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  1. The Logic of Observation and Belief Revision in Scientific Communities.Hanna Sofie van Lee & Sonja Smets - 2020 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 51 (2):243-266.
    Scientists collect evidence in order to confirm or falsify scientific theories. Unfortunately, scientific evidence may sometimes be false or deceiving and as a consequence lead individuals to believe in a false theory. By interaction between scientists, such false beliefs may spread through the entire community. There is currently a debate about the effect of various network configurations on the epistemic reliability of scientific communities. To contribute to this debate from a logical perspective, this paper introduces an epistemic logical framework of (...)
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  • The Logic of Probabilistic Knowledge.Patricia Rich - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (6):1703-1725.
    Sarah Moss’ thesis that we have probabilistic knowledge is from some perspectives unsurprising and from other perspectives hard to make sense of. The thesis is potentially transformative, but not yet elaborated in sufficient detail for epistemologists. This paper interprets Mossean probabilistic knowledge in a suitably-modified Kripke framework, thus filling in key details. It argues that probabilistic knowledge looks natural and plausible when so interpreted, and shows how the most pressing challenges to the thesis can be overcome. Most importantly, probabilistic knowledge (...)
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  • Relating Logics of Justification and Evidence.Igor Sedlár - 2014 - In Vít Punčochář & Michal Dančák (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2013. College Publications. pp. 207-222.
    The paper relates evidence and justification logics, both philosophically and technically. On the philosophical side, it is suggested that the difference between the approaches to evidence in the two families of logics can be explained as a result of their focusing on two different notions of support provided by evidence. On the technical side, a justification logic with operators pertaining to both kinds of support is shown to be sound and complete with respect to a special class of awareness models. (...)
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  • Beliefs and Evidence in Justification Models.Alexandru Baltag, Virginie Fiutek & Sonja Smets - 2016 - In Lev Beklemishev, Stéphane Demri & András Máté (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 11. CSLI Publications. pp. 156-176.
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  • Logic of Implicit and Explicit Justifiers.Alessandro Giordani - 2016 - In L. Felline, A. Ledda, F. Paoli & E. Rossanese (eds.), New Directions in Logic and the Philosophy of Science. College Publications. pp. 119-131.
    The aim of this paper is to provide an intuitive semantics for systems of justification logic which allows us to cope with the distinction between implicit and explicit justifiers. The paper is subdivided into three sections. In the first one, the distinction between implicit and explicit justifiers is presented and connected with a proof-theoretic distinction between two ways of interpreting sequences of sentences; that is, as sequences of axioms in a certain set and as sequences proofs constructed from that set (...)
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  • Ecidence Logic: A New Look at Neighborhood Structures.Johan van Benthem, David Fernández-Duque & Eric Pacuit - 2012 - In Thomas Bolander, Torben Braüner, Silvio Ghilardi & Justin Moss (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 9. CSLI Publications. pp. 97-118.
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  • An Epistemic Approach to Paraconsistency: A Logic of Evidence and Truth.Walter Carnielli & Abilio Rodrigues - 2017 - Synthese 196 (9):3789-3813.
    The purpose of this paper is to present a paraconsistent formal system and a corresponding intended interpretation according to which true contradictions are not tolerated. Contradictions are, instead, epistemically understood as conflicting evidence, where evidence for a proposition A is understood as reasons for believing that A is true. The paper defines a paraconsistent and paracomplete natural deduction system, called the Basic Logic of Evidence, and extends it to the Logic of Evidence and Truth. The latter is a logic of (...)
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  • Dynamic Logics of Evidence-Based Beliefs.Johan van Benthem & Eric Pacuit - 2011 - Studia Logica 99 (1-3):61-92.
    This paper adds evidence structure to standard models of belief, in the form of families of sets of worlds. We show how these more fine-grained models support natural actions of “evidence management”, ranging from update with external new information to internal rearrangement. We show how this perspective leads to new richer languages for existing neighborhood semantics for modal logic. Our main results are relative completeness theorems for the resulting dynamic logic of evidence.
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  • A Quick Guided Tour to the Modal Logic S4.2.Aggeliki Chalki, Costas D. Koutras & Yorgos Zikos - 2018 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 26 (4):429-451.
