass & Keith J. Holyoak - 1974 - Cognition 3 (4):313-339.
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  • The Organization of Roman Religious Beliefs.Charles King - 2003 - Classical Antiquity 22 (2):275-312.
    This study will focus on the differences in the way that Roman Paganism and Christianity organize systems of beliefs. It rejects the theory that “beliefs” have no place in the Roman religion, but stresses the differences between Christian orthodoxy, in which mandatory dogmas define group identity, and the essentially polythetic nature of Roman religious organization, in which incompatible beliefs could exist simultaneously in the community without conflict. In explaining how such beliefs could coexist in Rome, the study emphasizes three main (...)
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  • La subjectivité à travers les médias : étude comparée des médias participatifs et de la presse traditionnelle.Lydia-Mai Ho-Dac & Anne Küppers - 2011 - Corpus 10:179-199.
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  • Belief, Rational and Justified.Robert Weston Siscoe - forthcoming - Mind:fzaa021.
    It is clear that beliefs can be assessed both as to their justification and as to their rationality. What is not as clear, however, is how the rationality and justification of belief relate to one another. Stewart Cohen has stumped for the popular proposal that rationality and justification come to the same thing, that rational beliefs just are justified beliefs, supporting his view by arguing that ‘justified belief’ and ‘rational belief’ are synonymous. In this paper, I will give reason to (...)
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  • Reflexiver Sprachgebrauch Diktumscharakterisierung Aus Gricescher Sicht.Jörg Hagemann - 1997 - Westdeutscher Verlag.
    Unsere alltagssprachlichen Mittel, mit denen wir auf den eigenen Sprachgebrauch reflektieren, geben Aufschluss darüber, woran sich halten zu müssen kommunikativ Handelnde glauben. Mit der Verwendung diktumscharakterisierender Ausdrücke wird angezeigt, dass das, was gesagt oder wie es gesagt wird, in verschiedener Hinsicht hätte anders gesagt werden müssen. Das Bemerkenswerte: Diejenigen Aspekte, die mit den unterschiedlichen diktumscharakterisierenden Ausdrücken thematisiert werden, sind im Wesentlichen die Aspekte, die in den Griceschen Konversationsmaximen zum Ausdruck kommen. Die meisten Diktumscharakterisierungen können als Bezugnahme auf eine dieser Maximen (...)
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  • Prototypical Reasoning About Species and the Species Problem.Yuichi Amitani - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (4):289-300.
    The species problem is often described as the abundance of conflicting definitions of _species_, such as the biological species concept and phylogenetic species concepts. But biologists understand the notion of species in a non-definitional as well as a definitional way. In this article I argue that when they understand _species_ without a definition in their mind, their understanding is often mediated by the notion of _good species_, or prototypical species, as the idea of ``prototype'' is explicated in cognitive psychology. This (...)
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  • The English Word Disgust has No Exact Translation in Hindi or Malayalam.Dolichan Kollareth & James A. Russell - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (6):1169-1180.
    Do different languages have a translation for the English word disgust that labels the same underlying concept? If not, the English word might label a culture-specific concept. Four studies compared disgust to its common translation in Hindi and in Malayalam by examining two components of the concept thought of as a script: causal antecedent and facial expression. The English word was used to refer to reactions to both unclean substances and moral violations; Hindi and Malayalam translations referred mainly to moral (...)
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  • What Is Graded Membership?Lieven Decock & Igor Douven - 2014 - Noûs 48 (4):653-682.
    It has seemed natural to model phenomena related to vagueness in terms of graded membership. However, so far no satisfactory answer has been given to the question of what graded membership is nor has any attempt been made to describe in detail a procedure for determining degrees of membership. We seek to remedy these lacunae by building on recent work on typicality and graded membership in cognitive science and combining some of the results obtained there with a version of the (...)
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  • Be Brief and Vague! And How Bidirectional Optimality Theory Allows for Verbosity and Precision.Manfred Krifka - manuscript
    Given the beginnings of the United States of America, its sympathy with the French revolution and its rationalist attitude towards the institutions of society, one would have expected that it would have been one of the first nations to adopt the new metric system that was introduced in France in 1800. But the history of the attempts to do so is decidedly mixed. American Congress authorized the use of the metric system in 1866. In 1959, American measurements were defined in (...)
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  • A Model-Theoretic Approach to Folk Taxonomy.Paul Kay - 1975 - Social Science Information 14 (5):151-166.
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  • A New–Old Characterisation of Logical Knowledge.Ivor Grattan-Guinness - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (3):245 - 290.
