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  1. Vice Laws and Self-Sovereignty.Peter de Marneffe - 2013 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (1):29-41.
    There is an important moral difference between laws that criminalize drugs and prostitution and laws that make them illegal in other ways: criminalization violates our moral rights in a way that nonlegalization does not. Criminalization is defined as follows. Drugs are criminalized when there are criminal penalties for using or possessing small quantities of drugs. Prostitution is criminalized when there are criminal penalties for selling sex. Legalization is defined as follows. Drugs are legalized when there are no criminal penalties for (...)
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  • To Die Well: The Phenomenology of Suffering and End of Life Ethics.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):335-342.
    The paper presents an account of suffering as a multi-level phenomenon based on concepts such as mood, being-in-the-world and core life value. This phenomenological account will better allow us to evaluate the hardships associated with dying and thereby assist health care professionals in helping persons to die in the best possible manner. Suffering consists not only in physical pain but in being unable to do basic things that are considered to bestow meaning on one’s life. The suffering can also be (...)
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  • Dementia, Identity and the Role of Friends.Christopher Cowley - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (2):255-264.
    Ronald Dworkin introduced the example of Margo, who was so severely demented that she could not recognise any family or friends, and could not remember anything of her life. At the same time, however, she seemed full of childish delight. Dworkin also imagines that, before her dementia, Margo signed an advance refusal of life-saving treatment. Now severely demented, she develops pneumonia, easy to treat, but lethal if untreated. Dworkin argues that the advance refusal ought to be heeded and Margo be (...)
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  • Phenomenology of Pregnancy and the Ethics of Abortion.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):77-87.
    In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the (...)
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  • “You Hoped We Would Sleep Walk Into Accepting the Collection of Our Data”: Controversies Surrounding the UK Care.Data Scheme and Their Wider Relevance for Biomedical Research.Sigrid Sterckx, Vojin Rakic, Julian Cockbain & Pascal Borry - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):177-190.
    An ‘Information Centre’ has recently been established by law which has the power to collect, collate and provide access to the medical information forall patients treated by the National Health Service in England, whether in hospitals or by General Practitioners. This so-called ‘care.data’ scheme has given rise to major and ongoing controversies. We will sketch the background of the scheme and look at the responses it has elicited from citizens and medical professionals. In Autumn 2013, NHS England set up a (...)
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  • Prenatal Diagnosis: Do Prospective Parents Have the Right Not to Know?Anna Karolina Sierawska - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (2):279-286.
    Prenatal diagnosis challenges the issue of parental autonomy. Two ethical aspects of the parental decision making process with reference to PND have been taken into consideration: the duty to know and the right not to know. Whilst the first approach has been widely discussed in literature, the latter seems to be overlooked. In order to find good moral reasons supporting the right not to know, firstly the duty to know approach was critically analysed. Subsequently, the emphasis was put on the (...)
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  • Protecting Prisoners’ Autonomy with Advance Directives: Ethical Dilemmas and Policy Issues.Roberto Andorno, David M. Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):33-39.
    Over the last decade, several European countries and the Council of Europe itself have strongly supported the use of advance directives as a means of protecting patients’ autonomy, and adopted specific norms to regulate this matter. However, it remains unclear under which conditions those regulations should apply to people who are placed in correctional settings. The issue is becoming more significant due to the increasing numbers of inmates of old age or at risk of suffering from mental disorders, all of (...)
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  • Moderate Eugenics and Human Enhancement.Michael J. Selgelid - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):3-12.
    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics—where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a (...)
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  • What is a Death with Dignity?Jyl Gentzler - 2003 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (4):461 – 487.
    Proponents of the legalization of assisted suicide often appeal to our supposed right to "die with dignity" to defend their case. I examine and assess different notions of "dignity" that are operating in many arguments for the legalization of assisted suicide, and I find them all to be deficient. I then consider an alternative conception of dignity that is based on Aristotle's conception of the conditions on the best life. I conclude that, while such a conception of dignity fits best (...)
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  • Abortion Activism and Civil Discourse: Reply to Shields.Robert Talisse & Steven Maloney - 2008 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 20 (1-2):167-179.