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  • Reasoning Processes as Epistemic Dynamics.Fernando Velázquez-Quesada - 2015 - Axiomathes 25 (1):41-60.
    This work proposes an understanding of deductive, default and abductive reasoning as different instances of the same phenomenon: epistemic dynamics. It discusses the main intuitions behind each one of these reasoning processes, and suggest how they can be understood as different epistemic actions that modify an agent’s knowledge and/or beliefs in a different way, making formal the discussion with the use of the dynamic epistemic logic framework. The ideas in this paper put the studied processes under the same umbrella, thus (...)
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  • A General Framework for Dynamic Epistemic Logic: Towards Canonical Correspondences.Shota Motoura - 2017 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 27 (1-2):50-89.
    We propose a general framework for dynamic epistemic logics. It consists of a generic language for DELs and a class of structures, called model transition systems, that describe model transformations in a static way. An MTS can be viewed as a two-layered Kripke model and consequently inherits standard concepts such as bisimulation and bounded morphism from the ordinary Kripke models. In the second half of this article we add the global operator to the language, which enables us to define the (...)
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  • Substructural Epistemic Logics.Igor Sedlár - 2015 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 25 (3):256-285.
    The article introduces substructural epistemic logics of belief supported by evidence. The logics combine normal modal epistemic logics with distributive substructural logics. Pieces of evidence are represented by points in substructural models and availability of evidence is modelled by a function on the point set. The main technical result is a general completeness theorem. Axiomatisations are provided by means of two-sorted Hilbert-style calculi. It is also shown that the framework presents a natural solution to the problem of logical omniscience.
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  • Toward a Dynamic Logic of Questions.Johan van Benthem & Ştefan Minică - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):633-669.
    Questions are triggers for explicit events of ‘issue management’. We give a complete logic in dynamic-epistemic style for events of raising, refining, and resolving an issue, all in the presence of information flow through observation or communication. We explore extensions of the framework to multi-agent scenarios and long-term temporal protocols. We sketch a comparison with some alternative accounts.
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  • Dynamic Epistemic Logic of Belief Change in Legal Judgments.Pimolluck Jirakunkanok, Katsuhiko Sano & Satoshi Tojo - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (3):201-249.
    This study realizes belief/reliability change of a judge in a legal judgment by dynamic epistemic logic. A key feature of DEL is that possibilities in an agent’s belief can be represented by a Kripke model. This study addresses two difficulties in applying DEL to a legal case. First, since there are several methods for constructing a Kripke model, our question is how we can construct the model from a legal case. Second, since this study employs several dynamic operators, our question (...)
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  • Argument Evaluation in Multi-Agent Justification Logics.Alfredo Burrieza & Antonio Yuste-Ginel - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Argument evaluation, one of the central problems in argumentation theory, consists in studying what makes an argument a good one. This paper proposes a formal approach to argument evaluation from the perspective of justification logic. We adopt a multi-agent setting, accepting the intuitive idea that arguments are always evaluated by someone. Two general restrictions are imposed on our analysis: non-deductive arguments are left out and the goal of argument evaluation is fixed: supporting a given proposition. Methodologically, our approach uses several (...)
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  • Toward a Dynamic Logic of Questions.Johan Benthem & Ştefan Minică - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):633 - 669.
    Questions are triggers for explicit events of 'issue management'. We give a complete logic in dynamic-epistemic style for events of raising, refining, and resolving an issue, all in the presence of information flow through observation or communication. We explore extensions of the framework to multiagent scenarios and long-term temporal protocols. We sketch a comparison with some alternative accounts.
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  • Multi-Agent Justification Logic: Communication and Evidence Elimination. [REVIEW]Bryan Renne - 2012 - Synthese 185 (S1):43-82.
    This paper presents a logic combining Dynamic Epistemic Logic, a framework for reasoning about multi-agent communication, with a new multi-agent version of Justification Logic, a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification. This novel combination incorporates a new kind of multi-agent evidence elimination that cleanly meshes with the multi-agent communications from Dynamic Epistemic Logic, resulting in a system for reasoning about multi-agent communication and evidence elimination for groups of interacting rational agents.
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  • Dynamic Logics of Evidence-Based Beliefs.J. Benthem & E. Pacuit - 2011 - Studia Logica 99 (1-3):61-92.