    We seek means of distinguishing logical knowledge from other kinds of knowledge, especially mathematics. The attempt is restricted to classical two-valued logic and assumes that the basic notion in logic is the proposition. First, we explain the distinction between the parts and the moments of a whole, and theories of ?sortal terms?, two theories that will feature prominently. Second, we propose that logic comprises four ?momental sectors?: the propositional and the functional calculi, the calculus of asserted propositions, and rules for (...)
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  • Measuring and Modelling Truth.Nicholas J. J. Smith - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (4):345-356.
    Philosophers, linguists and others interested in problems concerning natural language frequently employ tools from logic and model theory. The question arises as to the proper interpretation of the formal methods employed—of the relationship between, on the one hand, the formal languages and their set-theoretic models and, on the other hand, the objects of ultimate interest: natural language and the meanings and truth conditions of its constituent words, phrases and sentences. Two familiar answers to this question are descriptivism and instrumentalism. More (...)
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  • Rethinking Hart: From Open Texture to Prototype Theory—Analytic Philosophy Meets Cognitive Linguistics.Mateusz Zeifert - forthcoming - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique:1-22.
    The article is based on an observation that there are significant and non-arbitrary similarities between two, seemingly quite distant, theories that address the problem of linguistic categorization. One is the theory of open texture put forward by a prominent legal philosopher, Herbert L.A Hart. The other is the theory of prototypes, originated from psychological research by Eleanor Rosch and developed by cognitively-oriented linguists, most notably Charles Fillmore, George Lakoff, and Ronald Langacker. Firstly, the origins of the open texture theory are (...)
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  • What Are Natural Concepts? A Design Perspective.Igor Douven & Peter Gärdenfors - 2019 - Mind and Language (3):313-334.
    Conceptual spaces have become an increasingly popular modeling tool in cognitive psychology. The core idea of the conceptual spaces approach is that concepts can be represented as regions in similarity spaces. While it is generally acknowledged that not every region in such a space represents a natural concept, it is still an open question what distinguishes those regions that represent natural concepts from those that do not. The central claim of this paper is that natural concepts are represented by the (...)
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  • On How Fuzzy Logic Began in Spain.Enric Trillas - 2017 - Archives for the Philosophy and History of Soft Computing 2017 (1).
    Historically, there have been some problems that initially were philosophically posed, either in mystical or in metaphysical terms but that, latter on and step-by-step, were translated into scientific terms and through a process of successive clarifications allowing to arrive, finally, at a scientific theory in which its more essential treats are clearly defined and facilitates its measuring.
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  • Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 15, Saarbruecken.Ingo Reich (ed.) - 2010 - Saarbrücken: Universitätsverlag des Saarlandes.
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  • The Elements of Argument: Six Steps To A Thick Theory.Leo Groarke - unknown
    In the last quarter-century, the emergence of argumentation theory has spurred the development of an extensive literature on the study of argument. It encompasses empirical and theoretical investigations that often have their roots in the different traditions that have studied argument since ancient times – most notably, logic, rhetoric, and dialectics. Against this background, I advocate a “thick” theory of argument that merges traditional theories, weaving together their sometimes discordant approaches to provide an overarching framework for the assessment of arguments (...)
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  • Vaghezza: Confini, Cumuli E Paradossi.Sebastiano Moruzzi - 2012 - Laterza.
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  • Polarity Sensitivity as Lexical Semantics.M. Israel - 1996 - Linguistics and Philosophy 19 (6):619 - 666.
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  • Sharp Edges From Hedges: Fatalism, Vagueness and Epistemic Possibility.Roy Sorensen - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (3):607-626.
    Mights plug gaps. If p lacks a truth-value, then ‘It might be that p’ should also lack truth-value. Yet epistemic hedges often turn an unassertible statement into an assertible one. The phenomenon is illustrated in detail for two kinds of statements that are frequently alleged to be counterexamples to the principle of bivalence: future contingents and statements that apply predicates to borderline cases. The paper concludes by exploring the prospects for generalizing this gap-plugging strategy.
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  • Lying as a Scalar Phenomenon.Neri Marsili - 2014 - In Sibilla Cantarini, Werner Abraham & Elizabeth Leiss (eds.), "Certainty-uncertainty – and the attitudinal space in between”,. John Benjamins Publishing.
    In the philosophical debate on lying, there has generally been agreement that either the speaker believes that his statement is false, or he believes that his statement is true. This article challenges this assumption, and argues that lying is a scalar phenomenon that allows for a number of intermediate cases – the most obvious being cases of uncertainty. The first section shows that lying can involve beliefs about graded truth values (fuzzy lies) and graded beliefs (graded-belief lies). It puts forward (...)
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  • Neutralism and the Observational Sorites Paradox.Patrick Greenough - forthcoming - In Ali Abasnezhad & Otavio Bueno (eds.), Synthese Special Edition. Springer.