    Jon Shields's finding—that certain evangelical pro‐life activist groups are more interested in deliberative discussions about abortion than are pro‐choice activists—is wrong on methodological, normative, and philosophical grounds. He generalizes about pro‐life civility from a small, trained sample group, and ignores possibly important variables that would explain pro‐choicers' incivility. Further, politeness is not necessarily a requirement of democratic deliberation—which entails not forcing one's own beliefs on the public, as pro‐lifers manifestly are trying to do, despite their calm demeanor. Conversely, some pro‐choicers' (...)
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  • More Than Just a Game: Ethical Issues in Gamification.Tae Wan Kim & Kevin Werbach - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):157-173.
    Gamification is the use of elements and techniques from video game design in non-game contexts. Amid the rapid growth of this practice, normative questions have been under-explored. The primary goal of this article is to develop a normatively sophisticated and descriptively rich account for appropriately addressing major ethical considerations associated with gamification. The framework suggests that practitioners and designers should be precautious about, primarily, but not limited to, whether or not their use of gamification practices: takes unfair advantage of workers (...)
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  • Environmental Ethics.Roberta L. Millstein - 2013 - In K. Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer.
    A number of areas of biology raise questions about what is of value in the natural environment and how we ought to behave towards it: conservation biology, environmental science, and ecology, to name a few. Based on my experience teaching students from these and similar majors, I argue that the field of environmental ethics has much to teach these students. They come to me with pent-up questions and a feeling that more is needed to fully engage in their subjects, and (...)
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  • Human Reproductive Cloning: A Conflict of Liberties.Joyce C. Havstad - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (2):71-77.
    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds (...)
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  • Why No Compromise is Possible.Torbjörn Tännsjö - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):330–343.
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  • On the Possibilities of Group Injury.Stephen Winter - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):393–413.
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  • Classical Realism.Brian Leiter - 2001 - Philosophical Issues 11 (1):244-267.
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  • Classical Realism.Brian Leiter - 2001 - Noûs 35 (s1):244 - 267.
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  • Immersed Subjectivity and Engaged Narratives: Clinical Epistemology and Normative Intricacy.Per Nortvedt - 2003 - Nursing Philosophy 4 (2):129-136.
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  • On Compromise and Coercion.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 2006 - Ratio Juris 19 (4):434-455.
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  • Critical Interests and Sources of Familial Decision-Making Authority for Incapacitated Patients.James Lindemann Nelson - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):143-148.
    How ought we to understand the sources and limits of the authority of family members to make health care decisions for their decisionally incapacitated relatives? This question is becoming increasingly crucial as the population ages and the power of medical technology waxes. It is also becoming increasingly contested, as faith in advance directives shows signs of waning, and the moral complexities of intimate relationship become more theoretically patent.This last point—the newly visible moral richness of intimate relationship—provides this paper with its (...)
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  • Critical Interests and Sources of Familial Decision-Making Authority for Incapacitated Patients.James Lindemann Nelson - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):143-148.
    How ought we to understand the sources and limits of the authority of family members to make health care decisions for their decisionally incapacitated relatives? This question is becoming increasingly crucial as the population ages and the power of medical technology waxes. It is also becoming increasingly contested, as faith in advance directives shows signs of waning, and the moral complexities of intimate relationship become more theoretically patent.This last point—the newly visible moral richness of intimate relationship—provides this paper with its (...)
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  • Ethics Consultation: Persistent Brain Death and Religion: Must a Person Believe in Death to Die?Jeffrey Spike & Jane Greenlaw - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (3):291-294.
    We first heard about this case from nurses in one of our intensive care units while we were conducting an inservice. When the session was over, we discussed it between ourselves, and decided that it must have been misrepresented. The case had been presented as one of a teenager who was brain dead, had been so for six months, yet had been brought into the ICU for treatment. We have run into this before, we thought: medical professionals confusing brain death (...)
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  • Ethics Consultation: Persistent Brain Death and Religion: Must a Person Believe in Death to Die?Jeffrey Spike & Jane Greenlaw - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (3):291-294.
    We first heard about this case from nurses in one of our intensive care units while we were conducting an inservice. When the session was over, we discussed it between ourselves, and decided that it must have been misrepresented. The case had been presented as one of a teenager who was brain dead, had been so for six months, yet had been brought into the ICU for treatment. We have run into this before, we thought: medical professionals confusing brain death (...)