    This paper adds evidence structure to standard models of belief, in the form of families of sets of worlds. We show how these more fine-grained models support natural actions of “evidence management”, ranging from update with external new information to internal rearrangement. We show how this perspective leads to new richer languages for existing neighborhood semantics for modal logic. Our main results are relative completeness theorems for the resulting dynamic logic of evidence.
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  • Pragmatic Logics for Hypotheses and Evidence.Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Ciro De Florio - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    The present paper is devoted to present two pragmatic logics and their corresponding intended interpretations according to which an illocutionary act of hypothesis-making is justified by a scintilla of evidence. The paper first introduces a general pragmatic frame for assertions, expanded to hypotheses, ${\mathsf{AH}}$ and a hypothetical pragmatic logic for evidence ${\mathsf{HLP}}$. Both ${\mathsf{AH}}$ and ${\mathsf{HLP}}$ are extensions of the Logic for Pragmatics, $\mathcal{L}^P$. We compare ${\mathsf{AH}}$ and $\mathsf{HLP}$. Then, we underline the expressive and inferential richness of both systems in (...)
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  • Instantial Neighbourhood Logic.Johan van Benthem, Nick Bezhanishvili, Sebastian Enqvist & Junhua Yu - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (1):116-144.
    This paper explores a new language of neighbourhood structures where existential information can be given about what kind of worlds occur in a neighbourhood of a current world. The resulting system of ‘instantial neighbourhood logic’ INL has a nontrivial mix of features from relational semantics and from neighbourhood semantics. We explore some basic model-theoretic behavior, including a matching notion of bisimulation, and give a complete axiom system for which we prove completeness by a new normal form technique. In addition, we (...)
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  • Priority Structures in Deontic Logic.Johan van Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu - 2014 - Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
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  • Bisimulation for Conditional Modalities.A. Baltag & G. Cinà - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (1):1-33.
    We give a definition of bisimulation for conditional modalities interpreted on selection functions and prove the correspondence between bisimilarity and modal equivalence, generalizing the Hennessy–Milner Theorem to a wide class of conditional operators. We further investigate the operators and semantics to which these results apply. First, we show how to derive a solid notion of bisimulation for conditional belief, behaving as desired both on plausibility models and on evidence models. These novel definitions of bisimulations are exploited in a series of (...)
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  • A Topological Approach to Full Belief.Alexandru Baltag, Nick Bezhanishvili, Aybüke Özgün & Sonja Smets - 2019 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 48 (2):205-244.
    Stalnaker, 169–199 2006) introduced a combined epistemic-doxastic logic that can formally express a strong concept of belief, a concept of belief as ‘subjective certainty’. In this paper, we provide a topological semantics for belief, in particular, for Stalnaker’s notion of belief defined as ‘epistemic possibility of knowledge’, in terms of the closure of the interior operator on extremally disconnected spaces. This semantics extends the standard topological interpretation of knowledge with a new topological semantics for belief. We prove that the belief (...)
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  • Price of Privacy.Pavel Naumov & Jia Tao - 2017 - Journal of Applied Logic 20:32-48.
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  • Evidence and Plausibility in Neighborhood Structures.Johan van Benthem, David Fernández-Duque & Eric Pacuit - 2014 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 165 (1):106-133.
    The intuitive notion of evidence has both semantic and syntactic features. In this paper, we develop an evidence logic for epistemic agents faced with possibly contradictory evidence from different sources. The logic is based on a neighborhood semantics, where a neighborhood N indicates that the agent has reason to believe that the true state of the world lies in N. Further notions of relative plausibility between worlds and beliefs based on the latter ordering are then defined in terms of this (...)
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  • The Logic of Justified Belief, Explicit Knowledge, and Conclusive Evidence.Alexandru Baltag, Bryan Renne & Sonja Smets - 2014 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 165 (1):49-81.
    We present a complete, decidable logic for reasoning about a notion of completely trustworthy evidence and its relations to justifiable belief and knowledge, as well as to their explicit justifications. This logic makes use of a number of evidence-related notions such as availability, admissibility, and “goodness” of a piece of evidence, and is based on an innovative modification of the Fitting semantics for Artemovʼs Justification Logic designed to preempt Gettier-type counterexamples. We combine this with ideas from belief revision and awareness (...)
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