    Neutralism is the broad view that philosophical progress can take place when (and sometimes only when) a thoroughly neutral, non-specific theory, treatment, or methodology is adopted. The broad goal here is to articulate a distinct, specific kind of sorites paradox (The Observational Sorites Paradox) and show that it can be effectively treated via Neutralism.
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  • The Case for Psychologism in Default and Inheritance Reasoning.Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Renée Elio - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):7-35.
    Default reasoning occurs whenever the truth of the evidence available to the reasoner does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion being drawn. Despite this, one is entitled to draw the conclusion “by default” on the grounds that we have no information which would make us doubt that the inference should be drawn. It is the type of conclusion we draw in the ordinary world and ordinary situations in which we find ourselves. Formally speaking, ‘nonmonotonic reasoning’ refers to argumentation in (...)
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  • You Don't Say! Lying, Asserting and Insincerity.Neri Marsili - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Sheffield
    This thesis addresses philosophical problems concerning improper assertions. The first part considers the issue of defining lying: here, against a standard view, I argue that a lie need not intend to deceive the hearer. I define lying as an insincere assertion, and then resort to speech act theory to develop a detailed account of what an assertion is, and what can make it insincere. Even a sincere assertion, however, can be improper (e.g., it can be false, or unwarranted): in the (...)
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  • Names.Sam Cumming - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Are All Generics Created Equal?Francis Jeffry Pelletier - 2009 - In Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics. Oup Usa.
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  • A Fuzzy Set Approach to Modifiers and Vagueness in Natural Language.Harry M. Hersh & Alfonso Caramazza - 1976 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 105 (3):254-276.
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  • A Simple Logic for Comparisons and Vagueness.Theodore J. Everett - 2000 - Synthese 123 (2):263-278.
    This article provide an intuitive semantic account of a new logic for comparisons (CL), in which atomic statements are assigned both a classical truth-value and a “how much” value or extension in the range [0, 1]. The truth-value of each comparison is determined by the extensions of its component sentences; the truth-value of each atomic depends on whether its extension matches a separate standard for its predicate; everything else is computed classically. CL is less radical than Casari’s comparative logics, in (...)
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  • Intuition-Talk: Virus or Virtue?James Andow - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (2):523-531.
    The word ‘intuition’ is used frequently both in philosophy and in discussions about philosophical methods. It has been argued that this intuition-talk makes no semantic contribution and that intuition-talk is thus a bad habit that ought to be abandoned. I urge caution in making this inference. There are many pragmatic roles intuition-talk might play. Moreover, according to one plausible story, there is reason to think intuition-talk is actually a good habit for philosophers to have.
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  • Embedded Scalars and Typicality.Bob van Tiel - 2014 - Journal of Semantics 31 (2):fft002.
    Next SectionIn recent years, the interpretation of scalar terms in embedded environments has been investigated extensively. Some experimentalists have been concerned with sentences like (1), in which a scalar term is embedded under a universal quantifier. The controversy involves the question whether ‘some’ in these sentences is interpreted as ‘some but not all’, thus leading to the embedded upper-bounded inference that no square is connected to all of the circles. (1) All the squares are connected with some of the circles.Geurts (...)
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  • 4. Contradictorial Gradualism Vs. Discontinuism: Two Views On Fuzziness And The Transition Problem.Marcelo VÁsconez - 2006 - Logique Et Analyse 49 (195).
    The dissertation has two parts, each dealing with a problem, namely: 1) What is the most adequate account of fuzziness -the so-called phenomenon of vagueness?, and 2) what is the most plausible solution to the sorites, or heap paradox? I will try to show that fuzzy properties are those which are gradual, amenable to be possessed in a greater or smaller extent. Acknowledgement of degrees in the instantiation of a property allows for a gradual transition from one opposite to the (...)
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  • Poesis Without Metaphor (Show and Tell).Elisabeth Camp - manuscript
    Theorists often associate certain “poetic” qualities with metaphor — most especially, open-endedness, evocativeness, imagery and affective power. However, the qualities themselves are neither necessary nor sufficient for metaphor. I argue that many of the distinctively “poetic” qualities of metaphor are in fact qualities of aspectual thought, which can also be exemplified by parables, “telling details,” and “just so” stories. Thinking about these other uses of language to produce aspectual thought forces us to pinpoint what is distinctive about metaphor, and also (...)
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  • On Retaining Classical Truths and Classical Deducibility in Many-Valued and Fuzzy Logics.Richard DeWitt - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (5-6):545-560.
    In this paper, I identify the source of the differences between classical logic and many-valued logics (including fuzzy logics) with respect to the set of valid formulas and the set of inferences sanctioned. In the course of doing so, we find the conditions that are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for any many-valued semantics (again including fuzzy logics) to validate exactly the classically valid formulas, while sanctioning exactly the same set of inferences as classical logic. This in turn shows, contrary (...)