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  • Atrocity, Banality, Self-Deception.Adam Morton - 2005 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 12 (3):257-259.
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  • Sanctity of Life : Exploring its Significance in Modern Medicine and Bioethics.Fabián Andrés Ballesteros Gallego - unknown
    This thesis explores the concept of "Sanctity of Life" from the perspective of what "life," in particular human life, means today. With the rapid advances in science and modern medical practice, the concept of life has undergone many changes, shaking the foundations of what before made us view life as sacred. Modern thought has brought new forms of understanding to the concept of life.
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  • The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Howard J. Curzer - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (5):533 – 562.
    In this article I rebut conservative objections to five phases of embryonic stem cell research. I argue that researchers using existing embryonic stem cell lines are not complicit in the past destruction of embryos because beneficiaries of immoral acts are not necessary morally tainted. Second, such researchers do not encourage the destruction of additional embryos because fertility clinics presently destroy more spare embryos than researchers need. Third, actually harvesting stem cells from slated-to-be-discarded embryos is not wrong. The embryos are not (...)
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  • Can We Use the Notion of Normality in Genetic Selection Without Discriminating?M. D. Garasic - 2014 - Global Bioethics 25 (3):203-209.
    With the hope of somehow contributing to the ongoing discussion on the topic, this paper is loosely based on the debate that emerged from Rob Sparrow's article “Should human beings have sex? Sexual dimorphism and human enhancement”. Building on some of his arguments, my claim is that we should not refer to gender when discussing not-yet-born agents. More broadly still, my intention is to provide a further analysis of the intersection of the concepts of gender and autonomy. I will begin (...)
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  • The Case for a Parental Duty to Use Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Medical Benefit.Janet Malek & Judith Daar - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):3-11.
    This article explores the possibility that there is a parental duty to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for the medical benefit of future children. Using one genetic disorder as a paradigmatic example, we find that such a duty can be supported in some situations on both ethical and legal grounds. Our analysis shows that an ethical case in favor of this position can be made when potential parents are aware that a possible future child is at substantial risk of inheriting (...)
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  • Horribly Wrong.Stephen S. Bush - 2013 - Journal of Religious Ethics 41 (4):585-600.
    Moral horror is an extreme emotional response to that which violates things we regard as sacred. In Robert Merrihew Adams's view, horror is a response to badness and not to wrongness, and so one could properly regard some actions as horrible but not wrong. In contrast, I argue that horror, when directed toward actions, is only appropriate for wrong actions. The reason is that horror involves moral disgust, and agents who committed a horrible action would have self-disgust, that is, they (...)
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  • Workplace Civility: A Confucian Approach.Tae Wan Kim & Alan Strudler - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (3):557-577.
    We argue that Confucianism makes a fundamental contribution to understanding why civility is necessary for a morally decent workplace. We begin by reviewing some limits that traditional moral theories face in analyzing issues of civility. We then seek to establish a Confucian alternative. We develop the Confucian idea that even in business, humans may be sacred when they observe rituals culturally determined to express particular ceremonial significance. We conclude that managers and workers should understand that there is a broad range (...)
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  • Welfarism.Simon Keller - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (1):82-95.
    Welfarism is the view that morality is centrally concerned with the welfare or well-being of individuals. The division between welfarist and non-welfarist approaches underlies many important disagreements in ethics, but welfarism is neither consistently defined nor well understood. I survey the philosophical work on welfarism, and I offer a suggestion about how the view can be characterized and how it can be embedded in various kinds of moral theory. I also identify welfarism's major rivals, and its major attractions and weaknesses.
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  • Immortality, Human Nature, the Value of Life and the Value of Life Extension.Steven Horrobin - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (6):279–292.
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  • Survey Article: The Justification of Minority Language Rights.Alan Patten - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (1):102-128.
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  • Medical Paternalism - Part 1.Daniel Groll - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (3):194-203.
    Medical clinicians – doctors, nurses, nurse practitioners etc. – are charged to act for the good of their patients. But not all ways of acting for a patient's good are on par: some are paternalistic; others are not. What does it mean to act paternalistically, both in general and specifically in a medical context? And when, if ever, is it permissible for a clinician to act paternalistically? -/- This paper deals with the first question, with a special focus on paternalism (...)
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  • Medical Paternalism – Part 2.Daniel Groll - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (3):194-203.
    Medical clinicians – doctors, nurses, nurse practitioners etc. – are charged to act for the good of their patients. But not all ways of acting for a patient's good are on par: some are paternalistic; others are not. What does it mean to act paternalistically, both in general and specifically in a medical context? And when, if ever, is it permissible for a clinician to act paternalistically? In Medical Paternalism Part 1, I answered the first question. This paper answers the (...)
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  • Defending Abortion Philosophically: A Review of David Boonin's a Defense of Abortion. [REVIEW]Francis Beckwith - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (2):177 – 203.
    This article is a critical review of David Boonin's book, A Defense of Abortion (Cambridge University Press, 2002), a significant contribution to the literature on this subject and arguably the most important monograph on abortion published in the past twenty years. Boonin's defense of abortion consists almost exclusively of sophisticated critiques of a wide variety of pro-life arguments, including ones that are rarely defended by pro-life advocates. This article offers a brief presentation of the book's contents with extended assessments of (...)
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  • How Not to Defend the Unborn.David Hershenov & Philip A. Reed - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (4):414-430.
    It is sometimes proposed that killing or harming abortion providers is the only logically consistent position available to opponents of abortion. Since lethal violence against morally responsible attackers is normally viewed as justified in order to defend innocent parties, pro-lifers should also think so in the case of the abortion doctor and so they should act to defend the unborn. In our paper, we defend the mainstream pro-life view against killing abortion doctors. We argue that the pro-life view can, in (...)
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  • Experimental Philosophical Bioethics of Personal Identity.Brian D. Earp, Jonathan Lewis, J. Skorburg, Ivar Hannikainen & Jim A. C. Everett - forthcoming - In Kevin P. Tobia (ed.), Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self. London: Bloomsbury.
    The question of what makes someone the same person through time and change has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. In recent years, the question of what makes ordinary or lay people (that is, individuals from a wide range of backgrounds, including non-philosophers) judge that someone is – or isn’t – the same person has caught the interest of experimental psychologists. These latter, empirically oriented researchers have sought to understand the cognitive processes and eliciting factors that shape ordinary people’s judgments (...)
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  • Evaluating Tradeoffs Between Autonomy and Wellbeing in Supported Decision Making.Julian Savulescu, Heather Browning, Brian D. Earp & Walter Veit - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):21-24.
    A core challenge for contemporary bioethics is how to address the tension between respecting an individual’s autonomy and promoting their wellbeing when these ideals seem to come into conflict (Not...
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  • Supported Decision-Making for People with Dementia Should Focus on Their Values.Winston Chiong & Agnieszka Jaworska - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):19-21.
    In their thoughtful and rigorous article, Peterson and colleagues extend an account of supported decision-making that was originally developed for people with static cognitive impairments, t...
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  • On the Immorality of Tattoos.Matej Cíbik - 2020 - The Journal of Ethics 24 (2):193-206.
    Tattoos are widely regarded as morally neutral, and the decision to have them as carrying no ethical implications. The aim of this paper is to question this assumption. I argue that decisions to have tattoos involve risks that are not merely prudential—they are normative. The argument starts with a thesis that the power we presently have over our lives is constrained by the need to respect our future selves. If we make a discretionary choice that disregards our future interests and (...)
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  • Capability Without Dignity?Joseph J. Fischel & Claire McKinney - 2020 - Contemporary Political Theory 19 (3):404-429.
    Dignity may just be the most promiscuous normative abstraction. This article, informed by dignity’s historical variability, political theoretic multipurpose, and conflicting jurisprudence, focuses on a particular but influential invocation of the term: dignity as the normative ground for the ‘capabilities approach’ model of social justice. We ask whether or not the CA, in particular the influential version propounded by philosopher Martha Nussbaum, requires dignity as its foundational premise, and whether or not dignity may be more costly than beneficial for the (...)
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  • On Rights of Inheritance and Bequest.Iain Brassington - 2019 - The Journal of Ethics 23 (2):119-142.