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  • Pragmatic a Priori Knowledge: A Pragmatic Approach to the Nature and Object of What Can Be Known Independently of Experience.Lauri Järvilehto - 2011 - Jyväskylä University Printing House.
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  • Like: The Discourse Particle and Semantics.M. E. A. Siegel - 2002 - Journal of Semantics 19 (1):35-71.
    Using data from interviews with high school students, I first adduce evidence that lends support to Schourup's (1985) claim that the United States English adolescent hedge like is a discourse particle signalling a possible slight mismatch between words and meaning. Such a particle would generally be included in a grammar in a post‐compositional pragmatic component, but, surprisingly, like also affects basic semantic attributes. These include both truth‐conditions and the weak/strong distinction—though only in existential there and sluicing sentences. I argue that (...)
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  • On the Relation Between Possibilistic Logic and Modal Logics of Belief and Knowledge.Mohua Banerjee, Didier Dubois, Lluis Godo & Henri Prade - 2017 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 27 (3-4):206-224.
    Possibilistic logic and modal logic are knowledge representation frameworks sharing some common features, such as the duality between possibility and necessity, and the decomposability of necessity for conjunctions, as well as some obvious differences since possibility theory is graded. At the semantic level, possibilistic logic relies on possibility distributions and modal logic on accessibility relations. In the last 30 years, there have been a series of attempts for bridging the two frameworks in one way or another. In this paper, we (...)
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  • Penumbral Connections in Comparative Constructions.Heather Burnett - 2014 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 24 (1-2):35-60.
    This paper gives a novel analysis of the logical structure underlying three classes of vague adjectival predicates (relative adjectives, i.e., tall; total adjectives, i.e., straight; and partial adjectives, i.e., wet) and the realisation of this structure in arguments formed with comparative constructions (i.e., John is taller than Mary). I analyse three classes of valid arguments that can be formed with different types of gradable predicates in comparative constructions: scalarity arguments (i.e., Mary is taller than John and John is tall Mary (...)
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  • Is Vagueness Sui Generis?1.David Barnett - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (1):5-34.
    On the dominant view of vagueness, if it is vague whether Harry is bald, then it is unsettled, not merely epistemically, but metaphysically, whether Harry is bald. In other words, vagueness is a type of indeterminacy. On the standard alternative, vagueness is a type of ignorance: if it is vague whether Harry is bald, then, even though it is metaphysically settled whether Harry is bald, we cannot know whether Harry is bald. On my view, vagueness is neither a type of (...)
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  • Borel on the Heap.Paul Égré & Anouk Barberousse - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S5):1043-1079.
    In 1907 Borel published a remarkable essay on the paradox of the Heap (“Un paradoxe économique: le sophisme du tas de blé et les vérités statistiques”), in which Borel proposes what is likely the first statistical account of vagueness ever written, and where he discusses the practical implications of the sorites paradox, including in economics. Borel’s paper was integrated in his book Le Hasard, published 1914, but has gone mostly unnoticed since its publication. One of the originalities of Borel’s essay (...)
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  • Generic Generalizations in Science: A Bridge to Everyday Language.François Claveau & Jordan Girard - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (4):839-859.
    This article maintains that an important class of scientific generalizations should be reinterpreted: they have typically been understood as ceteris paribus laws, but are, in fact, generics. Four arguments are presented to support this thesis. One argument is that the interpretation in terms of ceteris paribus laws is a historical accident. The other three arguments draw on similarities between these generalizations and archetypal generics: they come with similar inferential commitments, they share a syntactic form, and the existing theories to make (...)
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  • Short-Circuited Implicature: A Negative Contribution. [REVIEW]Laurence R. Horn & Samuel Bayer - 1984 - Linguistics and Philosophy 7 (4):397 - 414.
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  • Quantifier Scope, Linguistic Variation, and Natural Language Semantics.David Gil - 1982 - Linguistics and Philosophy 5 (4):421 - 472.
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  • Adaptive Fuzzy Logics for Contextual Hedge Interpretation.Stephan van der Waart van Gulik - 2009 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (3):333-356.
    The article presents several adaptive fuzzy hedge logics. These logics are designed to perform a specific kind of hedge detection. Given a premise set Γ that represents a series of communicated statements, the logics can check whether some predicate occurring in Γ may be interpreted as being (implicitly) hedged by technically, strictly speaking or loosely speaking, or simply non-hedged. The logics take into account both the logical constraints of the premise set as well as conceptual information concerning the meaning of (...)
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  • A Semantics for Positive and Comparative Adjectives.Ewan Klein - 1980 - Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (1):1--45.
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