    What attitude would a just state take to the inheritance of property? Would confiscatory taxes on the estate of the deceased be morally acceptable, or would they represent some kind of wrong? While there is a good amount of political philosophical scholarship that considers the desirability of inheritance tax, there appears to be little that has considered it from the perspective of rights theory, asking what kind of thing a right to bequeath or to inherit would be, and whether those (...)
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  • Inclusive and Relevant Language: The Use of the Concepts of Autonomy, Dignity and Vulnerability in Different Contexts. [REVIEW]Hans Morten Haugen - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):203-213.
    The article analyses the three terms autonomy, dignity and vulnerability. The relevance and practical application of the terms is tested in two spheres. First, as guiding principles in the area of ethics of medicines and science. Second, as human rights principles, serving to guide the conduct of public policies for an effective realization of human rights. The article argues that all human beings have the same dignity, but that the autonomy—and therefore vulnerability—differs considerably. Simply said, with reduced autonomy comes increased (...)
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  • Need There Be a Defence of Equality? Winner of the 2010 Postgraduate Essay Prize.Christopher Nathan - 2011 - Res Publica 17 (3):211-225.
    There is an apparent problem in identifying a basis for equality. This problem vanishes if what I call the ‘intuited response’ is successful. According to this response, there is no further explanation of the significance of the feature in virtue of which an individual matters, beyond the bare fact that it is the feature in virtue of which an individual matters. I argue against this claim, and conclude that if the problem of identifying a basis for equality is to be (...)
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  • Bewusstlos, Aber Autonom?: Ethische Analyse Stellvertretender Entscheidungen Für Einwilligungsunfähige Patienten.J. Jox Ralf - 2004 - Ethik in der Medizin 16 (4):401-414.
    ZusammenfassungDemographischer Wandel und medizinischer Fortschritt haben zur Folge, dass immer mehr Patienten außerstande sind, selbstbestimmt über eine medizinische Behandlung zu entscheiden. Dann sind andere gefordert, unter Berücksichtigung von Wohl und Willen des Patienten stellvertretend zu entscheiden. Dabei bieten sich drei Entscheidungskriterien an: Paternalismus, substitutive Autonomie und prospektive Autonomie. Keines dieser Kriterien garantiert für sich genommen eine optimale Entscheidung. Realistisch ist nur ein integratives Modell, das diese Kriterien pragmatisch verbindet. Je klarer im Einzelfall die Evidenz für den autonomen Patientenwillen ist, desto (...)
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  • Abtreibung, Verstümmelung und Umweltethik: Lektionen aus drei Gedankenexperimenten.Y. M. Barilan - 2003 - Ethik in der Medizin 15 (4):282-294.
    In dieser Arbeit werden drei Gedankenexperimente geprüft, die im Diskurs zur Moralität der Abtreibung vorgebracht wurden: der Geiger von Judith J. Thomson und zwei Erwiderungen darauf von Kenneth Himma und Christopher H. Conn. Sie sind dadurch charakterisiert, dass sie von Rechten sprechen, eine besondere Betonung auf Verkörperung legen und an die moralische Intuition appellieren. Ich behaupte, dass nur menschliche Individuen Menschenrechte haben können und dass Individuation nicht auf der Verletzung der moralischen Rechte anderer basieren kann. Deshalb kann der Fetus weder (...)
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  • Who Should Control the Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines: A Defence of the Donors' Ability to Control. [REVIEW]Søren Holm - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):55-68.
    In this paper I analyse who should be able to control the use of human embryonic stem cell lines. I distinguish between different kinds of control and analyse a set of arguments that purport to show that the donors of gametes and embryos should not be able to control the use of stem cell lines derived from their embryos. I show these arguments to be either deficient or of so general a scope that they apply not only to donors but (...)
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  • A Failed Refutation and an Insufficiently Developed Insight in Hart’s Law, Liberty, and Morality.Jeffrie G. Murphy - 2013 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 7 (3):419-434.
    H. L. A. Hart, in his classic book Law, Liberty, and Morality, is unsuccessful in arguing that James Fitzjames Stephen’s observations about the role of vice in criminal sentencing have no relevance to a more general defense of legal moralism. He does, however, have a very important insight about the special significance of sexual liberty.
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